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1.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(7)2022 Jun 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1964123

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2, is one of the longest viral pandemics in the history of mankind, which have caused millions of deaths globally and induced severe deformities in the survivals. For instance, fibrosis and cavities in the infected lungs of COVID-19 are some of the complications observed in infected patients post COVID-19 recovery. These health abnormalities, including is multiple organ failure-the most striking pathological features of COVID-19-have been linked with diverse distribution of ACE2 receptor. Additionally, several health complications reports were reported after administration of COVID-19 vaccines in healthy individuals, but clinical or molecular pathways causing such complications are not yet studied in detail. Thus, the present systematic review established the comparison of health complication noted in vaccinated and non-vaccinated individuals (COVID-19 infected patients) to identify the association between vaccination and the multiorgan failure based on the data obtained from case studies, research articles, clinical trials/Cohort based studies and review articles published between 2020-2022. This review also includes the biological rationale behind the COVID-19 infection and its subsequent symptoms and effects including multiorgan failure. In addition, multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS) has been informed in individuals post vaccination that resulted in multiorgan failure but, no direct correlation of vaccination with MIS has been established. Similarly, hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) also noted to cause multiorgan failure in some individuals following full vaccination. Furthermore, severe complications were recorded in elderly patients (+40 years of age), indicates that older age individuals are higher risk by COVID-19 and post vaccination, but available literature is not sufficient to comply with any conclusive statements on relationship between vaccination and multiorgan failure.

2.
Pathogens ; 11(7)2022 Jun 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1964047

ABSTRACT

In October 2021, a case of acute hepatic failure without any known cause was identified in the United States of America. Upon further investigation, other children aged 1-6 years were reported to have the same liver failure, and some of them were positive for adenovirus 41 type F. On 21 April 2022, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) released an alert after 74 cases were identified in United Kingdom (UK) between 5 and 8 April in children below 10 years of age, some of whom were also found to be positive for SARS-CoV-2. All the patients showed symptoms such as vomiting, diarrhea, jaundice, and abdominal pain. The patients' liver enzymes were remarkably increased. A total of 650 cases had been reported from 33 countries as of 27 May 2022, among which 222 cases were reported in the UK alone. No connection with SARS-CoV-2 or its vaccine has been found so far. However, the suspected cause is adenovirus, including its genomic variations, because its pathogenesis and laboratory investigations have been positively linked. Until further evidence emerges, hygiene precautions could be helpful to prevent its spread.

3.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(7)2022 Jul 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1917875

ABSTRACT

Given the increasing anti-vaccine movements erroneously touting vaccine danger, this review has investigated the rare adverse events potentially associated with BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech), an mRNA vaccine against the severe acute respiratory distress syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Only real-world surveillance studies with at least 0.1 million BNT162b2-vaccinated participants and one unvaccinated control group were selected for review. A total of 21 studies examining the potential association of BNT162b2 with cardiovascular, herpetic, thrombotic or thrombocytopenic, neurological, mortality, and other miscellaneous rare adverse events were described in this review. Only myocarditis is consistently associated with BNT162b2. An unclear direction of association was seen with stroke (hemorrhagic and ischemic), herpes zoster, and paresthesia from BNT162b2, which may require more studies to resolve. Fortunately, most surveillance studies detected no increased risks of the remaining rare adverse events reviewed herein, further reassuring the safety of BNT162b2. In conclusion, this review has concisely summarized the current rare adverse events related and unrelated to BNT162b2, arguably for the first time in sufficient depth, to better communicate vaccine safety to the public.

4.
Molecules ; 27(13)2022 Jul 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1917639

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 virus, which caused the COVID-19 infection, was discovered two and a half years ago. It caused a global pandemic, resulting in millions of deaths and substantial damage to the worldwide economy. Currently, only a few vaccines and antiviral drugs are available to combat SARS-CoV-2. However, there has been an increase in virus-related research, including exploring new drugs and their repurposing. Since discovering penicillin, natural products, particularly those derived from microbes, have been viewed as an abundant source of lead compounds for drug discovery. These compounds treat bacterial, fungal, parasitic, and viral infections. This review incorporates evidence from the available research publications on isolated and identified natural products derived from microbes with anti-hepatitis, anti-herpes simplex, anti-HIV, anti-influenza, anti-respiratory syncytial virus, and anti-SARS-CoV-2 properties. About 131 compounds with in vitro antiviral activity and 1 compound with both in vitro and in vivo activity have been isolated from microorganisms, and the mechanism of action for some of these compounds has been described. Recent reports have shown that natural products produced by the microbes, such as aurasperone A, neochinulin A and B, and aspulvinone D, M, and R, have potent in vitro anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity, targeting the main protease (Mpro). In the near and distant future, these molecules could be used to develop antiviral drugs for treating infections and preventing the spread of disease.


Subject(s)
Biological Products , COVID-19 , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Biological Products/pharmacology , Biological Products/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(7)2022 Jul 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1917622

ABSTRACT

Background and Objective: Bacterial infections are among the major complications of many viral respiratory tract illnesses, such as influenza and coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). These bacterial co-infections are associated with an increase in morbidity and mortality rates. The current observational study was conducted at a tertiary care hospital in Lahore, Pakistan among COVID-19 patients with the status of oxygen dependency to see the prevalence of bacterial co-infections and their antibiotic susceptibility patterns. Materials and Methods: A total of 1251 clinical samples were collected from already diagnosed COVID-19 patients and tested for bacterial identification (cultures) and susceptibility testing (disk diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration) using gold standard diagnostic methods. Results: From the total collected samples, 234 were found positive for different bacterial isolates. The most common isolated bacteria were Escherichia coli (E. coli) (n = 62) and Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) (n = 47). The E. coli isolates have shown the highest resistance to amoxicillin and ampicillin, while in the case of A. baumannii, the highest resistance was noted against tetracycline. The prevalence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was 14.9%, carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) was 4.5%, and vancomycin resistant Enterococcus (VRE) was 3.96%. Conclusions: The results of the current study conclude that empiric antimicrobial treatment in critically ill COVID-19 patients may be considered if properly managed within institutional or national level antibiotic stewardship programs, because it may play a protective role in the case of bacterial co-infections, especially when a patient has other AMR risk factors, such as hospital admission within the previous six months.


Subject(s)
Acinetobacter baumannii , COVID-19 , Coinfection , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Coinfection/drug therapy , Coinfection/epidemiology , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Escherichia coli , Humans , Pakistan/epidemiology
6.
Pathogens ; 11(7):712, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1894181

ABSTRACT

In October 2021, a case of acute hepatic failure without any known cause was identified in the United States of America. Upon further investigation, other children aged 1–6 years were reported to have the same liver failure, and some of them were positive for adenovirus 41 type F. On 21 April 2022, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) released an alert after 74 cases were identified in United Kingdom (UK) between 5 and 8 April in children below 10 years of age, some of whom were also found to be positive for SARS-CoV-2. All the patients showed symptoms such as vomiting, diarrhea, jaundice, and abdominal pain. The patients' liver enzymes were remarkably increased. A total of 650 cases had been reported from 33 countries as of 27 May 2022, among which 222 cases were reported in the UK alone. No connection with SARS-CoV-2 or its vaccine has been found so far. However, the suspected cause is adenovirus, including its genomic variations, because its pathogenesis and laboratory investigations have been positively linked. Until further evidence emerges, hygiene precautions could be helpful to prevent its spread.

7.
Vaccines ; 10(7):985, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1894180

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2, is one of the longest viral pandemics in the history of mankind, which have caused millions of deaths globally and induced severe deformities in the survivals. For instance, fibrosis and cavities in the infected lungs of COVID-19 are some of the complications observed in infected patients post COVID-19 recovery. These health abnormalities, including is multiple organ failure-the most striking pathological features of COVID-19-have been linked with diverse distribution of ACE2 receptor. Additionally, several health complications reports were reported after administration of COVID-19 vaccines in healthy individuals, but clinical or molecular pathways causing such complications are not yet studied in detail. Thus, the present systematic review established the comparison of health complication noted in vaccinated and non-vaccinated individuals (COVID-19 infected patients) to identify the association between vaccination and the multiorgan failure based on the data obtained from case studies, research articles, clinical trials/Cohort based studies and review articles published between 2020–2022. This review also includes the biological rationale behind the COVID-19 infection and its subsequent symptoms and effects including multiorgan failure. In addition, multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS) has been informed in individuals post vaccination that resulted in multiorgan failure but, no direct correlation of vaccination with MIS has been established. Similarly, hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) also noted to cause multiorgan failure in some individuals following full vaccination. Furthermore, severe complications were recorded in elderly patients (+40 years of age), indicates that older age individuals are higher risk by COVID-19 and post vaccination, but available literature is not sufficient to comply with any conclusive statements on relationship between vaccination and multiorgan failure.

8.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(5)2022 May 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875702

ABSTRACT

Measles is an RNA virus infectious disease mainly seen in children. Despite the availability of an effective vaccine against measles, it remains a health issue in children. Although it is a self-limiting disease, it becomes severe in undernourished and immune-compromised individuals. Measles infection is associated with secondary infections by opportunistic bacteria due to the immunosuppressive effects of the measles virus. Recent reports highlight that measles infection erases the already existing immune memory of various pathogens. This review covers the incidence, pathogenesis, measles variants, clinical presentations, secondary infections, elimination of measles virus on a global scale, and especially the immune responses related to measles infection.


Subject(s)
Coinfection , Measles , Child , Humans , Incidence , Measles/epidemiology , Measles/prevention & control
9.
Infection ; 50(3): 583-596, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1872771

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 vaccines have been developed to compact the current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and have been administered to people all over the world. These vaccines have been quite effective in reducing the possibility of severe illness, hospitalization and death. However, the recent emergence of Variants of Concern specifically the delta variant, B.1.617.2, had resulted in additional waves of the pandemic. METHODS: We aim to review the literature to understand the transmission and disease severity, and determine the efficacy of the current COVID-19 vaccines. We searched Pubmed, Scopus, and Embase till August 4th 2021, and used the search terms "delta variant", "vaccinations"," breakthrough infections", and "neutralizing antibody". For the meta-analysis, 21 studies were screened in particular and five articles (148,071 cases) were included in the study, and only four were analyzed in the meta-analysis. RESULTS: In this review, both in vitro and in vivo studies showed significant reductions in neutralization rates against delta variants for vaccinated individuals and convalescent patients with prior history of COVID-19. However, There was a lower incidence of infection with SARS-CoV-2 due to Delta variant was found after the second dose of Pfizer-BioNTech, Oxford-AstraZeneca and Moderna vaccines. CONCLUSION: In fully vaccinated individuals, symptomatic infection with the delta variant was significantly reduced, and therefore, vaccinations play an important role to assist the fight against delta variant.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccine Efficacy
10.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0266277, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1817482

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 household transmissibility remains unclear in Pakistan. To understand the dynamics of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus disease epidemiology, this study estimated Secondary Attack Rate (SAR) among household and close contacts of index cases in Pakistan using a statistical transmission model. METHODOLOGY: A retrospective cohort study was conducted using an inclusive contact tracing dataset from the provinces of Punjab and Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa to estimate SAR. We considered the probability of an infected person transmitting the infection to close contacts regardless of residential addresses. This means that close contacts were identified irrespective of their relationship with the index case. We assessed demographic determinants of COVID-19 infectivity and transmissibility. For this purpose based on evolving evidence, and as CDC recommends fully vaccinated people get tested 5-7 days after close contact with a person with suspected or confirmed COVID-19. Therefore we followed the same procedure in the close contacts for secondary infection. FINDINGS: During the study period from 15th May 2020 to 15th Jan 2021, a total of 339 (33.9%) index cases were studied from 1000 cases initially notified. Among close contact groups (n = 739), households were identified with an assumed mean incubation period of 8.2+4.3 days and a maximum incubation period of 15 days. SAR estimated here is among the household contacts. 117 secondary cases from 739 household contacts, with SAR 11.1% (95% CI 9.0-13.6). All together (240) SAR achieved was 32.48% (95% CI; 29.12-37.87) for symptomatic and confirmed cases. The potential risk factors for SAR identified here included; old age group (>45 years of age), male (gender), household members >5, and residency in urban areas and for index cases high age group. Overall local reproductive number (R) based on the observed household contact frequencies for index/primary cases was 0.9 (95% CI 0.47-1.21) in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and 1.3 (95% CI 0.73-1.56) in Punjab. CONCLUSIONS: SAR estimated here was high especially in the second phase of the COVID-19 pandemic in Pakistan. The results highlight the need to adopt rigorous preventive measures to cut the chain of viral transmission and prevent another wave of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza, Human , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pakistan/epidemiology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies
11.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-332771

ABSTRACT

Background: Although vaccination is underway, antiviral drugs against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are lacking. Remdesivir, a nucleoside analog that works by inhibiting the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), is the only fully approved antiviral for the treatment of COVID-19. However, it is limited to intravenous use and is usually recommended only for hospitalized patients with severe COVID-19;therefore, oral drugs that can be prescribed even to non-hospitalized patients are required. According to a recent study, 4′-fluoruridine, a nucleoside analog similar to remdesivir, is a promising candidate for COVID-19 oral therapy due to its ability to stall viral RdRp. Methods: : We examined the antiviral activity of 4′-fluorouridine and compared it to other drugs currently in development. The current literature on 4′-fluorouridine's antiviral activity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been compiled and discussed in this review. Results: : The 4'-fluorouridine has antiviral activity against the respiratory syncytial virus, hepatitis C virus, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, and other RNA viruses, including SARS-CoV-2. In vitro studies have shown that SARS-CoV-2 is susceptible to 4'-fluorouridine, with the half-maximal effective concentration (EC 50 ) of 0.2 to 0.6 M, and that the 4′-fluorouridine derivative, 4′-fluorouridine-5′-triphosphate, inhibited RdRp via a mechanism distinct from that of the already approved COVID-19 oral drug, molnupiravir. In addition, an in vivo study revealed that SARS-CoV-2 is highly susceptible to 4'-fluorouridine and was effective with a single daily dose versus molnupiravir administered twice daily. Conclusions: : Concerns about the genetic effects of molnupiravir may be resolved by the use of 4′-fluorouridine and its derivative, which, unlike molnupiravir, do not alter genetics, but inhibit RdRp instead. Although they are currently considered as strong candidates, further studies are required to determine the antiviral activity of 4′-fluorouridine and its derivative against SARS-CoV-2 and their genetic effects on humans.

12.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 18(5): 2045853, 2022 Nov 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1730554

ABSTRACT

Multiple vaccines have recently been developed, and almost all the countries are presently vaccinating their population to tackle the COVID-19 pandemic. Most of the COVID-19 vaccines in use are administered via intramuscular (IM) injection, eliciting protective humor and cellular immunity. COVID-19 intranasal (IN) vaccines are also being developed that have shown promising ability to induce a significant amount of antibody-mediated immune response and a robust cell-mediated immunity as well as hold the added ability to stimulate protective mucosal immunity along with the additional advantage of the ease of administration as compared to IM injected vaccines. By inducing secretory IgA antibody responses specifically in the nasal compartment, the intranasal SARS-CoV-2 vaccine can prevent virus infection, replication, shedding, and disease development, as well as possibly limits virus transmission. This article highlights the current progress, advantages, prospects, and challenges in developing intranasal COVID-19 vaccines for countering the ongoing pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Administration, Intranasal , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 18(1): 2027197, 2022 12 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1722105

ABSTRACT

Several severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants have recently been reported in many countries. These have exacerbated the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-induced global health threats and hindered COVID-19 vaccine development and therapeutic progress. This commentary discusses the potential risk of the newly classified Mu variant of interest, seeming a highly vaccine-resistant variant, and the approaches that can be adopted to tackle this variant based on the available evidence. The SARS-CoV-2 B.1.621 (Mu variant) lineage has shown approximately ten times higher resistance to neutralizing sera obtained from COVID-19 survivors or BNT161b2-vaccinated people than the parenteral B.1 lineage. Several urgent and long-term strategic plans, including quick genomic surveillance for uncovering the genetic characteristics of the variants, equitable global mass vaccination, booster dose administration if required, and strict implementation of public health measures or non-pharmaceutical interventions, must be undertaken concertedly to restrict further infections, mutations, or recombination of the SARS-CoV-2 virus and its deadly strains.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Genomics , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
14.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 11(2)2022 Feb 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1709582

ABSTRACT

In addition to the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2, bacterial co-infection plays an essential role in the incidence and progression of SARS-CoV-2 infections by increasing the severity of infection, as well as increasing disease symptoms, death rate and antimicrobial resistance (AMR). The current study was conducted in a tertiary-care hospital in Lahore, Pakistan, among hospitalized COVID-19 patients to see the prevalence of bacterial co-infections and the AMR rates among different isolated bacteria. Clinical samples for the laboratory diagnosis were collected from 1165 hospitalized COVID-19 patients, of which 423 were found to be positive for various bacterial infections. Most of the isolated bacteria were Gram-negative rods (n = 366), followed by Gram-positive cocci (n = 57). A significant association (p < 0.05) was noted between the hospitalized COVID-19 patients and bacterial co-infections. Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) showed high resistance against tetracycline (61.7%), Streptococcus pyogenes against penicillin (100%), E. coli against Amp-clavulanic acid (88.72%), Klebsiella pneumoniae against ampicillin (100%), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa against ciprofloxacin (75.40%). Acinetobacter baumannii was 100% resistant to the majority of tested antibiotics. The prevalence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was 14.7%. The topmost symptoms of >50% of COVID-19 patients were fever, fatigue, dyspnea and chest pain with a significant association (p < 0.05) in bacterial co-infected patients. The current study results showed a comparatively high prevalence of AMR, which may become a severe health-related issue in the future. Therefore, strict compliance of antibiotic usage and employment of antibiotic stewardship programs at every public or private institutional level are recommended.

15.
J Infect Public Health ; 15(4): 389-394, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1683344

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Prior to the availability of the current COVID-19 vaccine, the need to control the pandemic worldwide was focused on management of the disease using previously approved antivirals, including Favipiravir which inhibits viral replication through the RNA dependent RNA polymerase enzyme. Favipiravir's efficacy against different viral infections has made it a potential treatment for COVID-19. We are aiming in this study to assess the therapeutic efficacy and safety of Favipiravir in treating critically ill patients admitted with COVID-19 to Intensive Care Units (ICUs). METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study was conducted in five tertiary hospitals in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The studied sample was randomized from a huge pool of data collected primarily for critically ill COVID-19 patients admitted to (ICUs) during the period between April 2020 to March 2021. Two groups of patients matched 1: 1 for age and body mass index (BMI) was enrolled in the study; one group received Favipiravir and another comparison group received other antimicrobial medications, not including Favipiravir. RESULTS: A total data of 538 COVID-19 patients were analyzed, 269 (50.%) received Favipiravir and 269 (50%) the control group received different treatments. More than two-thirds 201 (74.7%) were Saudi citizens, the majority 177 (65.8%) were males and the mean age and (BMI) were; (57.23 ± 15.16) years and (31.61 ± 7.33) kg/m2 respectively. The most frequent symptoms of presentation were shortness of breath (SOB), fever, and cough, and the most frequent comorbidity was diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and ischemic heart disease. In the supplemental therapy, corticosteroid, tocilizumab and chloroquine were statistically significant (P = 0.001) when combined in the FVP group more than in the comparison group. Severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) was more frequent among Favipiravir group, while the overall mortality rate among the Favipiravir group was not statistically significant (p-value 0.4). CONCLUSION: According to the study's results revealing FVP is not superior to other antivirals, patients who received Favipiravir presented with more severe symptoms, more comorbidities, more complications, and is not effective in controlling the cytokine storm which negatively impact the efficacy of Favipiravir. FVP therapy had no influence on ICU and hospital length of stay in comparison with the control group as well as in the overall mortality rate among the FVP group was not statistically significant. further research is needed to understand how FVP along with other treatments can improve the length of stay among COVID-19 patients admitted to the ICU.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Amides , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines , Critical Illness , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Pyrazines , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology
16.
Diabetol Metab Syndr ; 13(1): 120, 2021 Oct 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1629643

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: One possible reason for increased mortality due to SARS-CoV-2 in patients with diabetes is from the complication of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). OBJECTIVES: To re-evaluate the association of SARS-CoV-2 and development of DKA and analyse the demographic and biochemical parameters and the clinical outcomes in COVID-19 patients with DKA. DESIGN: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement was followed. METHODS: Electronic databases (Proquest, Medline, Embase, Pubmed, CINAHL, Wiley online library, Scopus and Nature) were searched from 1 December 2019 to 30 June 2021 in the English language using the following keywords alone or in combination: COVID-19 OR SARS-CoV-2 AND diabetic ketoacidosis OR DKA OR ketosis OR ketonemia OR hyperglycaemic emergency OR hyperglycaemic crisis. We included studies in adults and children of all ages in all healthcare settings. Binary logistic regression model was used to explore the effect of various demographic and biochemical parameters variables on patient's final treatment outcome (survival or death). RESULTS: Of the 484 papers that were identified, 68 articles were included in the systematic review and meta-analysis (54 case report, 10 case series, and 4 cohort studies). Studies involving 639 DKA patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 [46 (7.2%) were children and 334 (52.3%) were adults] were analyzed. The median or mean patient age ranged from < 1 years to 66 years across studies. Most of the patients (n = 309, 48.3%) had pre-existing type 2 diabetes mellitus. The majority of the patients were male (n = 373, 58.4%) and belonged to Hispanic (n = 156, 24.4%) and black (n = 98, 15.3%) ethnicity. The median random blood glucose level, HbA1c, pH, bicarbonate, and anion gap in all included patients at presentation were 507 mg/dl [IQR 399-638 mg/dl], 11.4% [IQR 9.9-13.5%], 7.16 [IQR 7.00-7.22], 10 mmol/l [IQR 6.9-13 mmol/l], and 24.5 mEq/l [18-29.2 mEq/l]; respectively. Mortality rate was [63/243, 25.9%], with a majority of death in patients of Hispanic ethnicity (n = 17, 27%; p = 0.001). The odd ratios of death were significantly high in patients with pre-existing diabetes mellitus type 2 [OR 5.24, 95% CI 2.07-15.19; p = 0.001], old age (≥ 60 years) [OR 3.29, 95% CI 1.38-7.91; p = 0.007], and male gender [OR 2.61, 95% CI 1.37-5.17; p = 0.004] compared to those who survived. CONCLUSION: DKA is not uncommon in SARS-CoV-2 patients with diabetes mellitus and results in a mortality rate of 25.9%. Mortality key determinants in DKA patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection are individuals with pre-existing diabetes mellitus type 2, older age [≥ 60 years old], male gender, BMI ≥ 30, blood glucose level > 1000 mg/dl, and anion gap ≥ 30 mEq/l.

17.
Infez Med ; 29(4): 495-503, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1579089

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: To date, only corticosteroids and interleukin-6 (IL-6) inhibitors have been shown to reduce mortality of hospitalized patients with COVID-19. In this literature review, we aimed to summarize infection risk of IL inhibitors, with or without the use of corticosteroids, used to treat hospitalized patients with COVID-19. METHODS: A literature search was conducted using the following evidence-based medicine reviews: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials; Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews; Embase; Ovid Medline; and Epub Ahead of Print, In-Process, In-Data-Review & Other Non-Indexed Citations, Daily and Versions 1946 to April 28, 2021. All relevant articles were identified using the search terms COVID-19 or SARS-coronavirus-2, infections, interleukins, inpatients, adults, and i ncidence. RESULTS: We identified 36 studies of which 2 were meta-analyses, 5 were randomized controlled trials, 9 were prospective studies, and 20 were retrospective studies. When anakinra was compared with control, 2 studies reported an increased risk of infection, and 3 studies reported a similar or decreased incidence of infection. Canakinumab had a lower associated incidence of infection compared with placebo in one study. When sarilumab was compared with placebo, one study reported an increased risk of infection. Nine studies comparing tocilizumab with placebo reported decreased or no difference in infection risk (odds ratio [OR] for the studies ranged from 0.39-1.21). Fourteen studies comparing tocilizumab with placebo reported an increased risk of infection, ranging from 9.1% to 63.0% (OR for the studies ranged from 1.85-5.04). Infection most commonly presented as bacteremia. Of the 6 studies comparing tocilizumab and corticosteroid use with placebo, 4 reported a nonsignificant increase toward corticosteroids being associated with bacterial infections (OR ranged from 2.76-3.8), and 2 studies reported no increased association with a higher infection risk. CONCLUSIONS: Our literature review showed mixed results with variable significance for the association of IL-6 inhibitors with risk of infections in patients with COVID-19.

18.
Eur J Med Res ; 26(1): 141, 2021 Dec 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566531

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has been used as a rescue strategy in patients with severe with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) due to SARS-CoV-2 infection, but there has been little evidence of its efficacy. OBJECTIVES: To describe the effect of ECMO rescue therapy on patient-important outcomes in patients with severe SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: A case series study was conducted for the laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 patients who were admitted to the ICUs of 22 Saudi hospitals, between March 1, 2020, and October 30, 2020, by reviewing patient's medical records prospectively. RESULTS: ECMO use was associated with higher in-hospital mortality (40.2% vs. 48.9%; p = 0.000); lower COVID-19 virological cure (41.3% vs 14.1%, p = 0.000); and longer hospitalization (20.2 days vs 29.1 days; p = 0.000), ICU stay (12.6 vs 26 days; p = 0.000) and mechanical ventilation use (14.2 days vs 22.4 days; p = 0.000) compared to non-ECMO group. Also, there was a high number of patients with septic shock (19.6%) and multiple organ failure (10.9%); and more complications occurred at any time during hospitalization [pneumothorax (5% vs 29.3%, p = 0.000), bleeding requiring blood transfusion (7.1% vs 38%, p = 0.000), pulmonary embolism (6.4% vs 15.2%, p = 0.016), and gastrointestinal bleeding (3.3% vs 8.7%, p = 0.017)] in the ECMO group. However, PaO2 was significantly higher in the 72-h post-ECMO initiation group and PCO2 was significantly lower in the 72-h post-ECMO start group than those in the 12-h pre-ECMO group (62.9 vs. 70 mmHg, p = 0.002 and 61.8 vs. 51 mmHg, p = 0.042, respectively). CONCLUSION: Following the use of ECMO, the mortality rate of patients and length of ICU and hospital stay were not improved. However, these findings need to be carefully interpreted, as most of our cohort patients were relatively old and had multiple severe comorbidities. Future randomized trials, although challenging to conduct, are highly needed to confirm or dispute reported observations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Critical Illness , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Respiration, Artificial , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Temperature , Young Adult
19.
Allergy Asthma Clin Immunol ; 17(1): 109, 2021 Oct 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468077

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Currently there is no systematic review and meta-analysis of the global incidence rates of anaphylactic and nonanaphylactic reactions to SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in the general adult population. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the incidence rates of anaphylactic and nonanaphylactic reactions after COVID-19 vaccines and describe the demographic and clinical characteristics, triggers, presenting signs and symptoms, treatment and clinical course of confirmed cases. DESIGN: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses [PRISMA] statement was followed. METHODS: Electronic databases (Proquest, Medline, Embase, Pubmed, CINAHL, Wiley online library, and Nature) were searched from 1 December 2020 to 31 May 2021 in the English language using the following keywords alone or in combination: anaphylaxis, non-anaphylaxis, anaphylactic reaction, nonanaphylactic reaction, anaphylactic/anaphylactoid shock, hypersensitivity, allergy reaction, allergic reaction, immunology reaction, immunologic reaction, angioedema, loss of consciousness, generalized erythema, urticaria, urticarial rash, cyanosis, grunting, stridor, tachypnoea, wheezing, tachycardia, abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting and tryptase. We included studies in adults of all ages in all healthcare settings. Effect sizes of prevalence were pooled with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). To minimize heterogeneity, we performed sub-group analyses. RESULTS: Of the 1,734 papers that were identified, 26 articles were included in the systematic review (8 case report, 5 cohort, 4 case series, 2 randomized controlled trial and 1 randomized cross-sectional studies) and 14 articles (1 cohort, 2 case series, 1 randomized controlled trial and 1 randomized cross-sectional studies) were included in meta-analysis. Studies involving 26,337,421 vaccine recipients [Pfizer-BioNTech (n = 14,505,399) and Moderna (n = 11,831,488)] were analyzed. The overall pooled prevalence estimate of anaphylaxis to both vaccines was 5.0 (95% CI 2.9 to 7.2, I2 = 81%, p = < 0.0001), while the overall pooled prevalence estimate of nonanaphylactic reactions to both vaccines was 53.9 (95% CI 0.0 to 116.1, I2 = 99%, p = < 0.0001). Vaccination with Pfizer-BioNTech resulted in higher anaphylactic reactions compared to Moderna (8.0, 95% CI 0.0 to 11.3, I2 = 85% versus 2.8, 95% CI 0.0 to 5.7, I2 = 59%). However, lower incidence of nonanaphylactic reactions was associated with Pfizer-BioNTech compared to Moderna (43.9, 95% CI 0.0 to 131.9, I2 = 99% versus 63.8, 95% CI 0.0 to 151.8, I2 = 98%). The funnel plots for possible publication bias for the pooled effect sizes to determine the incidence of anaphylaxis and nonanaphylactic reactions associated with mRNA COVID-19 immunization based on mRNA vaccine type appeared asymmetrical on visual inspection, and Egger's tests confirmed asymmetry by producing p values < 0.05. Across the included studies, the most commonly identified risk factors for anaphylactic and nonanaphylactic reactions to SARS-CoV-2 vaccines were female sex and personal history of atopy. The key triggers to anaphylactic and nonanaphylactic reactions identified in these studies included foods, medications, stinging insects or jellyfish, contrast media, cosmetics and detergents, household products, and latex. Previous history of anaphylaxis; and comorbidities such as asthma, allergic rhinitis, atopic and contact eczema/dermatitis and psoriasis and cholinergic urticaria were also found to be important. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of COVID-19 mRNA vaccine-associated anaphylaxis is very low; and nonanaphylactic reactions occur at higher rate, however, cutaneous reactions are largely self-limited. Both anaphylactic and nonanaphylactic reactions should not discourage vaccination.

20.
Infez Med ; 29(3): 339-344, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1469049

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic affected the lives of many with its devastating mortality and morbidity. Acquisition of herd immunity is one way to mitigate the spread of infection. Many factors influence the acceptance of vaccination including the regulatory process of the vaccines. This review article will briefly summarize the Emergency Use Authorization, Full FDA Approval process and highlight how the key factors affecting the vaccination hesitancy, are being influenced by the lack of Full FDA Approval.

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