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1.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 797545, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1603439

ABSTRACT

Objective: The COVID-19 pandemic poses unprecedented challenges to healthcare workers worldwide. This study sought to estimate the prevalence of depression, anxiety, and stress among healthcare workers in Saudi Arabia, and to identify the factors associated with these psychological disorders. Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was conducted from January 21 to March 2, 2021. Physicians, pharmacists, nurses, and other healthcare workers from different parts of Saudi Arabia were recruited through snowball sampling. Psychological outcomes were measured using the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21). Pearson's chi-square test was used to explore the bivariate association between diverse characteristics and each outcome. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to identify factors associated with depression, anxiety, and stress. Results: A total of 501 healthcare workers completed the survey, of whom 60% were female and nearly half were pharmacists. The majority (76.25%) of respondents reported that a family member, friend, or colleague had contracted COVID-19, and more than one-third (36%) knew someone who died due to COVID-19. Overall, the estimated prevalence rates of depression, anxiety, and stress were 54.69, 60.88, and 41.92%, respectively. The multivariate analysis revealed that healthcare workers with chronic diseases, nurses, and healthcare workers from the southern region were more likely to suffer from depression and stress. Further, individuals with positive COVID-19 test results showed a greater proportion of depressive symptoms compared to others. In addition, knowing someone who died due to COVID-19 and having a chronic illness were predisposing factors for anxiety. Conclusion: After more than a year, the prevalence of depression, anxiety, and stress remains substantial among healthcare workers in Saudi Arabia. The findings can help guide efforts to mitigate the psychological impact of the pandemic.

2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(52): e28334, 2021 Dec 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1594572

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: In the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic, research indicates that the COVID-19 disease susceptibility varies among individuals depending on their ABO blood groups. Researchers globally commenced investigating potential methods to stratify cases according to prognosis depending on several clinical parameters. Since there is evidence of a link between ABO blood groups and disease susceptibility, it could be argued that there is a link between blood groups and disease manifestation and progression. The current study investigates whether clinical manifestation, laboratory, and imaging findings vary among ABO blood groups of hospitalized confirmed COVID-19 patients.This retrospective cohort study was conducted between March 1, 2020 and March 31, 2021 in King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre Riyadh and Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Demographic information, clinical information, laboratory findings, and imaging investigations were extracted from the data warehouse for all confirmed COVID-19 patients.A total of 285 admitted patients were included in the study. Of these, 81 (28.4%) were blood group A, 43 (15.1%) were blood group B, 11 (3.9%) were blood group AB, and 150 (52.6%) were blood group O. This was almost consistent with the distribution of blood groups among the Saudi Arabia community. The majority of the study participants (79.6% [n = 227]) were asymptomatic. The upper respiratory tract infection (P = .014) and shortness of breath showed statistically significant differences between the ABO blood group (P = .009). Moreover, the incidence of the symptoms was highly observed in blood group O followed by A then B except for pharyngeal exudate observed in blood group A. The one-way ANOVA test indicated that among the studied hematological parameters, glucose (P = .004), absolute lymphocyte count (P = .001), and IgA (P = .036) showed statistically significant differences between the means of the ABO blood group. The differences in both X-ray and computed tomography scan findings were statistically nonsignificant among the ABO age group. Only 86 (30.3%) patients were admitted to an intensive care unit, and the majority of them were blood groups O 28.7% (n = 43) and A 37.0% (n = 30). However, the differences in complications' outcomes were statistically nonsignificant among the ABO age group.ABO blood groups among hospitalized COVID-19 patients are not associated with clinical, hematological, radiological, and complications abnormality.


Subject(s)
ABO Blood-Group System , COVID-19/blood , Disease Susceptibility , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/pathology , Dyspnea/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(12)2021 06 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282489

ABSTRACT

In the first few months of the pandemic, Makkah region reported the highest number of COVID-19 cases among all regions in Saudi Arabia. More than 80% of these reported cases were non-Saudi residents. In this study, we evaluated the perceived threat from and psychological impact of COVID-19 among non-Saudi residents of Makkah region. This was a cross-sectional analysis of data collected using a standardized self-report questionnaire. A total of 292 expatriates were included in the study, the majority of whom were non-Arabic speakers. The prevalence of self-reported depression was nearly 40%, anxiety was 32%, and stress was 43%. The findings indicated variability in the prevalence of psychological symptoms among expatriates from different ethnic backgrounds. Additionally, work environment and perceived threat were strong predictors of psychological disorders. This suggested that the perceived threat from and psychological burden of COVID-19 among non-Saudis in Makkah region is substantial. Future research should investigate the reasons behind these variations in the psychological impact of the pandemic among different ethnic groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Perception , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology
4.
Risk Manag Healthc Policy ; 13: 3147-3153, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1011325

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of and factors associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) during the COVID-19 pandemic in Saudi Arabia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a cross-sectional online survey that targeted adults over the age of 18 residing in Saudi Arabia. The data collection began June 1, 2020 and continued for four weeks. The Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Specific, the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire version BIP-Q5, and a 9-item health literacy measure were used. RESULTS: There were 1249 participants, of which 62.21% were under the age of 34. The prevalence of PTSD was 19.5% among all participants. The results showed that both the perception of threat (OR =1.17, 95% CI = 1.13-1.19) and health literacy (OR =0.97, 95% CI = 0.95-0.99) were associated with PTSD symptoms. CONCLUSION: This study highlights important findings that the level of an individual's perception of threat and health literacy is associated with symptoms of PTSD. Thus, an understanding of these constructs in the target population will enable the development of better measures designed to reduce the psychological impact of the COVID-19 pandemic.

5.
Saudi Pharm J ; 28(12): 1666-1673, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-894080

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus diseases of 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic was classified as one of the worst pandemics in the 21st century. Its rapid transmission, unpredicted mortality rate, and the uncertainty surrounding its transmission method have evoked additional fear and anxiety. Nonetheless, to the best of our knowledge, no prior study has explored PTSD prevalence three months after the start of the quarantine procedures in Saudi Arabia nor has examined PTSD prevalence by three different methods. OBJECTIVE: This observational cross-sectional study aimed to identify the prevalence, severity, and influencing factors of PTSD in different regions of Saudi Arabia three months after the onset of the quarantine procedures related to the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Through the month of June 2020, 1374 people (49.05% men and 50.95% women) completed a 35-item, 10-minute online. The prevalence of PTSD was measured using PCL-S (specific for COVID-19) that assesses the 17 symptoms of PTSD. Resilience was measured using 2-items Arabic version of the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale 2 (CD-RISC 2). RESULTS: We calculated the prevalence by three methods, namely, PTSD cut-off score, criteria, and combined, and the prevalence was 22.63%, 24.8%, and 19.6%, respectively. Female participants showed higher prevalence than male. As well, participants who were either tested positive or suspected of having been infected with COVID-19 showed higher PTSD prevalence. Higher resilience was associated with lower PTSD prevalence. CONCLUSIONS: This was the first study to report PTSD prevalence by three differential methods three months after the onset of the quarantine procedures related to the COVID-19 pandemic in Saudi Arabia. We observed a significant impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in the Saudi population; therefore, great attention should be performed in implementing new procedures that deal with the highlighted risk factors, especially in vulnerable groups, to overcome the psychological impact of the COVID-19 pandemic.

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