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1.
Ann Med Surg (Lond) ; : 103164, 2021 Dec 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556977

ABSTRACT

Introduction and importance: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a recently discovered disease that has yet to be thoroughly described. It is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a novel virus that can be transmitted easily from human to human, mainly by the respiratory route. The disease often presents with non-specific symptoms such as fever, headache, and fatigue, accompanied by respiratory symptoms (e.g., cough and dyspnea) and other systemic involvement. Currently, vaccination is the primary strategy to prevent transmission and reduce disease severity. However, vaccines have side effects, and the consequences of vaccination in different diseases are not well established. Moreover, the impact of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination during pregnancy is another not well-known area. Case presentation: We present a young lady known to have ITP, which was controlled for years, presented with relapse after taking the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine during pregnancy. Clinical discussion: The patient had a relapse of ITP after the introduction of the first dose of the COVID-19 vaccine, which worsened further after the second dose. This suggests that patients with ITP who develop flare post-SARS-CoV-2 vaccine should have their second dose delayed, particularly if pregnant. Conclusion: To avoid further deterioration in platelet count, and avoid confusion due to the presence of different causes of thrombocytopenia and avoid complications related to thrombocytopenia during pregnancy which can affect the mode of delivery. The case is reported in line with the scare 2020 criteria: Agha RA, Franchi T, Sohrabi C, Mathew G, for the SCARE Group. The SCARE 2020 Guideline: Updating Consensus Surgical CAse REport (SCARE) Guidelines, International Journal of Surgery 2020; 84:226-230.

2.
IDCases ; 26: e01344, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1540648

ABSTRACT

Immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is a blood disorder in which antibodies coating platelets cause platelets destruction in the spleen with resultant low platelets count and an increased tendency for bleeding. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an illness caused by SARS-COV2; it was first identified in December/2019; though it mainly affects the respiratory system, multisystemic complications are identified. Several ITP cases post mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccines were reported, and different pathophysiology theories about the underlying pathophysiology were discussed, but only a few ITP relapse cases have been reported so far. We present a 28-year-old Asian male, a known patient of ITP and in partial remission for eighteen months, who presented to the emergency department with ITP relapse (platelets count of 1 × 10^3 /µL), four days after receiving the second dose of Pfizer SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, which required treatment with intravenous immunoglobulins and dexamethasone. We further discuss the preferred approach in ITP patients who are willing to receive the COVID-19 vaccine.

3.
Hematology, Transfusion and Cell Therapy ; 43:S22-S22, 2021.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-1509816
4.
Clin Case Rep ; 9(7): e04568, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384135

ABSTRACT

Guttate psoriasis is a rare dermatological presentation of SARS-CoV-2 infection and is seen mainly in patients with an underlying disease psoriasis.

5.
Acta Biomed ; 91(4): e2020165, 2020 11 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1059616

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Eosinophils can be considered as multifunctional leukocytes that contribute to various physiological and pathological processes depending on their location and activation status. There are emerging eosinophil-related considerations concerning COVID-19. Variable eosinophil counts have been reported during COVID-19. Whether these changes are related to the primary disease process or due to immunomodulation induced by the treatment has not yet been elucidated. AIM OF THE STUDY: To describe changes in the differential leukocyte counts including eosinophils, in a cohort of symptomatic patients with confirmed COVID-19 and to correlate these changes, if any, with the severity of the disease. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We recorded the clinical data, lab findings, including inflammatory markers and leukocyte and differential count, course of the disease and severity score in 314 confirmed symptomatic cases of COVID-19. RESULTS: Laboratory tests revealed that 28.7 % (n =86) had mild eosinophilia (eosinophil count > 500 <1,500/µL). Thirty-four patients (11.3%) had elevated absolute neutrophil count (ANC) (>8,000/µL), and 7 (2.3%) had decreased ANC (< 1,500/µl). Seven patients (2.3%) had lymphopenia (<1,000/µL) and 4 (4.67%) had lymphocytosis (> 4,000/µL). C-reactive protein (CRP) was elevated in 83 patients (27.6%). Chest X-Ray changes included: increased broncho vascular markings (38%), ground-glass opacity (GGO) pneumonitis (19.3%), lobar consolidation (5%), bronchopneumonia (8.3%), nodular opacity (1%), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (2.3%), pleural effusion (1.0%) and other atypical findings (6.6%). Patients with eosinophilia had significantly lower CRP, and lower % of GGO, lobar and bronchopneumonia and ARDS in their chest images compared to patients without eosinophilia (p: <0.05). They also had a lower requirement for a hospital stay, ICU admission, mechanical ventilation, and oxygen supplementation versus patients without eosinophilia (p: <0.05). The eosinophils count was correlated negatively with the duration of ICU admission, mechanical ventilation, and oxygen supplementation and with CRP level (r: - 0.34, -0.32, -0.61 and - 0.39, respectively) (p: < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Our study reports a relatively high prevalence of eosinophilia in symptomatic COVID-19 positive patients. Patients with eosinophilia had a lower level of CRP, milder clinical course and better disease outcomes compared to those without eosinophilia. Our findings indicated a protective role of eosinophils in mitigating the severity of inflammatory diseases through an inhibitory mechanism, as evidenced by lower CRP. This protective role of eosinophils needs to be validated by further prospective studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Eosinophilia/complications , Adult , COVID-19/blood , Eosinophilia/blood , Eosinophils , Female , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Research Design , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index
6.
Clin Case Rep ; 9(3): 1202-1206, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1014015

ABSTRACT

Severe COVID-19 infection is associated with significant stress and marked immune response that can affect many organs and precipitate DKA, pancreatitis, and acute renal injury, which might be permanent.

7.
Am J Case Rep ; 21: e926062, 2020 Oct 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-887700

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND COVID-19 is a newly emerging disease that is not yet fully understood. It is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a novel virus that is easily transmitted from human to human through the respiratory route. Usually, it presents with fever, headache, fatigue accompanied by respiratory symptoms like cough and dyspnea, and other systemic involvements. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a common lymphoproliferative neoplasm characterized by absolute lymphocytosis and demonstration of clonality unlike other causes of lymphocytosis. Patients with CLL are considered immunocompromised because of impaired humoral immunity (mainly) and cellular immunity. Therefore, they are vulnerable to various infections including COVID-19. Little is known about the COVID-19 infection when it unmasks CLL. CASE REPORT A 49-year-old man with no significant previous illnesses, and an unremarkable family history, presented with a moderate COVID-19 infection. He initially presented to the emergency department with fever and mild shortness of breath. A complete blood count showed a high white blood cell count with absolute lymphocytosis. Flow cytometry revealed the clonality of the lymphocytes confirming the diagnosis of CLL. Despite having CLL, he developed a moderate COVID-19 infection and recovered in a few days. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of CLL, which presented with a COVID-19 infection as the initial presentation. CONCLUSIONS Lymphocytosis is an unexpected finding in patients diagnosed with COVID-19 infection and the elevated lymphocytes may be indicative of other conditions. Secondary causes of lymphocytosis like malignancy or other infections should be considered in these cases.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Immunocompromised Host , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Humans , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/diagnosis , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Am J Case Rep ; 21: e925932, 2020 Oct 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-854650

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a newly emerging disease that is still not fully characterized. It is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a novel virus that can be transmitted easily from human to human mainly by the respiratory route. Currently, there is no specific treatment for COVID-19 or a vaccine for prevention. The disease has various degrees of severity. It often presents with nonspecific symptoms such as fever, headache, and fatigue, accompanied by respiratory symptoms (e.g., cough and dyspnea) and other systemic involvement. Severe disease is associated with hemophagocytic syndrome and cytokine storm due to altered immune response. Patients with severe disease are more likely to have increased liver enzymes. The disease can affect the liver through various mechanisms. CASE REPORT We report an unusual case of SARS-CoV-2 infection in a 24-year-old man with no previous medical illness, who presented with mild respiratory involvement. He had no serious lung injury during the disease course. However, he experienced acute fulminant hepatitis B infection and cytokine release syndrome that led to multiorgan failure and death. CONCLUSIONS It is uncommon for SARS-CoV-2 infection with mild respiratory symptoms to result in severe systemic disease and organ failure. We report an unusual case of acute hepatitis B infection with concomitant SARS-CoV-2 leading to fulminant hepatitis, multiorgan failure, and death.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Hepatitis B virus , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Liver Failure, Acute/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Humans , Liver Failure, Acute/diagnosis , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
9.
Acta Biomed ; 91(3): e2020010, 2020 09 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-761250

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is a scarcity of data regarding the effect of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and associated comorbidities on the clinical presentation and outcome of symptomatic patients with -COVID-19 infection in comparison with non-diabetic patients. AIM OF THE STUDY: We described and compared the clinical presentation and radiological and hematological data of a cohort of symptomatic COVID19 positive T2DM diabetic patients (n = 59) versus another cohort of non-diabetic symptomatic COVID19 positive patients (n =244) diagnosed at the same time from January 2020 to May 2020. Associated comorbidities were -assessed, and the Charlson Comorbidity Index was calculated. The outcomes including duration of hospitalization, duration of Intensive Care Unit (ICU) stay, duration of mechanical ventilation, and duration of O2 -supplementation were assessed. RESULTS: Prevalence of T2DM in symptomatic COVID19 positive patients was 59/303 (=19.5%).  Diabetic patients had higher prevalence of hypertension, chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cardiac dysfunction [coronary heart disease (CHD)], and congestive heart failure (CHF). Charlson Comorbidity score was significantly higher in the T2DM patients (2.4± 1.6) versus the non-diabetic -patients (0.28 ± 0.8; p: < 0.001). Clinically and radiologically, T2DM patients had significantly higher percentage of pneumonia, severe pneumonia and ARDS versus the non-diabetic patients. Hematologically, diabetic patients had significantly higher C-reactive protein (CRP), higher absolute neutrophilic count (ANC) and lower counts of lymphocytes and eosinophils compared to non-diabetic patients. They had significantly higher systolic and diastolic blood pressures, longer duration of hospitalization, ICU stay, mechanical ventilation and oxygen therapy. CRP was correlated significantly with the duration of stay in the ICU and the duration for oxygen supplementation (r = 0.37 and 0.42 respectively; p: <0.01). CONCLUSIONS: T2DM patients showed higher inflammatory response to COVID 19 with higher absolute neutrophilic count (ANC) and CRP with lower lymphocytic and eosinophilic counts. Diabetic patients had more comorbidities and more aggressive course of the disease with higher rate of ICU admission and longer need for hospitalization and oxygen use.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Intensive Care Units , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adult , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Hospitalization/trends , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Prevalence , Qatar/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
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