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1.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 16(8): 102567, 2022 Jul 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1936311

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: People with type 1 diabetes (T1D) are advised to have a "pre-Ramadan" visit to receive the assessment and education needed to safely fast during the holy month of Ramadan. The COVID-19 lockdown has interrupted this standard of care in Muslim-majority countries where telemedicine is not well-established. Here, we examined the impact of virtual"pre-Ramadan" visits, as an alternative option to the traditional (in-person) visits, on fasting experience and glycemic control during Ramadan in people with T1D. METHOD: 151 individuals with T1D were categorized into 3 groups according to the type of"pre-Ramadan" visit that they attended in 2020: virtual (n = 50), in-person (n = 56), and no visit (n = 45). Number of days fast was broken and CGM metrics were retrospectively compared across the groups. RESULT: Patients who had a virtual"pre-Ramadan" visit were more likely to use continuous glucose monitors (CGM) than those who had no visit (61.7% and 38.6%, respectively, p < 0.05). Attending a virtual"pre-Ramadan" visit was associated with the least number of days fast was broken compared to those who had no visit (p < 0.01) or in-person visit (p = 0.02). CGM time in range (TIR) during Ramadan was the highest in those who had virtual "Pre-Ramadan" visits compared to those who had no visit or in-person visits (59%, 44%, and 47%,respectively). After adjusting for age, gender, pre-Ramadan A1c, and CGM use, the odds of fasting most days of Ramadan were highest in the virtual group [OR (CI): 9.13 (1.43, 58.22)] followed by the in-person group [3.02 (0.54,16.68)] compared to the no visit group. CONCLUSION: Virtual"pre-Ramadan" visits are effective alternative to in-person visits when managing people with T1D who plan to fast during Ramadan.

2.
Prim Care Diabetes ; 2022 Jun 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1907627

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To mitigate the spread of COVID-19, Saudi Arabia implemented a nationwide lockdown that lasted for approximately five months. Due to the limited availability of telemedicine in Saudi Arabia, many people with diabetes (PWD) lost access to diabetes care services during the lockdown period. Here, we examined the impact of lockdown on cardiometabolic health in PWD and how this may have differed between those who utilized diabetes telemedicine during lockdown versus those who did not. METHODS: Hemoglobin A1C (A1C), body weight, lipid, and other cardiometabolic parameters were retrospectively reviewed in 384 PWD who attended routine clinic visits in the pre-lockdown (September 2019 to March 2020) and post-lockdown (Aug to Dec 2020) periods. Changes in cardiometabolic parameters from pre- to post-lockdown were compared across 3 groups according to the type of visit that they had during lockdown (April to July 2020): "no visit" (n = 215), "in-person" visit (n = 44), or "virtual" visit (n = 125). The virtual visits in our institution followed a simplified protocol that utilized technological tools readily available to most PWD and clinicians. RESULTS: PWD who attended "virtual" visits during lockdown were the youngest and most likely to have type 1 diabetes; followed by those who attended "in-person" visits and those who had "no visit". A significant reduction in A1C from pre- to post-lockdown periods was noted in PWD who attended a "virtual visit" (9.02 to 8.27%, respectively, p < 0.01) and those who attended an "in-person" visit (9.18 to 8.43%, respectively, p < 0.05) but not in those who had "no visit" (8.75 to 8.57%, p > 0.05). No significant changes were noted in serum glucose, blood pressure, or lipid parameters during the lockdown in any of the groups. CONCLUSION: Simplified telemedicine visits, including real-time audio calls, were as effective as in-person visits in improving glycemic control in PWD during the lockdown period in a country where telemedicine infrastructure was not well-established. Older adults and those with type 2 diabetes were less likely to utilize telemedicine; suggesting a potential risk of digital divide that warrants greater attention in the future.

3.
Endocr Pract ; 27(12): 1232-1241, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1336416

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Well-controlled glucose levels (ie, 70-180 mg/dL) have been associated with lower mortality from COVID-19. The addition of dexamethasone to COVID-19 treatment protocols has raised concerns about the potential negative consequences of dexamethasone-induced hyperglycemia. METHODS: We developed a protocol to guide the management of dexamethasone-induced hyperglycemia in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Two of the 4 medical teams managing patients with COVID-19 at a tertiary center in Saudi Arabia used the protocol and the other 2 teams continued to manage hyperglycemia at the discretion of the treating physicians (protocol and control groups, respectively). The glycemic control and clinical outcomes in 163 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 and dexamethasone-induced hyperglycemia between July 5th and September 30th, 2020, were retrospectively compared between the 2 groups. RESULTS: Compared to the control group, the protocol group had higher proportions of patients with well-controlled glucose across all premeals and bedtime glucose readings throughout the hospital stay. The differences in glycemic control between the 2 groups were statistically significant for fasting glucose on days 4, 5, and the discharge day; prelunch glucose on the discharge day; predinner glucose on days 3, 5, and the discharge day; and bedtime glucose on day 1 (all P < .05). After adjusting for age, sex, nationality, body mass index, Charlson score, and diabetes status, patients in the protocol group were more likely to have well-controlled glucose levels compared with those in the control group. Moreover, the in-hospital mortality was significantly lower in the protocol group (12.93%) compared to the control group (29.93%) (P < .01). CONCLUSION: The implementation of a protocol to manage dexamethasone-induced hyperglycemia in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 resulted in more patients achieving well-controlled glucose levels and was associated with lower mortality from COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hyperglycemia , Blood Glucose , COVID-19/drug therapy , Dexamethasone , Humans , Hyperglycemia/chemically induced , Hyperglycemia/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(33): 44812-44817, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1303355

ABSTRACT

The infectiousness of COVID-19 is high among the susceptible population, making the calculation of the reproduction number (R) an essential step to implement preventive measures. We aim to estimate COVID-19 transmission to determine if the disease is successfully controlled or extra measured should be adopted to attain this goal. The daily incidence data of COVID-19 in Saudi Arabia from March 2nd, 2020, to April 4th, 2021, were obtained from the continuously updated Saudi Ministry of Health COVID-19 repository. To get accurate estimation of the situation over the last 4 months (from December 1st, 2020, to April 4th, 2021), we calculated the weekly (every 7 days) R starting from March 2nd, 2020, and till the last week of the available data. The calculated values of R were represented as median, first quantile (Q1), and third quantile (Q3). As early as the first week of December 2020, the median R was 0.81 (0.80-0.83) which means that each existing infected case would transmit infection to only one person. This was followed by fluctuations over the next few weeks around R value of 1, reaching its highest level of 1.45 (1.42-1.47) between December 31st, 2020, and January 6th, 2021. This was followed by a relatively steady decline over the following weeks, with some till mid-March where the R values started to slightly rise again. Social distancing, protective precautions, avoiding abuse of the partial lifting, expanding the screening process, and other Saudi measures sound to be successful and should be replicated in similar communities. This measure should be continued till the vaccination process is completed, to reduce the number of contacts and to avoid uncontrolled transmission of the disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Reproduction , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia
5.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 33(5): 1415-1422, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1158944

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: As the world continues to cautiously navigate its way through the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, several breakthroughs in therapies and vaccines are currently being developed and scrutinized. Consequently, alternative therapies for severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) prevention, such as vitamin D supplementation, while hypothetically promising, require substantial evidence from countries affected by COVID-19. The present retrospective case-control study aims to identify differences in vitamin D status and clinical characteristics of hospitalized patients screened for SARS-CoV-2, and determine associations of vitamin D levels with increased COVID-19 risk and mortality. METHODS: A total of 222 [SARS-CoV-2 (+) N = 150 (97 males; 53 females); SARS-CoV-2 (-) N = 72 (38 males, 34 females)] out of 550 hospitalized adult patients screened for SARS-CoV-2 and admitted at King Saud University Medical City-King Khalid University Hospital (KSUMC-KKUH) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from May-July 2020 were included. Clinical, radiologic and serologic data, including 25(OH)D levels were analyzed. RESULTS: Vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D < 50 nmol/l) was present in 75% of all patients. Serum 25(OH)D levels were significantly lower among SARS-CoV-2 (+) than SARS-CoV-2 (-) patients after adjusting for age, sex and body mass index (BMI) (35.8 ± 1.5 nmol/l vs. 42.5 ± 3.0 nmol/l; p = 0.037). Multivariate regression analysis revealed that significant predictors for SARS-CoV-2 include age > 60 years and pre-existing conditions (p < 0.05). Statistically significant predictors for mortality adjusted for covariates include male sex [Odds ratio, OR 3.3 (95% confidence interval, CI 1.2-9.2); p = 0.02], chronic kidney disease [OR 3.5 (95% CI 1.4-8.7); p = 0.008] and severe 25(OH)D deficiency (< 12.5 nmol/l), but at borderline significance [OR 4.9 (95% CI (0.9-25.8); p = 0.06]. CONCLUSION: In hospital settings, 25(OH)D deficiency is not associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection, but may increase risk for mortality in severely deficient cases. Clinical trials are warranted to determine whether vitamin D status correction provides protective effects against worse COVID-19 outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vitamin D Deficiency , Arabs , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia , Vitamin D
6.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 173: 108682, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1062309

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To minimize the spread of Coronavirus Disease-2019, Saudi Arabia imposed a nationwide lockdown for over 6 weeks. We examined the impact of lockdown on glycemic control in individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1D) using continuous glucose monitoring (CGM); and assessed whether changes in glycemic control differ between those who attended a telemedicine visit during lockdown versus those who did not. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Flash CGM data from 101 individuals with T1D were retrospectively evaluated. Participants were categorized into two groups: Attended a telemedicine visit during lockdown (n = 61) or did not attend (n = 40). Changes in CGM metrics from the last 2 weeks pre-lockdown period (Feb 25 - March 9, 2020) to the last 2 weeks of complete lockdown period (April 7-20, 2020) were examined in the two groups. RESULTS: Those who attended a telemedicine visit during the lockdown period had a significant improvement in the following CGM metrics by the end of lockdown: Average glucose (from 180 to 159 mg/dl, p < 0.01), glycemic management indicator (from 7.7 to 7.2%, p = 0.03), time in range (from 46 to 55%, p < 0.01), and time above range (from 48 to 35%, p < 0.01) without significant changes in time below range, number of daily scans or hypoglycemic events, and other indices. In contrast, there were no significant changes in any of the CGM metrics during lockdown in those who did not attend telemedicine. CONCLUSIONS: A six-week lockdown did not worsen, nor improve, glycemic control in individuals with T1D who did not attend a telemedicine visit. Whereas those who attended a telemedicine visit had a significant improvement in glycemic metrics; supporting the clinical effectiveness of telemedicine in diabetes care.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose/metabolism , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/blood , Glycemic Control , Telemedicine , Adolescent , Adult , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring/methods , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Communicable Disease Control/statistics & numerical data , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Glycemic Control/methods , Glycemic Control/standards , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Male , Program Evaluation , Quarantine/methods , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Telemedicine/organization & administration , Telemedicine/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
7.
J Diabetes ; 13(4): 339-352, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-991131

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To determine the prevalence and factors associated with depression and anxiety among people with and without diabetes during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak. METHODS: A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study collecting demographic and mental health data from 2166 participants living in the Arab Gulf region (568 with diabetes, 1598 without diabetes). Depression and anxiety were assessed using the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire and the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale, respectively. RESULTS: The prevalence of depression and anxiety symptoms were 61% and 45%, in people with diabetes (PWD) and 62% and 44%, respectively, in people without diabetes. PWD who have had their diabetes visit canceled by the clinic were more likely to report depression and anxiety symptoms than those without diabetes (odds ratio [95% confidence interval]: 1.37 [1.02, 1.84] and 1.37 [1.04, 1.80], for depression and anxiety; respectively). PWD who had no method of telecommunication with their health care providers (HCP) during the pandemic, PWD with A1C of ≥ 10%, women, employees (particularly HCPs), students, unmarried individuals, and those with lower income were more likely to report depression and/or anxiety symptoms (all P < 0.01). Fear of acquiring the coronavirus infection; running out of diabetes medications; or requiring hospitalization for hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, or diabetic ketoacidosis; and lack of telecommunication with HCPs were all associated with significantly higher odds of having depression and anxiety symptoms among PWD. CONCLUSIONS: The remarkably high prevalence of depression and anxiety symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic, particularly among subgroups of PWD, calls for urgent public health policies to address mental health during the pandemic and reestablish health care access for PWD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus/psychology , Mental Health , Pandemics , Adult , Aged , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , Arabia/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Female , Health Status , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Sex Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Telecommunications
8.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 19(1): 205, 2020 12 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-961324

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Information on the clinical characteristics and outcomes of hospitalized Covid-19 patients with or without diabetes mellitus (DM) is limited in the Arab region. This study aims to fill this gap. METHODS: In this single-center retrospective study, medical records of hospitalized adults with confirmed Covid-19 [RT-PCR positive for SARS-CoV2] at King Saud University Medical City (KSUMC)-King Khaled University Hospital (KKUH), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from May to July 2020 were analyzed. Clinical, radiological and serological information, as well as outcomes were recorded and analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 439 patients were included (median age 55 years; 68.3% men). The most prevalent comorbidities were vitamin D deficiency (74.7%), DM (68.3%), hypertension (42.6%) and obesity (42.2%). During hospitalization, 77 out of the 439 patients (17.5%) died. DM patients have a significantly higher death rate (20.5% versus 12.3%; p = 0.04) and lower survival time (p = 0.016) than non-DM. Multivariate cox proportional hazards regression model revealed that age [Hazards ratio, HR 3.0 (95% confidence interval, CI 1.7-5.3); p < 0.001], congestive heart failure [adjusted HR 3.5 (CI 1.4-8.3); p = 0.006], smoking [adjusted HR 5.8 (CI 2.0-17.2); p < 0.001], ß-blocker use [adjusted HR 1.7 (CI 1.0-2.9); p = 0.04], bilateral lung infiltrates [adjusted HR 1.9 (CI 1.1-3.3); p = 0.02], creatinine > 90 µmol/l [adjusted HR 2.1 (CI 1.3-3.5); p = 0.004] and 25(OH)D < 12.5 nmol/l [adjusted HR 7.0 (CI 1.7-28.2); p = 0.007] were significant predictors of mortality among hospitalized Covid-19 patients. Random blood glucose ≥ 11.1 mmol/l was significantly associated with intensive care admission [adjusted HR 1.5 (CI 1.0-2.2); p = 0.04], as well as smoking, ß-blocker use, neutrophil > 7.5, creatinine > 90 µmol/l and alanine aminotransferase > 65U/l. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of DM is high among hospitalized Covid-19 patients in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. While DM patients have a higher mortality rate than their non-DM counterparts, other factors such as old age, congestive heart failure, smoking, ß-blocker use, presence of bilateral lung infiltrates, elevated creatinine and severe vitamin D deficiency, appear to be more significant predictors of fatal outcome. Patients with acute metabolic dysfunctions, including hyperglycemia on admission are more likely to receive intensive care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Patient Admission , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Young Adult
9.
SSRN; 2020.
Preprint | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-1076

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19, a novel coronavirus, is currently a major worldwide threat. It has infected more than a million people globally leading to hundred-thousan

10.
J Diabetes Sci Technol ; 15(2): 329-338, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-695185

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The importance of telemedicine in diabetes care became more evident during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic as many people with diabetes, especially those in areas without well-established telemedicine, lost access to their health care providers (HCPs) during this pandemic. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We describe a simplified protocol of a Diabetes Telemedicine Clinic that utilizes technological tools readily available to most people with diabetes and clinics around the world. We report the satisfaction of 145 patients and 14 HCPs who participated in the virtual clinic and 210 patients who attended the virtual educational sessions about "Diabetes and Ramadan." RESULTS: The majority of patients agreed or strongly agreed that the use of telemedicine was essential in maintaining a good glucose control during the pandemic (97%) and they would use the clinic again in the future (86%). A similar high satisfaction was reported by patients who attended the "Diabetes and Ramadan" virtual educational session and 88% of them recommended continuing this activity as a virtual session every year. Majority of the HCPs (93%) thought the clinic protocol was simple and did not require a dedicated orientation session prior to implementing. CONCLUSIONS: The simplicity of our Diabetes Telemedicine Clinic protocol and the high satisfaction reported by patients and HCPs make it a suitable model to be adopted by clinics, especially during pandemics or disasters in resource-limited settings. This clinic model can be quickly implemented and does not require technological tools other than those widely available to most people with diabetes, nowadays. We were able to successfully reduce the number of patients, HCPs, and staff physically present in the clinics during the COVID-19 pandemic without negatively impacting the patients' nor the HCPs' satisfaction with the visits.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care Facilities/organization & administration , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Endocrinology/organization & administration , Telemedicine/organization & administration , Appointments and Schedules , Electronic Health Records , Humans , Job Satisfaction , Pandemics , Patient Satisfaction , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology
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