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1.
Public Health Rep ; : 333549221116361, 2022 Aug 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2020749

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Exposure notification (EN) supplements traditional contact tracing by using proximity sensors in smartphones to record close contact between persons. This ledger is used to alert persons of potential SARS-CoV-2 exposure, so they can quarantine until their infection status is determined. We describe a model that estimates the impact of EN implementation on reducing the spread of SARS-CoV-2 and on the workload of public health officials, in combination with other key public health interventions such as traditional contact tracing, face mask wearing, and testing. METHODS: We created an agent-based model, Simulated Automated Exposure Notification (SimAEN), to explore the effectiveness of EN to slow the spread of SARS-CoV-2. We varied selected simulation variables, such as population adoption of EN and EN detector sensitivity configurations, to illustrate the potential effects of EN. We executed 20 simulations with SimAEN for each scenario and derived results for each simulation. RESULTS: When more sensitive versus more specific EN configurations were compared, the effective reproductive number, RE, was minimally affected (a decrease <0.03). For scenarios with increasing levels of EN adoption, an increasing number of additional infected persons were identified through EN, and total infection counts in the simulated population decreased; RE values for this scenario decreased with increasing EN adoption (a decrease of 0.1 to 0.2 depending on the scenario). CONCLUSIONS: Estimates from SimAEN can help public health officials determine which levels of EN adoption in combination with other public health interventions can maximize prevention of COVID-19 while minimizing unnecessary quarantine in their jurisdiction.

2.
Public Health Rep ; : 333549221116136, 2022 Aug 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2020748

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, public health agencies implemented an array of technologies and digital tools to support case investigation and contact tracing. Beginning in May 2020, the Association of State and Territorial Health Officials compiled information on digital tools used by its membership, which comprises 59 chief health officials from each of the 50 states, 5 US territories, 3 freely associated states, and the District of Columbia. This information was presented online through a publicly available technology and digital tools inventory. We describe the national landscape of digital tools implemented by public health agencies to support functions of the COVID-19 response from May 2020 through May 2021. We also discuss how public health officials and their informatics leadership referenced the information about the digital tools implemented by their peers to guide and refine their own implementation plans. We used a consensus-based approach through monthly discussions with partners to group digital tools into 5 categories: surveillance systems, case investigation, proximity technology/exposure notification, contact tracing, and symptom tracking/monitoring. The most commonly used tools included the National Electronic Disease Surveillance System Base System (NBS), Sara Alert, REDCap, and Maven. Some tools such as NBS, Sara Alert, REDCap, Salesforce, and Microsoft Dynamics were repurposed or adapted for >1 category. Having access to the publicly available technology and digital tools inventory provided public health officials and their informatics leadership with information on what tools other public health agencies were using and aided in decision making as they considered repurposing existing tools or adopting new ones.

3.
Frontiers in medicine ; 9, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1939839

ABSTRACT

Objective This study aimed to detect possible associations between lung computed tomography (CT) findings in COVID-19 and patients' age, body weight, vital signs, and medical regimen in Jordan. Methods The present cross-sectional study enrolled 230 patients who tested positive for COVID-19 in Prince Hamza Hospital in Jordan. Demographic data, as well as major lung CT scan findings, were obtained from the hospital records of the COVID-19 patients. Results The main observed major lung changes among the enrolled COVID-19 patients included ground-glass opacification in 47 (20.4%) patients and consolidation in 22 (9.6%) patients. A higher percentage of patients with major lung changes (24%) was observed among patients above 60 years old, while (50%) of patients with no changes in their lung findings were in the age group of 18–29 years old. Results obtained from the present study showed that only patients with major CT lung changes (9.7%) were prescribed more than three antibiotics. Additionally, 41.6 % of patients with major lung CT scan changes had either dry (31.0%) or productive (10.6%) cough at admission. Conclusion Several factors have been identified by this study for their ability to predict lung changes. Early assessment of these predictors could help provide a prompt intervention that may enhance health outcomes and reduce the risk for further lung changes.

5.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-305136

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 spread quickly in Jordan in the past few months. Many changes have been observed in lungs of COVID-19 patients which required their hospitalization. So far, many studies have been conducted on the epidemiological features of COVID-19 illness;however, the evidence regarding the pathological influence on lungs is still lacking. Therefore, the main aim of the present study was to detect the possible association between lung computed tomography (CT) findings in COVID-19 and patients' age, body weight, vital sings, and medical regimen. The present cross-sectional study enrolled 230 COVID-19 patients in Prince Hamza Hospital in Jordan. Demographic data as well as major lung CT scan changes were obtained from the hospital records of the COVID-19 patients. The main observed major lung changes among the enrolled COVID-19 patients included ground glass opacification in 47(15.2%) patients and consolidation in 22(7.1%) patients. The higher percentage of patients with major lung changes (24%) was observed among patients above 60 years old, while (50%) of patients with no changes in their lung’s findings in the age group of 18-29 years old. Results obtained from the present study showed that only patients with major CT lung changes (9.7%) were prescribed more than three antibiotics. Additionally, 41.6 % patients with major lung CT scan changes had either dry (31.0%) or productive (10.6%) cough at the admission. Several predictors of lung CT scan changes have been detected in this study including age, BMI, medications, severity of symptoms, and cough at admission.

6.
Eur Heart J Case Rep ; 5(10): ytab397, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1483427

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Due to the current Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, there is a realization for innovation in procedures and protocols to minimize hospital stay and at the same time ensure continued evidence-based treatment delivered to the patients. We present a same-day discharge protocol for transcatheter mitral valve repair (TMVR) using MitraClip under general anaesthesia in a six-patient case series. This protocol aims to reduce the length of hospital stay, thereby minimizing potential for nosocomial COVID-19 infections and to promote safe discharge with cautious follow-up. CASE SUMMARY: Six patients with severe symptomatic mitral valve (MV) regurgitation underwent successful transfemoral MV repair using standard procedures. Following repair, patients were monitored on telemetry in the recovery area for 3 h, ambulated to assess vascular access stability and underwent post-procedural transthoracic echocardiogram to assess for any pericardial effusion or post-procedural prosthetic mitral stenosis. CONCLUSION: Same-day discharge after TMVR is possible when done cautiously with close follow-up, can minimize hospital stay, improve resource utilization, and reduce risk of nosocomial COVID-19 infection.

7.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 22(3): 498-503, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1099168

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Effective halting of outbreaks in skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) depends on the earliest recognition of cases. We assessed confirmed COVID-19 cases at an SNF impacted by COVID-19 in the United States to identify early indications of COVID-19 infection. METHODS: We performed retrospective reviews of electronic health records for residents with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 during February 28-March 16, 2020. Records were abstracted for comorbidities, signs and symptoms, and illness outcomes during the 2 weeks before and after the date of positive specimen collection. Relative risks (RRs) of hospitalization and death were calculated. RESULTS: Of the 118 residents tested among approximately 130 residents from Facility A during February 28-March 16, 2020, 101 (86%) were found to test positive for SARS-CoV-2. At initial presentation, about two-thirds of SARS-CoV-2-positive residents had an abnormal vital sign or change in oxygen status. Most (90.2%) symptomatic residents had elevated temperature, change in mental status, lethargy, change in oxygen status, or cough; 9 (11.0%) did not have fever, cough, or shortness of breath during their clinical course. Those with change in oxygen status had an increased relative risk (RR) of 30-day mortality [51.1% vs 29.7%, RR 1.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.0-3.0]. RR of hospitalization was higher for residents with underlying hepatic disease (1.6, 95% CI 1.1-2.2) or obesity (1.5, 95% CI 1.1-2.1); RR of death was not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Our findings reinforce the critical role that monitoring of signs and symptoms can have in identifying COVID-19 cases early. SNFs should ensure they have a systematic approach for responding to abnormal vital signs and oxygen saturation and consider ensuring common signs and symptoms identified in Facility A are among those they monitor.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Skilled Nursing Facilities , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19 Testing/methods , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Male , Medical Records , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , United States
8.
Eur Heart J Case Rep ; 5(2): ytaa556, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1026928

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in drastic changes to the practice of medicine, requiring healthcare systems to find solutions to reduce the risk of infection. Using a case series, we propose a protocol for same-day discharge (SDD) for selected patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) using real-time remote cardiac monitoring. Six patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis underwent TAVR and were discharged on the same day. CASE SUMMARY: Six patients with symptomatic severe native or bioprosthetic aortic valve stenosis underwent a successful transfemoral TAVR using standard procedures, including the use of rapid atrial pacing to assess the need for permanent pacemaker implantation. Following TAVR, patients were monitored on telemetry in the recovery area for 3 h, ambulated to assess vascular access stability, and discharged with real-time remote cardiac monitoring if no new conduction abnormality was observed. The patients were seen by tele-visits within 2 days and 2 weeks after discharge. DISCUSSION: Amidst the COVID-19 pandemic, SDD following successful transfemoral TAVR may be feasible for selected patients and reduce potential COVID-19 exposure.

9.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(45): 1671-1674, 2020 Nov 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-922981

ABSTRACT

In the United States, outbreaks of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), were initially reported in densely populated urban areas (1); however, outbreaks have since been reported in rural communities (2,3). Rural residents might be at higher risk for severe COVID-19-associated illness because, on average, they are older, have higher prevalences of underlying medical conditions, and have more limited access to health care services.* In May, after a cluster of seven COVID-19 cases was identified in a rural Ohio Amish community, access to testing was increased. Among 30 additional residents tested by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR; TaqPath COVID-19 Combo Kit),† 23 (77%) received positive test results for SARS-CoV-2. Rapid and sustained transmission of SARS-CoV-2 was associated with multiple social gatherings. Informant interviews revealed that community members were concerned about having to follow critical mitigation strategies, including social distancing§ and mask wearing.¶ To help reduce the ongoing transmission risk in a community, state and county health department staff members and community leaders need to work together to develop, deliver, and promote culturally responsive health education messages to prevent SARS-CoV-2 transmission and ensure that access to testing services is timely and convenient. Understanding the dynamics of close-knit communities is crucial to reducing SARS-CoV-2 transmission.


Subject(s)
Amish/psychology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Rural Population , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Amish/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 , Child , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Ohio/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Rural Population/statistics & numerical data , Social Behavior , Young Adult
10.
Rev Med Virol ; 31(4): e2190, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-917104

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has disrupted immunization programs around the globe, potentially increasing life-threatening vaccine-preventable diseases. Pakistan and Afghanistan are the only countries, which are still struggling to eradicate wild poliovirus. All vaccination campaigns in Pakistan were suspended in April due to the COVID-19 outbreak, leading 40 million children to miss out on polio vaccination. Like the climate crisis, the COVID-19 pandemic could be regarded as a child-rights crisis because it could have life-threatening impact over children, who need immunization, now and in the long-term. Delays in polio vaccination programs might not have immediate impact but, in the long-term, the increase in polio cases in Pakistan could result in the global export of infections. Therefore, healthcare authorities must intensify their efforts to track and vaccinate unvaccinated children in countries like Pakistan and Afghanistan. Polio vaccination campaigns need to resume immediately, so we suggest applying social distancing measures along with standard operating procedure to flatten the transmission curve of COVID-19. Furthermore, the concurrent emergence of cVDPV2 means that tOPV should temporarily be used for primary immunization. In the current review, we have discussed delays in polio vaccination, surveillance of polio viruses, reported cases in Pakistan along with recommendations to overcome interrupted immunization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Immunization Programs , Poliomyelitis/prevention & control , Poliovirus Vaccine, Oral/therapeutic use , Disease Eradication/organization & administration , Humans , Immunization Programs/organization & administration , Pakistan/epidemiology , Poliomyelitis/epidemiology
11.
Cureus ; 12(5): e8147, 2020 May 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-605644

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 has emerged in late 2019 infecting millions of people worldwide. Diabetes mellitus (DM) has been associated with severe illness and mortality mainly due to acute respiratory distress syndrome. We report a case of a middle-aged man with DM and COVID-19 who developed seizure and altered mental status, found to have diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), acute kidney injury, hypovolemic shock, and hyperammonemia all contributing to metabolic encephalopathy. He was admitted to the ICU and subsequently intubated for airway protection; with appropriate management his condition improved and was successfully extubated. The patient had no lung involvement throughout the illness. We report this case to highlight that COVID-19 can lead to multi-organ failure in patients with DM even in the absence of lung involvement which all physicians should be mindful of.

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