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1.
International journal of online and biomedical engineering ; 18(15):31-42, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2201283

ABSTRACT

Corona virus's correct and accurate diagnosis is the most important reason for contributing to the treatment of this disease. Radiography is one of the simplest methods to detect virus infection. In this research, a method has been proposed that can diagnose disease based on radiography (X-ray chest) and deep learning techniques. We conducted a comparative study by using three diagnosis models;the first one was developed by using traditional CNN, while the two others are our proposed models (second and third models). The proposed models can diagnose the COVID-19 infection, normal cases, lung opacity, and Viral Pneumonia according to the four categories in the covid19 radiography dataset. The transfer learning technology had used to increase the robustness and reliability of our model, also, data augmentation was used for reducing the overfitting and to increase the accuracy of the model by scaling rotation, zooming, and translation. The third model showed higher training accuracy of 93.18% compared to the two other models that are dependent on using traditional convolution neural networks with an accuracy of 70.28% of the first model, while the accuracy of the second model that uses data augmentation with traditional convolution neural is 90.1%, while the testing accuracy models was 68.27% for the first model, 87.55% for the second model, and 86.03% for the third model. © 2022,International journal of online and biomedical engineering. All Rights Reserved.

2.
Viruses ; 15(1):98, 2023.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-2166950

ABSTRACT

Following the cause established twenty-two years ago, the 22nd Annual Rocky Mountain Virology Association meeting was held amidst the resplendent Rocky Mountains within the Arapahoe and Roosevelt National Forests. 116 intellectuals including both regional and international scientists as well as trainees gathered at the Colorado State University Mountain Campus for this three-day forum. Current trends in virology and prion disease research were discussed both in talks and poster presentations. This year's keynote address emphasized innate immune modulation by arboviruses while other invited speakers shared updates on noroviruses, retroviruses, coronaviruses and prion diversity. Additionally, the need for and importance of better approaches for sharing science with non-science communities via science communication was discussed. Trainees and junior investigators presented 19 talks and 31 posters. This report encapsulates selected studies presented at the 22nd Rocky Mountain National Virology Association meeting held on 30 September-2 October 2022.

3.
BMJ Open ; 12(12), 2022.
Article in English | PubMed Central | ID: covidwho-2161857

ABSTRACT

Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the acceptance and uptake of COVID-19 vaccines in rural Bangladesh. Design: This was a cross-sectional study conducted between June and November 2021. Setting: This study was conducted in rural Bangladesh. Participants: People older than 18 years of age, not pregnant and no history of surgery for the last 3 months were eligible to participate. Primary and secondary outcomes: The primary outcomes were proportions of COVID-19 vaccine acceptance and roll-out participation among the rural population. The secondary outcome was identification of correlates which contributed to COVID-19 vaccine acceptance and roll-out participation. Χ2 tests and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to identify relevant correlates such as sociodemographic factors, clinical conditions and COVID-19-related factors. Results: A total of 1603 participants were enrolled. The overall COVID-19 vaccine acceptance was very high (1521/1601, 95%), and half of the participants received at least one dose of the COVID-19 vaccine. Majority of participants wanted to keep others safe (89%) and agreed to the benefits of COVID-19 vaccines (88%). To fulfil the requirement of online registration for the vaccine at the time, 62% of participants had to visit an internet café and only 31% downloaded the app. Over half (54%) of participants were unaware of countries they knew and trust to produce the COVID-19 vaccine. Increased age, being housewives, underweight and undergraduate education level were associated with vaccine acceptance, while being female, increased age and being overweight/obese were associated with vaccine uptake. Trust in the health department and practical knowledge regarding COVID-19 vaccines were positively associated with both vaccine acceptance and uptake. Conclusion: This study found a very high COVID-19 vaccine acceptance in rural Bangladesh. Policymakers should support interventions aimed at increasing vaccine and general health literacy and ensure ongoing vaccine supply and improvement of infrastructure in rural areas.

4.
4th International Conference on Materials Engineering and Science: Insight on the Current Research in Materials Engineering and Science ; 2660, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2133929

ABSTRACT

It is well established that HCQ has anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive, but it has stopped as treatment for Covid-19 because it affect increase heart rhythm. So this research aimed to demonstrate the effect of HCQ treatment on concentrations of plasma TNF-α and IL-6 in mice and its relationship with glucocorticoids level which could explain the arrhythmias. In this research, 30 adult male Balb/C mice were used. The mice aged 2-3months were divided into 3groups;one treated with high-dosage of HCQ (8.1mg/kg body-weight, twice for 10days);second with low-dosage (6.4mg/kg body-weight, twice on one day and once on other 4days);and third was left without treatment to be serve as a control group. At different points time, the mice were sacrificed by cervical distraction. A blood sample is taken from the eye and the serum is separated to determine cortisol level by cobas e411 analyzers. Brain, spleen, and kidney were taken and homogenized. Aliquot and serum were be used to determine TNF-α and IL-6 level by sandwich ELISA using murine IL-6 and TNF-α kits (Melsin/China). The results showed a significantly lower cortisol, IL-6, and TNF-α level in serum and tissues of both treated groups compared to control. The reduction of cytokines are believed to inhibit the HPA axis resulting in decrease glucocorticoids level which could be good prove of the interplay between immune and endocrine systems. So it is very important to check cortisol level during HCQ treatment and it is preferred to use a combined treatment between HCQ and glucocorticoid. © 2022 American Institute of Physics Inc.. All rights reserved.

5.
Journal of Pharmaceutical Negative Results ; 13:281-285, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2072519

ABSTRACT

Since its start spreed "Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2" was discovered in Wuhan, China.that is chargeable COVID-19, a pandemic virus, has end up a widespread fitness hassle everywhere in the global Over 2.1 million people have been affected. We analyze serum concentration of CD4 marker and CD8 marker depend in COVID-19 sufferers, and to make clear a relationship between these variables and disorder Progression and severity For those purpose, (158) sufferers with COVID-19 (showed with the aid of using polymerase chain reaction) and (22) seemingly wholesome human beings have been protected withinside the present day examine and taken into consideration as a manipulate group. All examine population (sufferers and manipulate) have been subjected to the assessment of serum awareness of CD4 marker and CD8 marker. COVID-19 sufferers displayed a huge elevation withinside the tiers of parameters protected on this examine while in comparison with wholesome controls. We additionally observed that concentration of CD4 and CD8 high in sever (CD4 5.68 +/- 0.16-CD8 961.74149.48 ) than critical (CD4 4.7610.14- CD8 880.19 +/- 52.03 )and moderate (CD43.83 +/- 0.09 - CD8 647.52 +/- 44.54) groups with high significant different (P <= 0.01(.

6.
Tran, K. B.; Lang, J. J.; Compton, K.; Xu, R. X.; Acheson, A. R.; Henrikson, H. J.; Kocarnik, J. M.; Penberthy, L.; Aali, A.; Abbas, Q.; Abbasi, B.; Abbasi-Kangevari, M.; Abbasi-Kangevari, Z.; Abbastabar, H.; Abdelmasseh, M.; Abd-Elsalam, S.; Abdelwahab, A. A.; Abdoli, G.; Abdulkadir, H. A.; Abedi, A.; Abegaz, K. H.; Abidi, H.; Aboagye, R. G.; Abolhassani, H.; Absalan, A.; Abtew, Y. D.; Ali, H. A.; Abu-Gharbieh, E.; Achappa, B.; Acuna, J. M.; Addison, D.; Addo, I. Y.; Adegboye, O. A.; Adesina, M. A.; Adnan, M.; Adnani, Q. E. S.; Advani, S. M.; Afrin, S.; Afzal, M. S.; Aggarwal, M.; Ahinkorah, B. O.; Ahmad, A. R.; Ahmad, R.; Ahmad, S.; Ahmadi, S.; Ahmed, H.; Ahmed, L. A.; Ahmed, M. B.; Rashid, T. A.; Aiman, W.; Ajami, M.; Akalu, G. T.; Akbarzadeh-Khiavi, M.; Aklilu, A.; Akonde, M.; Akunna, C. J.; Al Hamad, H.; Alahdab, F.; Alanezi, F. M.; Alanzi, T. M.; Alessy, S. A.; Algammal, A. M.; Al-Hanawi, M. K.; Alhassan, R. K.; Ali, B. A.; Ali, L.; Ali, S. S.; Alimohamadi, Y.; Alipour, V.; Aljunid, S. M.; Alkhayyat, M.; Al-Maweri, S. A. A.; Almustanyir, S.; Alonso, N.; Alqalyoobi, S.; Al-Raddadi, R. M.; Al-Rifai, R. H. H.; Al-Sabah, S. K.; Al-Tammemi, A. B.; Altawalah, H.; Alvis-Guzman, N.; Amare, F.; Ameyaw, E. K.; Dehkordi, J. J. A.; Amirzade-Iranaq, M. H.; Amu, H.; Amusa, G. A.; Ancuceanu, R.; Anderson, J. A.; Animut, Y. A.; Anoushiravani, A.; Anoushirvani, A. A.; Ansari-Moghaddam, A.; Ansha, M. G.; Antony, B.; Antwi, M. H.; Anwar, S. L.; Anwer, R.; Anyasodor, A. E.; Arabloo, J.; Arab-Zozani, M.; Aremu, O.; Argaw, A. M.; Ariffin, H.; Aripov, T.; Arshad, M.; Al, Artaman, Arulappan, J.; Aruleba, R. T.; Aryannejad, A.; Asaad, M.; Asemahagn, M. A.; Asemi, Z.; Asghari-Jafarabadi, M.; Ashraf, T.; Assadi, R.; Athar, M.; Athari, S. S.; Null, Mmwa, Attia, S.; Aujayeb, A.; Ausloos, M.; Avila-Burgos, L.; Awedew, A. F.; Awoke, M. A.; Awoke, T.; Quintanilla, B. P. A.; Ayana, T. M.; Ayen, S. S.; Azadi, D.; Null, S. A.; Azami-Aghdash, S.; Azanaw, M. M.; Azangou-Khyavy, M.; Jafari, A. A.; Azizi, H.; Azzam, A. Y. Y.; Babajani, A.; Badar, M.; Badiye, A. D.; Baghcheghi, N.; Bagheri, N.; Bagherieh, S.; Bahadory, S.; Baig, A. A.; Baker, J. L.; Bakhtiari, A.; Bakshi, R. K.; Banach, M.; Banerjee, I.; Bardhan, M.; Barone-Adesi, F.; Barra, F.; Barrow, A.; Bashir, N. Z.; Bashiri, A.; Basu, S.; Batiha, A. M. M.; Begum, A.; Bekele, A. B.; Belay, A. S.; Belete, M. A.; Belgaumi, U. I.; Bell, A. W.; Belo, L.; Benzian, H.; Berhie, A. Y.; Bermudez, A. N. C.; Bernabe, E.; Bhagavathula, A. S.; Bhala, N.; Bhandari, B. B.; Bhardwaj, N.; Bhardwaj, P.; Bhattacharyya, K.; Bhojaraja, V. S.; Bhuyan, S. S.; Bibi, S.; Bilchut, A. H.; Bintoro, B. S.; Biondi, A.; Birega, M. G. B.; Birhan, H. E.; Bjorge, T.; Blyuss, O.; Bodicha, B. B. A.; Bolla, S. R.; Boloor, A.; Bosetti, C.; Braithwaite, D.; Brauer, M.; Brenner, H.; Briko, A. N.; Briko, N. I.; Buchanan, C. M.; Bulamu, N. B.; Bustamante-Teixeira, M. T.; Butt, M. H.; Butt, N. S.; Butt, Z. A.; dos Santos, F. L. C.; Camera, L. A.; Cao, C.; Cao, Y.; Carreras, G.; Carvalho, M.; Cembranel, F.; Cerin, E.; Chakraborty, P. A.; Charalampous, P.; Chattu, V. K.; Chimed-Ochir, O.; Chirinos-Caceres, J. L.; Cho, D. Y.; Cho, W. C. S.; Christopher, D. J.; Chu, D. T.; Chukwu, I. S.; Cohen, A. J.; Conde, J.; Cortas, S.; Costa, V. M.; Cruz-Martins, N.; Culbreth, G. T.; Dadras, O.; Dagnaw, F. T.; Dahlawi, S. M. A.; Dai, X. C.; Dandona, L.; Dandona, R.; Daneshpajouhnejad, P.; Danielewicz, A.; Dao, A. T. M.; Soltani, R. D. C.; Darwesh, A. M.; Das, S.; Davitoiu, D. V.; Esmaeili, E. D.; De la Hoz, F. P.; Debela, S. A.; Dehghan, A.; Demisse, B.; Demisse, F. W.; Denova-Gutierrez, E.; Derakhshani, A.; Molla, M. D.; Dereje, D.; Deribe, K. S.; Desai, R.; Desalegn, M. D.; Dessalegn, F. N.; Dessalegni, S. A. A.; Dessie, G.; Desta, A. A.; Dewan, S. M. R.; Dharmaratne, S. D.; Dhimal, M.; Dianatinasab, M.; Diao, N.; Diaz, D.; Digesa, L. E.; Dixit, S. G.; Doaei, S.; Doan, L. P.; Doku, P. N.; Dongarwar, D.; dos Santos, W. M.; Driscoll, T. R.; Dsouza, H. L.; Durojaiye, O. C.; Edalati, S.; Eghbalian, F.; Ehsani-Chimeh, E.; Eini, E.; Ekholuenetale, M.; Ekundayo, T. C.; Ekwueme, D. U.; El Tantawi, M.; Elbahnasawy, M. A.; Elbarazi, I.; Elghazaly, H.; Elhadi, M.; El-Huneidi, W.; Emamian, M. H.; Bain, L. E.; Enyew, D. B.; Erkhembayar, R.; Eshetu, T.; Eshrati, B.; Eskandarieh, S.; Espinosa-Montero, J.; Etaee, F.; Etemadimanesh, A.; Eyayu, T.; Ezeonwumelu, I. J.; Ezzikouri, S.; Fagbamigbe, A. F.; Fahimi, S.; Fakhradiyev, I. R.; Faraon, E. J. A.; Fares, J.; Farmany, A.; Farooque, U.; Farrokhpour, H.; Fasanmi, A. O.; Fatehizadeh, A.; Fatima, W.; Fattahi, H.; Fekadu, G.; Feleke, B. E.; Ferrari, A. A.; Ferrero, S.; Desideri, L. F.; Filip, I.; Fischer, F.; Foroumadi, R.; Foroutan, M.; Fukumoto, T.; Gaal, P. A.; Gad, M. M.; Gadanya, M. A.; Gaipov, A.; Galehdar, N.; Gallus, S.; Garg, T.; Fonseca, M. G.; Gebremariam, Y. H.; Gebremeskel, T. G.; Gebremichael, M. A.; Geda, Y. F.; Gela, Y. Y.; Gemeda, B. N. B.; Getachew, M.; Getachew, M. E.; Ghaffari, K.; Ghafourifard, M.; Ghamari, S. H.; Nour, M. G.; Ghassemi, F.; Ghimire, A.; Ghith, N.; Gholamalizadeh, M.; Navashenaq, J. G.; Ghozy, S.; Gilani, S. A.; Gill, P. S.; Ginindza, T. G.; Gizaw, A. T. T.; Glasbey, J. C.; Godos, J.; Goel, A.; Golechha, M.; Goleij, P.; Golinelli, D.; Golitaleb, M.; Gorini, G.; Goulart, B. N. G.; Grosso, G.; Guadie, H. A.; Gubari, M. I. M.; Gudayu, T. W.; Guerra, M. R.; Gunawardane, D. A.; Gupta, B.; Gupta, S.; Gupta, V.; Gupta, V. K.; Gurara, M. K.; Guta, A.; Habibzadeh, P.; Avval, A. H.; Hafezi-Nejad, N.; Ali, A. H.; Haj-Mirzaian, A.; Halboub, E. S.; Halimi, A.; Halwani, R.; Hamadeh, R. R.; Hameed, S.; Hamidi, S.; Hanif, A.; Hariri, S.; Harlianto, N. I.; Haro, J. M.; Hartono, R. K.; Hasaballah, A. I.; Hasan, S. M. M.; Hasani, H.; Hashemi, S. M.; Hassan, A. M.; Hassanipour, S.; Hayat, K.; Heidari, G.; Heidari, M.; Heidarymeybodi, Z.; Herrera-Serna, B. Y.; Herteliu, C.; Hezam, K.; Hiraike, Y.; Hlongwa, M. M.; Holla, R.; Holm, M.; Horita, N.; Hoseini, M.; Hossain, M. M.; Hossain, M. B. H.; Hosseini, M. S.; Hosseinzadeh, A.; Hosseinzadeh, M.; Hostiuc, M.; Hostiuc, S.; Househ, M.; Huang, J. J.; Hugo, F. N.; Humayun, A.; Hussain, S.; Hussein, N. R.; Hwang, B. F.; Ibitoye, S. E.; Iftikhar, P. M.; Ikuta, K. S.; Ilesanmi, O. S.; Ilic, I. M.; Ilic, M. D.; Immurana, M.; Innos, K.; Iranpour, P.; Irham, L. M.; Islam, M. S.; Islam, R. M.; Islami, F.; Ismail, N. E.; Isola, G.; Iwagami, M.; Merin, J. L.; Jaiswal, A.; Jakovljevic, M.; Jalili, M.; Jalilian, S.; Jamshidi, E.; Jang, S. I.; Jani, C. T.; Javaheri, T.; Jayarajah, U. U.; Jayaram, S.; Jazayeri, S. B.; Jebai, R.; Jemal, B.; Jeong, W.; Jha, R. P.; Jindal, H. A.; John-Akinola, Y. O.; Jonas, J. B.; Joo, T.; Joseph, N.; Joukar, F.; Jozwiak, J. J.; Jarisson, M.; Kabir, A.; Kacimi, S. E. O.; Kadashetti, V.; Kahe, F.; Kakodkar, P. V.; Kalankesh, L. R.; Kalhor, R.; Kamal, V. K.; Kamangar, F.; Kamath, A.; Kanchan, T.; Kandaswamy, E.; Kandel, H.; Kang, H.; Kanno, G. G.; Kapoor, N.; Kar, S. S.; Karanth, S. D.; Karaye, I. M.; Karch, A.; Karimi, A.; Kassa, B. G.; Katoto, Pdmc, Kauppila, J. H.; Kaur, H.; Kebede, A. G.; Keikavoosi-Arani, L.; Kejela, G. G.; Bohan, P. M. K.; Keramati, M.; Keykhaei, M.; Khajuria, H.; Khan, A.; Khan, A. A. K.; Khan, E. A.; Khan, G.; Khan, M. N.; Ab Khan, M.; Khanali, J.; Khatab, K.; Khatatbeh, M. M.; Khatib, M. N.; Khayamzadeh, M.; Kashani, H. R. K.; Tabari, M. A. K.; et al..
Lancet ; 400(10352):563-591, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2068419

ABSTRACT

Background Understanding the magnitude of cancer burden attributable to potentially modifiable risk factors is crucial for development of effective prevention and mitigation strategies. We analysed results from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2019 to inform cancer control planning efforts globally. Methods The GBD 2019 comparative risk assessment framework was used to estimate cancer burden attributable to behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risk factors. A total of 82 risk-outcome pairs were included on the basis of the World Cancer Research Fund criteria. Estimated cancer deaths and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) in 2019 and change in these measures between 2010 and 2019 are presented. Findings Globally, in 2019, the risk factors included in this analysis accounted for 4.45 million (95% uncertainty interval 4.01-4.94) deaths and 105 million (95.0-116) DALYs for both sexes combined, representing 44.4% (41.3-48.4) of all cancer deaths and 42.0% (39.1-45.6) of all DALYs. There were 2.88 million (2.60-3.18) risk-attributable cancer deaths in males (50.6% [47.8-54.1] of all male cancer deaths) and 1.58 million (1.36-1.84) risk-attributable cancer deaths in females (36.3% [32.5-41.3] of all female cancer deaths). The leading risk factors at the most detailed level globally for risk-attributable cancer deaths and DALYs in 2019 for both sexes combined were smoking, followed by alcohol use and high BMI. Risk-attributable cancer burden varied by world region and Socio-demographic Index (SDI), with smoking, unsafe sex, and alcohol use being the three leading risk factors for risk-attributable cancer DALYs in low SDI locations in 2019, whereas DALYs in high SDI locations mirrored the top three global risk factor rankings. From 2010 to 2019, global risk-attributable cancer deaths increased by 20.4% (12.6-28.4) and DALYs by 16.8% (8.8-25.0), with the greatest percentage increase in metabolic risks (34.7% [27.9-42.8] and 33.3% [25.8-42.0]). Interpretation The leading risk factors contributing to global cancer burden in 2019 were behavioural, whereas metabolic risk factors saw the largest increases between 2010 and 2019. Reducing exposure to these modifiable risk factors would decrease cancer mortality and DALY rates worldwide, and policies should be tailored appropriately to local cancer risk factor burden. Copyright (C) 2022 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY 4.0 license.

7.
International Journal of Health Sciences ; 6:1803-1808, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1995095

ABSTRACT

After the zoonotic CoV epidemics of SARS (2003) and MERS (2012), SARS-COV-2 was appeared as the human positive sense RNA coronavirus's third and fatal strain that infect birds and a variety of animals and human. It is one of Coronaviridae family. It cause serious respiratory illness. A total number of 68 samples were involved in the current study, the suspected patients infection were confirmed by obtaining nasopharyngeal swab and subjected to PCR test in the molecular biological laboratories accredited by the Iraqi Ministry of Health. The samples were divided into two interval groups: the first period were collected during the first fourteenth day after infection and the second group interval after 15th to 28th of infection. NFAT concentration was tested by ELISA. The study results showed that the concentration of NFAT is increased in the first fourteen days then its concentration decreased at the second fourteen days with significance of (p≤0.03). © 2022 International Journal of Health Sciences.All rights reserved.

8.
2nd IEEE International Conference on Artificial Intelligence, ICAI 2022 ; : 7-12, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1878955

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 continues to have a devastating impact on the lives of people all over the world. Various new technologies arose in the research environment to assist mankind in surviving and living a better life. It is important to screen the infected patients in a timely and cost-effective manner to combat this disease and avoid its transmission. To achieve this aim, detection of Covid-19 from radiological evaluation of chest x-ray images using deep learning algorithms is less expensive and easily available option as it ensures fast and efficient diagnosis of the disease. Therefore, this paper presents a novel customized convolutional neural network (CNN) approach for the detection of COVID-19 from chest x-ray images. The performance of the proposed model is evaluated on three different size datasets, created from publicly available datasets. Experimental results show that the proposed model has better performance on Dataset 2. A very large increase or decrease of the number of samples in the dataset degrades the performance of the proposed model. The performance of the CNN model is compared with traditional pretrained networks namely VGG-16, VGG-19, ResNet-50 and Inception-V3. All the models show promising performance on dataset 2 which shows that optimum amount of data is enough for the model to lean features from the input data. Overall, the best validation accuracy of 97.78 was achieved by the proposed model on dataset 2. © 2022 IEEE.

9.
Journal of Investigative Medicine ; 70(2):487-488, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1709613

ABSTRACT

Purpose of Study During the COVID-19 pandemic, the State of Louisiana implemented a quarantine to decrease the risk of infection. This situation led to a decrease in social interaction which is a risk factor for anxiety and depression, among the elderly population confined in residences. The objective was to determine whether being quarantined while living in a residential community would negatively affect the mental health of the elderly. Methods Used A short longitudinal assessment and analysis to assess anxiety and depression. Data was initially collected, then at 6 weeks, and 12 weeks during the quarantine. We used the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) and Geriatric Anxiety Inventory (GAI) as these screening tools are designed for the elderly, to assess the incidence and severity during the quarantine. Summary of Results 57 residents of a Continuous Care Retirement Community (CCRC) in the New Orleans metropolitan area, stratified as nursing home residents, assisted living, and independent living of a 37 (80%) of the 46 patients were females, with a mean age of 86.1 (SD 9.1) years old;25 (54.3%) were nursing home residents, 13 (28.3%) were in assisted living, and 8 (17.4%) were in an independent living community. 16 (34.8%) patients were diagnosed with depression before taking the survey, and five (10.9%) had previously diagnosed anxiety. Anxiety scores decreased significantly from baseline (average 4.35 vs. 3.28, p-value =0.045) at 6 weeks but did not change from time 0 to week 12 or week 6 to week 12. Depression, scores did not change significantly between the time periods. Conclusions Our data indicate a trend toward an increase in depression and anxiety during periods of pandemic quarantine isolation. Because the elderly are particularly susceptible to loneliness and resulting depression assessing these indicators may help mitigate the economic burden and cognitive decline resulting from the complications of depression and anxiety in the elderly population residing in community centers during periods of unanticipated extended quarantine isolation.

10.
Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering ; 10(1):14, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1654717

ABSTRACT

A substantial volume of various types of Covid-19 masks has been disposed of since the start of the global pandemic. These facemasks are made of non-degradable polymeric materials. As such, they currently signify a major source of microplastic pollution in the environment. Through incineration or pyrolysis, thermal processing has emerged as a mainstream approach in the waste management of the ever-increasing loads of generated facemasks. Via a combined experimental-theoretical framework, we report herein salient features that govern thermal decomposition of the distinct plastic-based components in 3 M N95 (with a respirator) and surgical facemasks. Protective three-four layers in the considered masks are composed of polypropylene (PP) that degrades in a one-step across the temperature window 330 - 480 degrees C. Char residues from the decomposition of ear straps (consisting of polyester) attain 24% and 15% fractions of the initial mass in the case of surgical and N95 masks, respectively. Thermo kinetic parameters are derived for the different components of the facemask by using the Coats-Redfern approach from the thermogravimetric analysis data. Here we also report the potentiality of producing value-added products from the face mask using the GCMS by virtue of the catalytic oxidation of the material expending the Niobium doped CeO2 catalyst under controlled conditions. Constructed mechanisms through density functional theory (DFT) computations illustrated the nature of chemical reactions that mark the two-stage decomposition curve of polyurethane (the material used in the nose area in N95 masks). These chemical events characterize rupture of C-C(O) bonds, sequential departure of CO2/C2H4 molecules, and fission of the C-C linkages. Outcomes from this investigation provide important information (i.e., thermal stability regions of the deployed polymers and potential emission profiles) needed in the urgent pursuit to safely and economically recycle polymeric constituents in Covid-19 masks, and potentially other types of medical wastes.

11.
Social Behavior Research & Health ; 5(2):760-772, 2021.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1635554

ABSTRACT

Background: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (COVID-19) has affected over 250 million people globally and resulted in over 5 million deaths since it was first reported in November 2019.

12.
Biochemical and Cellular Archives ; 21(2):5085-5092, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1628105

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is the virus that engulfed the globe in the year 2020 that caused many deaths and disrupted countries' economies. In this report, we reviewed all aspects to explain the subjects, where we performed a systematic and thorough report of the Covid-19 outbreak, its medical conditions, its sources, diagnosis and prevention mechanisms and available methods of treatment. This also discussed the epidemiological situation in Iraq and the distribution of the province of Anbar as a sample for the report. Overall, from all of this analysis we conclude that epidemiology, virology, COVID-19 clinical is still enigmatic and that (viral) epidemics occasionally kill humanity, so we need a broader understanding of viruses.

13.
Biochemical and Cellular Archives ; 21(2):4085-4092, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1589567

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is the virus that engulfed the globe in the year 2020 that caused many deaths and disrupted countries' economies. In this report, we reviewed all aspects to explain the subjects, where we performed a systematic and thorough report of the Covid-19 outbreak, its medical conditions, its sources, diagnosis, and prevention mechanisms and available methods of treatment. This also discussed the epidemiological situation in Iraq and the distribution of the province of Anbar as a sample for the report. Overall, from all of this analysis we conclude that epidemiology, virology, COVID-19 clinical is still enigmatic and that (viral) epidemics occasionally kill humanity, so we need a broader understanding of viruses.

14.
Drug Safety ; 44(12):1409, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1543319

ABSTRACT

Background/Introduction: Immunization errors (IEs) are one of the types of adverse events following immunization (AEFI) considered as preventable. They result from errors in vaccine preparation, handling, storage or administration [1]. Objective/Aim: To describe the profile of IEs related to COVID-19 vaccines reported to the Centre Anti Poison et de Pharmacovigilance du Maroc (CAPM) and risk minimization actions (RMAs) taken proactively and reactively to prevent IEs occurrence. Methods: We conducted a prospective analysis of IEs reported to the CAPM as part of the surveillance of AEFI related to COVID-19 vaccines. Data were collected using the AEFI reporting form, the electronic line listing and the hotlines established as part of the national COVID-19 immunization campaign launched on 28 January 2021. Immunization errors were classified according to their occurrence in the vaccine use process and their type using MedRRA. Investigations were performed to identify causes and contributing factors that lead to IEs, in the view of implementing RMAs. Results: As of 11 June 2021, the total number of IEs was 56, with an incidence of 4 cases per million doses of vaccine administered. All IEs were reported by healthcare professionals (HCPs). They occurred at the administration stage (n = 51) and the preparation stage (n = 5). The administration of the wrong vaccine was the main type of IEs (n = 26), followed by the inappropriate schedule of vaccine administration (n = 20). Two patients presented harm and two vaccinators developed ophthalmic adverse reaction. Prior to the launching of the campaign, proactive RMAs were designed: (i) training of HCPs involved in the campaign on the process of maintaining the cold chain, preparation and administration of vaccines and the workflow of an immunization session, (ii) the exclusively use of one type of vaccine in the same vaccination site, (iii) the development of an information technology system for managing patient appointments to be vaccinated. The investigations performed revealed that organizational issues were the main cause behind IEs happening, particularly at vaccination sites that were strained to use both available vaccines. Reactive measures, implemented in collaboration with the National Immunization Committee, highlighted the importance of seeking for contraindications or reasons that would affect patient suitability for vaccination, and applying best practices for immunization session management. Conclusion: The proper planning of proactive RMAs is key to reduce the likelihood of IEs. Moreover, immunization process vulnerabilities identified following IEs happening, should be tackled to prevent harm and maintain population confidence in the national COVID-19 campaign.

15.
Viruses ; 13(12)2021 11 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542801

ABSTRACT

Nestled within the Rocky Mountain National Forest, 114 scientists and students gathered at Colorado State University's Mountain Campus for this year's 21st annual Rocky Mountain National Virology Association meeting. This 3-day retreat consisted of 31 talks and 30 poster presentations discussing advances in research pertaining to viral and prion diseases. The keynote address provided a timely discussion on zoonotic coronaviruses, lessons learned, and the path forward towards predicting, preparing, and preventing future viral disease outbreaks. Other invited speakers discussed advances in SARS-CoV-2 surveillance, molecular interactions involved in flavivirus genome assembly, evaluation of ethnomedicines for their efficacy against infectious diseases, multi-omic analyses to define risk factors associated with long COVID, the role that interferon lambda plays in control of viral pathogenesis, cell-fusion-dependent pathogenesis of varicella zoster virus, and advances in the development of a vaccine platform against prion diseases. On behalf of the Rocky Mountain Virology Association, this report summarizes select presentations.


Subject(s)
Virology , Animals , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Prion Diseases/diagnosis , Prion Diseases/prevention & control , Prions/immunology , Prions/isolation & purification , Prions/pathogenicity , Vaccines , Virology/organization & administration , Virus Diseases/diagnosis , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Virus Diseases/prevention & control , Virus Diseases/virology , Viruses/classification , Viruses/immunology , Viruses/isolation & purification , Viruses/pathogenicity
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18.
Pakistan Journal of Zoology ; 53(2):743-755, 2021.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1217247

ABSTRACT

The presence of viruses in treated and untreated sewage water is a serious issue in the agricultural sector as it is highly dependent on recycled water for irrigation purposes due to the shortage of fresh water resources. In this study viruses in untreated and treatedwastewater has been reviewed to evaluate the health threats to the people. It has been cited that viruses such as Rotavirus, Norwalk virus, adenovirus, and Hepatitis A virus, are common mediators of the diseases in human beings. Including respiratory disorders, bronchiolitis, digestive tract disorders, pneumonia and conjunctivitis. Additionally, traces of COVID-19 were also found in sewage water sources in some countries like Italy bringing attention towards analysis of sewage water. Based on information from cited literature it is estimated that an individual handling sewage water have approximately 1% chance of becoming infected with virus. Treated sewage effluent and reuse of sewage water for recycle purposes must be considered as it may lead to widespread of COVID 19 in coming decade. Thus, a qualitative risk assessment and disinfection of water supplies based on reported infection rates suggested that viruses in treated and untreated sewage effluents may pose the most risk. This risk assessment and a limited epidemiological evidence suggest that TSE is not harmful for the public places but it cannot be neglected, therefore proper guidelines and policies are required.

19.
Children ; 8(5):28, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1209508

ABSTRACT

The World Health Organization (WHO) acknowledged that, as health services divert their attention to the COVID-19 pandemic, the delivery of essential nutrition services may be compromised. This impact may be more pronounced in the context of humanitarian crises, such as the one currently unfolding in Yemen. In line with Pillar 9 of the WHO's COVID-19 Strategic Preparedness and Response Plan, this paper reports on the nutrition program adaptations in Yemen to maintain the delivery of essential nutrition services to under-five children. The process of adaptation focused on the services provided within the nutrition surveillance system (NSS), therapeutic feeding centers (TFC), and isolation units (IU). It was conducted in five steps: (1) situation analysis;(2) development of guidance documents;(3) consultation process;(4) capacity-building programs;and (5) incorporation of programmatic adaptation within nutrition services. As of September 2020, NSS, TFC, and IUs services have shifted their standard operating procedures in line with the context-specific adaptations. The process described in this paper may serve as a case-study for other countries that intend to undertake similar adaptations in their nutrition program to contribute to the implementation of the WHO response plan and maintain the delivery of essential nutrition services to children.

20.
Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences ; 23:23, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1209352

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is an infection of the respiratory system caused by single standard RNA viruses named as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The disease appeared as a serious problem and the leading cause of death in human beings throughout the world. The main source of different phytochemicals are plants, which helps in the development of new drugs against various ailments. Islam is comprehensive religion and a complete code of life for Muslims. The teaching of Islam, according to the Holy Quran and Hadith are universal for the benefit of humanity. Islam believes that every ailment is from God and who made the disease definitely made its medication. There is a complete guideline with regard to taking measures against infectious diseases such as quarantine and seeking medicinal treatment. The research objective is to gather the knowledge of medicinal plants described in the Holy Quran or utilized by the Prophet (SAW) for the treatment of different ailments or advised to use them to boost immunity and strengthen the body. Scientists across the globe have found these plants beneficial for many diseases and have antiviral potential. In present study, the six plant species including Olea europaea , Nigella sativa, Allium Sativum, Allium cepa, Zingiber officinale and Cassia senna were selected which contain phytochemicals like Calcium Elenolate, Thymoquinone, S-Allylcysteine, Dipropyl Disulfide, Sesquiterpene, Monoterpene, Pelargonidin 3-Galactoside ion and Kaempferol. The phytochemicals monoterpene (from Zingiber officinale) shows best interaction with target proteins RdRP, 3CLPro, ACE2. Calcium Elonate (from olive) bonds with 3CLPro, ACE2 and Kemoferol and Pelargomidine (from Senna Makki) bonds with RdRP, ACE2. The ligands show a unique set of intersections i.e. hydrogen bonding, and alkyl interaction. These medicinal plants can be utilized immediately for the treatment of COVID-19 as their safety is already established. This treatment can enhance recovery when combined with other treatments. Furthermore, the screening of bioactive compounds or phytochemicals found in these plants can be utilized to design new therapeutic drug to treat COVID-19 pandemic.

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