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1.
J Infect Public Health ; 16(3):313-319, 2023.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2180682

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acinetobacter baumannii infection is a serious public health problem because it is highly resistant to antimicrobial therapy and causes a high fatality rate in critically ill patients. The aim of the study is to examine the demographics, microbiological findings, clinical presentation, and outcomes of multi-drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii respiratory infections in adult ICU intubated patients during COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This study included 115 mechanically ventilated adult ICU patients who had multi-drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii retrieved from respiratory samples during the COVID-19 pandemic in Albaha, Saudi Arabia. The information was obtained from medical and laboratory files. Univariate analysis was used to compare gender, COVID-19 infection, and outcomes. RESULTS: The rate of Acinetobacter baumanni respiratory infections among adult ICU patients was 6.2 %. Almost 93 % developed ventilator-associated pneumonia, and five of them developed bacteremia. The isolates had significant antibiotic resistance patterns, of which 3 % were pandrug-resistant bacteria. The death rate was 74 %, with major risk factors including sepsis, septic shock, VAP, liver diseases, and the use of inappropriate antibiotic therapy that lacked both colistin and tigecycline. Patients with COVID-19 coinfection had worse outcomes compared to non-COVID-19 patients. CONCLUSIONS: The identification of MDR-AB as a threat highlights the importance of surveillance studies in this region.

2.
Cureus ; 14(11), 2022.
Article in English | PubMed Central | ID: covidwho-2203366

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The pandemic of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused a significant burden worldwide. The most common presentation of coronavirus disease is acute, and most patients recover completely. However, now a substantial proportion of patients experience long-term health effects. Post-COVID-19 syndrome (PCS) is defined as "signs and symptoms that develop after an infection consistent with COVID-19 that persist for more than 12 weeks and have not been explained yet by an alternative diagnosis.” We faced a lack of studies regarding PCS in the Gulf area. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the incidence, risk factors, and most common persisting symptoms of PCS in confirmed COVID-19 patients who presented to King Abdulaziz University Hospital (KAUH) in Jeddah between June 1, 2020 and December 31, 2020.Methods: This retrospective cohort study was conducted via telephone survey, which took place in June 2022 at KAUH. PCS was defined as the presence of one or more symptoms beyond 12 weeks from the onset of the illness. The inclusion criteria were patients aged 18 or above with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection through positive RT-PCR in KAUH from June 1, 2020 to December 31, 2020, and both genders were included. The exclusion criteria were inability to provide informed consent, death, currently active COVID-19 infection (PCR +ve), and if they did not complete the interview. Medical records were obtained from patients diagnosed with COVID-19 through positive RT-PCR tests from June 1, 2020 to December 31, 2020.Results: Data of 504 patients were analyzed. The incidence of PCS was 45.0% (95%CI, 40.7% to 49.5%). PCS was associated with female gender (OR = 1.71, 95%CI, 1.13 to 2.59, p = 0.011), having three or more co-morbid conditions (OR = 2.37, 95%CI, 1.19 to 4.75, p = 0.014), receiving steroids (OR = 2.13, 95%CI, 1.16 to 3.98, p = 0.016), also patients who experienced congestion (OR = 1.68, 95%CI, 1.05 to 2.71, p = 0.032) and depression (OR = 1.80, 95%CI, 1.03 to 3.18, p = 0.039) during acute COVID-19 infection. The most commonly reported symptoms beyond 12 weeks included fatigue (19.6%), joint pain (14.1%), and decreased exercise tolerance (12.7%).Conclusion: In conclusion, the main risk factors to develop PCS are being female, having three or more co-morbidities, receiving steroids, or patients presenting with nasal congestion and/or depression.

3.
Cureus Journal of Medical Science ; 14(11), 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2203340

ABSTRACT

Respiratory disease caused by a mutant coronavirus variant has spread rapidly worldwide. According to reports, the COVID-19 version propagated at the end of 2019 and originated in Wuhan, China. On January 30, 2022, the World Health Organization declared the outbreak a Public Health Emergency of International Concern, and on March 11, 2020, the outbreak has declared a pandemic. The COVID-19 infection might appear with no symptoms, very few symptoms, or extremely severe symptomsWe are the first to identify sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) as a side effect in COVID-19 patients who have fully recovered from the illness. Additionally, all reported cases of this presentation have an unexplained unilateral left ear involvement. This article reviews the literature and four cases of COVID-19 patients with SSNHL.We present four cases of COVID-19 positivity that were verified by PCR analysis of nasopharyngeal swabs. After fully recovering from the infection, all patients developed acute sensorineural hearing loss on the left side.A deterioration in the hearing ability among COVID-19 survivors makes it possible that the problem persists long after their recovery from infection. To support such a claim, additional in-depth research is required. The current study, in our opinion, will contribute to an increase in understanding about COVID-19, promote awareness, and alert healthcare professionals to take into account and discuss any symptoms.

4.
Journal of Infection and Public Health ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2159298

ABSTRACT

Background Studying the genomic evolution of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) may help determine outbreak clusters and virus transmission advantages to aid public health efforts during the pandemic. Thus, we tracked the evolution of SARS-CoV-2 by variant epidemiology, breakthrough infection, and patient characteristics as the virus spread during the Delta and Omicron waves. We also conducted phylogenetic analyses to assess modes of transmission. Methods Nasopharyngeal samples were collected from a cohort of 900 patients with positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test results confirming COVID-19 disease. Samples underwent real-time PCR detection using TaqPath assays. Sequencing was performed with Ion GeneStudio using the Ion AmpliSeq™ SARS-CoV-2 panel. Variant calling was performed with Torrent Suite™ on the Torrent Server. For phylogenetic analyses, the MAFFT tool was used for alignment and the maximum likelihood method with the IQ-TREE tool to build the phylogenetic tree. Data were analyzed using SAS statistical software. Analysis of variance or t tests were used to assess continuous variables, and χ2 tests were used to assess categorical variables. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were preformed to estimate odds ratios (ORs). Results The predominant variants in our cohort of 900 patients were non–variants of concern (11.1%), followed by Alpha (4.1%), Beta (5.6%), Delta (21.2%), and Omicron (58%). The Delta wave had more male than female cases (112 vs. 78), whereas the Omicron wave had more female than male cases (311 vs. 208). The oldest patients (mean age, 43.4 years) were infected with non–variants of concern;the youngest (mean age, 33.7 years), with Omicron. Younger patients were mostly unvaccinated, whereas elderly patients were mostly vaccinated, a statistically significant difference. The highest risk for breakthrough infection by age was for patients aged 30–39 years (OR=12.4, CI 95%: 6.6-23.2), followed by patients aged 40–49 years (OR=11.2, CI 95%: 6.1-23.1) and then 20–29 years (OR=8.2, CI 95%: 4.4-15.4). Phylogenetic analyses suggested the interaction of multiple cases related to outbreaks for breakthrough infections, healthcare workers, and intensive care unit admission. Conclusion The findings of this study highlighted several major public health ramifications, including the distribution of variants over a wide range of demographic and clinical variables and by vaccination status.

5.
Psychiatria Danubina ; 33:372-378, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2092506

ABSTRACT

Background: Psychological impacts among healthcare professionals have increased significantly due to the increasing number of COVID-19 cases. This study aimed to identify stress and coping strategies among healthcare professionals in Saudi Arabia during the COVID-19 outbreak. Subjects and methods: A cross-sectional study online survey was conducted for health care professionals during a peak of COVID-19 from March to June 2020 at different healthcare institutions at KSA (n=342). Result(s): 6L[W\ILYH SHUFHQW RI UHVSRQGHUV RIWHQ DQG DOZD\V IHHO IHDUV DERXW LQIHFWion and subsequent effects on themselves, the patient, and the family. 57% of them stated that they felt sometimes depressed mode and 47% anxiety during the outbreak. Eighty-four percent of the respondent always focusing on prevention as the first biosecurity measures such as hand-washing habits and using hand sanitizer, and 38.3% of them make sometimes relax and rest. While half of the responses (50%) sometimes had physical exercise. Also, thirty-eight percent joined sometimes community and/or group online chat groups, and 56.1% always keep contact with family and friends through social messaging or phone calls. Conclusion(s): Understanding this topic is important for healthcare organizations, effective strategies, and programs is needed to provide holistic staff care and wellbeing during outbreaks that focus on the value of mental and emotional support. Copyright © 2021 Medicinska Naklada Zagreb. All rights reserved.

6.
Medical Science ; 26(125), 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2091787

ABSTRACT

Objectives: The coronavirus infection (COVID-19) significantly impacts populations worldwide, including individuals with schizophrenia. This study meant to investigate whether COVID-19 patients with schizophrenia have the same disease severity and outcome as those without schizophrenia. Methods: This case-control, retrospective study included 108 adult patients who attended a tertiary care hospital with a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19. The study cohort was divided into the patient group (n=54) with confirmed schizophrenia diagnosis and the matched control group. The patients' medical data were retrieved from archived hospital e-medical records from 1 January to 26 February 2021. A logistic regression study was made to identify the risk of concomitant comorbidities. Results: Females accounted for 25.9% of the study population. Approximately 75% of the participants were aged >= 50 (50-69) years. None of the study participants were admitted to the ICU. Patients with schizophrenia had more comorbidities (68.5%) than COVID-19 patients without schizophrenia (35.2%). Nevertheless, patients with schizophrenia were less likely to have a concomitant cerebrovascular disease (OR = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.39-0.58, p <0.001), epilepsy (OR = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.39-0.59, p <0.001), or bronchial asthma (OR = 0.49, 95% CI = 0.40-0.59, p <0.001). There were no reported cases of mortality in either study group. Conclusions: Although COVID-19 patients with schizophrenia had multiple comorbidities, they did not necessarily present a severe course or detrimental outcome compared to COVID-19 patients without schizophrenia. Further studies are required to confirm the findings of this study.

7.
American Journal of Transplantation ; 22(Supplement 3):609, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2063467

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The COVID-19 pandemic affected many aspects of health care, including the provision of care in ambulatory care clinics, necessitating the utilization of telehealth. For example, we implemented phone clinics in our hospital to ease access to health care for liver transplant patients. This study aims to assess the impact of phone clinics on patients' perception, adherence to medication, and potential cost reduction. Method(s): This prospective observational study utilized validated questionnaires: the telehealth usability questionnaire (TUQ) and Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8), to assess patients' perception of telehealth and medication adherence, respectively. We included all liver transplant patients who received their care through phone clinics from June 1st, 2020, to December 31st, 2020. In addition, clinical outcomes were assessed, such as emergency room visits, development of biopsy-proven rejection, need for hospital admissions, and derangement of enzymes as secondary endpoints. Result(s): We had 422 patients served through phone clinics;416 met the inclusion criteria. The majority of patients were males (61.5%), lived outside Riyadh (63%), used 5-10 medications per day (71%), and were above the age of 60 years (43.7%). The average overall adherence scale was 7.2 (+/-0.91 SD), where 94.5% scored to have medium adherence (score of 6-8), followed by 5.5% with low adherence, while no one had high adherence score. Patients perception scores averages toward the utilization of phone clinic were: 1.5 (+/-0.76 SD) for the usefulness of telehealth, 1.4 (+/-0.7 SD) for the ease of use and learnability, 1.54 (+/-0.8 SD) for the interface quality, 1.45 (+/-0.8 SD) for the interaction quality, 2.07 (+/-1.17 SD) for the reliability, and 1.59 (+/-0.88 SD) for satisfaction and future use. The estimated average direct outof- pocket cost savings per patient was 703 SAR (187 USD) per person, with a total reduction of 292,630 SAR (78,033 USD) in all served patients. For clinical outcomes, 31 patients (7.45%) had emergency room visits three months after the phone clinic. Likewise, five patients (1.20%) developed a biopsy-proven rejection, 14 patients (3.36%) were admitted to hospitals, and 50 patients (12.01%) had derangements of enzymes requiring intervention during the specified period. Conclusion(s): Our results show that the utilization of phone clinics in the liver transplant settings was associated with a high satisfaction rate among the served patients with a medium score of medication adherence and potential cost reduction impact.

8.
American Journal of Transplantation ; 22(Supplement 3):1072, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2063406

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Data showed seroconversion after different SARS-CoV-2 vaccination platforms might yield diminished response in transplant recipients. However, it is unknown whether different vaccination platforms could offer a specific grade of protection against SARS-CoV-2. Method(s): we prospectively studied adult kidney & liver recipients who received who had no previous COVID-19 infection, and received either ChAdOx1 or BNT- 162b2 vaccines between January 2021 to September 2021, with an assessment of IgM/IgG spike (S) antibodies. Result(s): Our cohort is composed of kidney (n=235) or liver (n=217) patients, who have received either ChAdOx1 (N=157) or BNT-162b2 (n=295). The response was higher with mRNA vaccine. Unresponsiveness is found to be mainly linked to diabetes and older age. Side effects were similar to those reported in clinical trials. Conclusion(s): mRNA vaccines might elicit a higher humoral immunity response as compared with ChAdOx1 in immunosuppressed transplant patients.

9.
BELITUNG NURSING JOURNAL ; 8(3):251-257, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1970027

ABSTRACT

Background: The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic prompted rules and laws such as lockdown, which contributed to staying at home and participating in sedentary activities such as using smartphones, tablets, televisions, gaming devices, and computers. As a result of the increased use of digital screen time, a worldwide issue has arisen among various age groups, especially adolescents, which may have affected their psychological well-being, increasing their susceptibility to anxiety-related disorders. Objective: This study aimed to assess the relationship between screen time exposure and the presence of anxiety-related disorders among adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: A quantitative descriptive cross-sectional design using convenience sampling was used in this study. The online self-administered questionnaire, including the Arabic-translated version of the Screen for Child Anxiety-related Disorders (SCARED-C), was distributed through social media using Google forms between February and April 2021. The Chi-Squared test was used for data analysis. Results: Of 625 participants, majority were females (n = 527, 84.3%) than males (n = 98, 15.7%). A significant difference between screen time and the presence of an anxiety-related disorder among adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic (p = .021) was noted. More than half of the participants (n = 410, 65.6%) scored above 25 in the SCARED-C test, indicating the presence of an anxiety-related disorder regardless of the type. Of those, more than a quarter (n = 176, 28.2%) used screens for more than 8 hours a day. Conclusion: The results indicated a relationship between screen time exposure and the presence of anxiety-related disorders among adolescents during the pandemic. In particular, adolescents are more susceptible to the adverse effects of increased exposure to screen time, which is constantly on the rise. Therefore, nurses and other healthcare professionals can play a significant role in providing guidance and advice to parents, caregivers, and adolescents themselves on how to limit screen time exposure. The findings can also be useful for future studies to build on and develop screen time management interventions and guidelines.

10.
International Journal of Advanced and Applied Sciences ; 9(2):128-135, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1929001

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 Pandemic has a huge influence on the learning process worldwide. To maintain student academic progress, learning activities were converted to distance learning to control the further spread of the COVID-19 virus. During this period several studies around the world were conducted to assess the effectiveness of distance learning. The results of these studies showed different perspectives, some of the students preferred e-learning while other preferred traditional methods. The aim of this study was to assess the experience of undergraduate nursing students who used distance learning during the COVID-19 pandemic. A quantitative, cross-sectional design was used to conduct the study. A convenient sampling approach was used to collect the data electronically via self-reported questionnaires. The study included 328 participants. The average score of the effectiveness domain was (2.58 +/- 0.68, medium level), and the satisfaction domain was (2.56 +/- 0.54, medium level). The results indicate that technical issues were the most significant barrier (75.6%) to distance learning, followed by physical problems, and decreased access to technological devices. Savings in transportation costs (74.1%), savings in time (71.6%), and the opportunity to review recorded lectures (67.4%) were the benefits of distance learning reported by nursing students during the COVID-19 pandemic. Most of the nursing students reported a positive preference for distance learning. Technical issues were the most significant barrier while decreased transportation costs were the most significant facilitator. These findings were consistent with other studies from different settings. Further research is needed to build upon these findings. (C) 2022 The Authors. Published by IASE.

11.
Psychiatria Danubina ; 33:S372-S378, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1766632

ABSTRACT

Background: Psychological impacts among healthcare professionals have increased significantly due to the increasing number of COVID-19 cases. This study aimed to identify stress and coping strategies among healthcare professionals in Saudi Arabia during the COVID-19 outbreak. Subjects and methods: A cross-sectional study online survey was conducted for health care professionals during a peak of COVID-19 from March to June 2020 at different healthcare institutions at KSA (n=342). Results: Sixty-five percent of responders often and always feel fears about infection and subsequent effects on themselves, the patient, and the family. 57% of them stated that they felt sometimes depressed mode and 47% anxiety during the outbreak. Eighty-four percent of the respondent always focusing on prevention as the first biosecurity measures such as hand-washing habits and using hand sanitizer, and 38.3% of them make sometimes relax and rest. While half of the responses (50%) sometimes had physical exercise. Also, thirty-eight percent joined sometimes community and/or group online chat groups, and 56.1% always keep contact with family and friends through social messaging or phone calls. Conclusion: Understanding this topic is important for healthcare organizations, effective strategies, and programs is needed to provide holistic staff care and wellbeing during outbreaks that focus on the value of mental and emotional support.

12.
Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences ; 10:213-218, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1709394

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The influence of the COVID-19 pandemic is great not only on general health but also on regular learning worldwide. AIM: This study analyzed medical undergraduate students’ feedback about online education at Taif University during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Five hundred undergraduate medical students from the four medical colleges at Taif University participated in the current study. They were requested to give their feedback about online medical education through an online questionnaire. The questionnaire was prepared and administered to the medical students at different academic levels through Google forms. The current study is a cross-sectional study. RESULTS: The respondents who can ask questions during e-classes were significantly higher than those who had not this opportunity. A significantly higher number of students reported that the shared material was useful. In addition, the study results indicated significantly poor student-teacher interaction during the e-classes. Finally, about 231 of the respondents (46.2%) preferred physical classes over e-classes and 140 of respondents (28%) preferred online classes over physical classes, and the remaining number, 129 (25.8%), mentioned that online and conventional education are both the same. CONCLUSION: Most students said that conventional education is better than online education. The combination of online and formal education can be implemented after the COVID-19 pandemic to satisfy all parties.

13.
Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research ; 10(5):1083-1088, 2020.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1052603

ABSTRACT

Background: There has been sizeable speculation regarding the association between the severe Acute breathing Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pathogen, coronavirus disorder (COVID-19), and smoking. Aim: This work aims to determine the link between smoking and COVID-19 infection. Materials and Methods: A systematic search was performed over different medical databases to identify Internal Medicine studies, which studied the outcome of the Smokers group versus the Non-Smokers group of COVID-19 patients. Using the meta-analysis process, either with fixed or random-effects models, we conducted a meta-analysis on the prevalence of severe cases as a primary outcome, and on mortality rate as a secondary outcome. Results: Eleven studies were identified involving 146793 patients, 11973 in the Smokers group, and 134820 in the Non-Smokers group. The meta-analysis process revealed that the pooled prevalence of severity among COVID-19 patients was (27.7%), and there is a significant increase in COVID-19 severe cases in the Smokers group compared to the Non-Smokers group (OR=2.11, P=0.032). The pooled mortality rate among COVID-19 patients was (17.2%), and there is a significant increase in mortality in the Smokers group compared to the Non-Smokers group (OR=1.76, P=0.026). Conclusion: To conclude, Patients with any smoking history are vulnerable to severe COVID-19 and worse in-hospital outcomes. In the absence of current targeted therapies, preventative and supportive strategies to reduce morbidity and mortality in current and former smokers are crucial.

14.
Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences ; 2020.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-990428

ABSTRACT

Radiological examinations have played a crucial role in the identification and management of COVID-19 patients. Therefore, knowledge and awareness of infection control among healthcare workers in radiology departments are important to prevent disease transmission. This study aimed to assess the knowledge and practice of infection control for COVID-19 among healthcare workers in radiology departments in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional, online questionnaire was administered among healthcare workers in radiology departments in Saudi Arabia in May 2020. The questionnaire consisted of demographic characteristics, profession, knowledge of infection control for COVID-19, and good practice of infection control measures for COVID-19 in radiology departments. A descriptive statistical analysis and chi-square test were performed using SPSS software. A total of 234 (91%) of healthcare workers replied that they have good knowledge about the precautions needed during the examination of positive COVID-19 cases in radiology departments, and 216 (84%) replied that they knew the necessary precautions when using portable X-ray machine. Moreover, 191 (>74%) of those surveyed agreed that wearing personal protective equipment and following the CDC sequence. There was significant association between profession and good clinical practices in radiology departments regarding COVID-19. Such knowledge could limit the spread of COVID-19 among the healthcare workers in radiology departments.

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