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Cureus ; 15(3), 2023.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2291559


Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine is a novel vaccine that was created during the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020 to combat the highly contagious COVID-19 infection. Since the initiation of vaccine administration campaigns globally, lots of research was simultaneously being done to study the vaccine's side effects and possible complications, especially in vulnerable groups such as pregnant women and children. Saudi Arabia is one of the leading countries in administering the COVID-19 vaccine to its population. However, due to the exchange of a lot of incorrect information through social media platforms about the vaccine's safety, people, particularly women expecting a child, breastfeeding, or having younger children, started to display some vaccine hesitancy. This study aims to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) of the COVID-19 vaccine among Saudi mothers and to recognize how certain individual characteristics affect it. Methods: This is an observational cross-sectional study that was carried out among 293 Saudi mothers attending primary healthcare clinics at King Abdulaziz Medical City (KAMC), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from April 2022 to July 2022. The participants completed a pre-validated self-administered questionnaire that was composed of 39 closed-response questions divided into four sections: participant characteristics, knowledge, attitude, and practice towards the COVID-19 vaccine. The English questionnaire was translated to Arabic, retranslated back to English, and then compared to the first English version by a different translator to ensure translation accuracy. A pilot study was conducted on 20 participants before the survey was distributed for data collection. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 23.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY). The association between the four sections of the questionnaire was assessed using Chi-square test of proportion. Results: The study found that 64% of the participants were below the age of 40. The majority (56%) have earned a bachelor's or a higher degree. According to 41%, "Ministry of Health official channels" was the most important source of COVID-19 vaccine-related information. Almost half of the respondents (45%) showed to have an excellent knowledge of the COVID-19 vaccine and 62% showed to have a positive attitude towards it. Around 40% of the participants reported that they delayed taking the COVID-19 vaccine until it was mandatory. For those who have children aged between 12 and 18 years, 78% stated that their children took the COVID-19 vaccine. Mothers aged below 40 years showed to have significantly better vaccine knowledge compared to the older group. Mothers who received the influenza vaccine over the past three years were less likely to delay taking the COVID-19 vaccine until it became mandatory compared to those who did not receive it. Conclusion: Younger age, higher educational level, flu vaccine administration in the previous three years, and adherence to child immunization schedules were all factors that had a significant impact on the KAP towards the COVID-19 vaccine. Correcting misunderstandings about vaccine safety through educational campaigns and providing timely information through the Ministry of Health channels can all contribute to achieving better practice related to vaccine uptake in this group.

J Infect Public Health ; 14(7): 832-838, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1265761


BACKGROUND: Estimated seroprevalence of Coronavirus Infectious Disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a critical evidence for a better evaluation of the virus spread and monitoring the progress of COVID-19 pandemic in a population. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence has been reported in specific regions, but an extensive nationwide study has not been reported. Here, we report a nationwide study to determine the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in the population of KSA during the pandemic, using serum samples from healthy blood donors, non-COVID patients and healthcare workers (HCWs) in six different regions of the kingdom, with addition samples from COVID-19 patients. METHODS: A total of 11,703 serum samples were collected from different regions of the KSA including; 5395 samples from residual healthy blood donors (D); 5877 samples from non-COVID patients collected through residual sera at clinical biochemistry labs from non-COVID patients (P); and 400 samples from consented HCWs. To determine the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2, all serum samples, in addition to positive control sera from RT-PCR confirmed COVID-19 patients, were subjected to in-house ELISA with a sample pooling strategy, which was further validated by testing individual samples that make up some of the pools, with a statistical estimation method to report seroprevalence estimates. RESULTS: Overall (combining D and P groups) seroprevalence estimate was around 11% in Saudi Arabia; and was 5.1% (Riyadh), 1.5% (Jazan), 18.4% (Qassim), 20.8% (Hail), 14.7% (ER; Alahsa), and 18.8% in Makkah. Makkah samples were only D group and had a rate of 24.4% and 12.8% in the cities of Makkah and Jeddah, respectively. The seroprevalence in Saudi Arabia across the sampled areas would be 12 times the reported COVID-19 infection rate. Among HCWs, 7.5% (4.95-10.16 CI 95%) had reactive antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 without reporting any previously confirmed infection. This was higher in HCWs with hypertension. The study also presents the demographics and prevalence of co-morbidities in HCWs and subset of non-COVID-19 population. INTERPRETATION: Our study estimates the overall national serological prevalence of COVID-19 in Saudi Arabia to be 11%, with an apparent disparity between regions. This indicates the prevalence of asymptomatic or mild unreported COVID-19 cases.

COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , Pandemics , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies