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1.
Crystals ; 12(4):460, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1809753

ABSTRACT

Taif rose (Rosa damascena Mill) is one of the most important economic products of the Taif Governorate, Saudi Arabia. Cadmium chloride (CdCl2) is a common environmental pollutant that is widely used in industries and essentially induces many toxicities, including hepatotoxicity. In this study, the major compounds in the waste of Taif rose extract (WTR) were identified and chemically and biologically evaluated. GC–MS analysis of WTR indicated the presence of many saturated fatty acids, vitamin E, triterpene, dicarboxylic acid, terpene, linoleic acid, diterpenoid, monoterpenoid, flavonoids, phenylpyrazoles, and calcifediol (vitamin D derivative). The assessment of potential anticancer activity against HepG2 cells proved that WTR had a high cell killing effect with IC50 of 100–150 µg/mL. In addition, WTR successfully induced high cell cycle arrest at G0/G1, S, and G2 phases, significant apoptosis, necrosis, and increased autophagic cell death response in the HepG2 line. For the evaluation of its anti-CdCl2 toxicity, 32 male rats were allocated to four groups: control, CdCl2, WTR, and CdCl2 plus WTR. Hepatic functions and antioxidant biomarkers (SOD, CAT, GRx, GPx, and MDA) were examined. Histological changes and TEM variations in the liver were also investigated to indicate liver status. The results proved that WTR alleviated CdCl2 hepatotoxicity by improving all hepatic vitality markers. In conclusion, WTR could be used as a preventive and therapeutic natural agent for the inhibition of hepatic diseases and the improvement of redox status. Additional in vitro and in vivo studies are warranted.

2.
Environ Res ; 204(Pt B): 112107, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1433213

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic lockdown supposedly provided a 'window' of reinstatement to natural resources including the air quality, but the scenario after the phased unlocking is yet to be explored. Consequently, here we evaluated the status of air quality during the 8th phase of unlocking of COVID-19 lockdown (January 2021) at three locations of North India. The first site (S1) was located at Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-PPCB; the second site (S2) at Yamunapuram, Bulandshahr-UPPCB; and the third site (S3) at Okhla Phase-2, Delhi-DPCC. The levels of PM2.5 showed a significant increase of 525.2%, 281.2%, and 185.0% at sites S1, S2 and S3, respectively in the unlock 8 (January 2021), in comparison to its concentration in the lockdown phase. Coherently, the levels of PM10 also showed a prominent increase of 284.5%, 189.1%, and 103.9% at sites S3, S1, and S2, respectively during the unlock 8 as compared to its concentration in the lockdown phase. This rise in the concentration of PM2.5 and PM10 could be primarily attributed to the use of biomass fuel, industrial and vehicular emissions, stubble burning considering the agricultural activities at sites S1 and S2. Site S3 is a major industrial hub and has the highest population density among all three sites. Consequently, the maximum increase (295.7%) in the NO2 levels during the unlock 8 was witnessed at site S3. The strong correlation between PM2.5, PM10, and CO, along with the PM2.5/PM10 ratio confirmed the similar origin of these pollutants at all the three sites. The improvements in the levels of air quality during the COVID-19 lockdown were major overtaken during the various phases of unlocking consequent to the initiation of anthropogenic processes.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Cities , Communicable Disease Control , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , India , Pandemics , Particulate Matter/analysis , SARS-CoV-2
3.
PeerJ ; 9: e11592, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1270240

ABSTRACT

Rice is the world's largest food crop, and its production needs to be doubled by 2050 to cope with population growth and associated demand. In addition to the value of improving yields, quality is also important for breeders and consumers, but it pays less attention in arid regions. During two successive summer growing seasons, the experimental material focused on 34 genotypes developed from different crosses on Fn generation after fixation as well as six of the most recent commercial cultivars used for comparisons. The results showed that a high yield of grain followed by high milling and grain quality characteristics were observed among the 34 genotypes used in this analysis. Highly important and positive correlations between the percentage of hulling and the percentage of milling (0.424) and the yield ability could be accomplished by choosing the number of panicles per plant and the weight of the panicles. Selection criteria for good quality should be met by the percentage of head rice and many mineral elements, particularly zinc and iron. As a consequence, the genotypes M.J 5460S/SK105-1, M.J 5460S/GZ7768-1, M.J 5460S/G177-1, M.J 5460S/SK105-3 and M.J 5460S/SK106-4 had desirable high yield and quality characteristics and could be used as promising accessions to the rice breeding program in arid regions. In addition to commercial genotypes, improved Japonica rice genotypes could be produced in arid conditions for higher yield and quality, leading to an increase in total production, supporting food security and nutrition.

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