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1.
International Journal of Infectious Diseases ; 130(Supplement 2):S97, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2323523

ABSTRACT

Intro: Kodamaea ohmeri, previously known as Pichia ohmeri, is an ascomycetous yeast that has emerged as an important cause of fungemia in immunocompromised patients. During the anamorphic stage this organism is also known as Candida guillermondii var. membranaefaciens. Method(s): We report five cases of Kodamaea ohmeri encountered from multicenter in Malaysia. Antifungal agent of choice will be discussed based on literature review. Finding(s): The cases were: (1) a contaminated peritoneal fluid in an adult patient on peritoneal dialysis;(2) a 60-year-old man with infected diabetic foot isolated K. ohmeri from a bone sample. Both cases discharged well without active antifungal fungal therapy. We observed fatality cases involving (3) an old man with underlying gastric adenocarcinoma who complicated with catheter- related bloodstream infection caused by K. ohmeri;(4) a patient with ventilator- associated pneumonia and septicaemic shock secondary to perforated terminal ileum;(5) and a severely ill COVID-19 stage 5b patient who passed away due to systemic fungaemia caused by K. ohmeri. Discussion(s): All three fatal cases received either amphotericin B or caspofungin as active antifungal agent. Literature evidence has shown that 40% of patient met demise despite on active antifungal agent, suggesting that currently no definitive antifungal agent proven to be a superior treatment option for K. ohmeri infection. Removal of indwelling medical device combined with antifungal therapy has favorable clinical outcome. Conclusion(s): Therefore, K. ohmeri infection in severely ill patients should be considered as a critical condition. Potential of alternative antifungal combinations need to be explored for an effective treatment option.Copyright © 2023

2.
International Journal of Infectious Diseases ; 130(Supplement 2):S67, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2321531

ABSTRACT

Intro: Leptospirosis is an emerging zoonosis with a global health concern. In Malaysia, leptospirosis incidence remains significant, since its first gazettement as a compulsorily notifiable disease in 2010. However, the prevalence of this disease among local forensic cases is unknown. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine the frequency of human leptospirosis among post-mortem specimens. Method(s): Archived forensic specimens referred to the Institute for Medical Research (IMR), Malaysia between January 2020 and December 2021 were retrieved. DNA from the specimens were extracted using an automated MagNA Pure 96 instrument and subjected to in-house qPCR targeting LipL32 gene and 16S rRNA gene of the pathogenic group of Leptospira spp. Amplification of RNaseP gene was included as internal amplification control (IAC). Finding(s): A total of 408 forensic specimens from 365 patients were received during the study period. Majority of the specimens were blood (n = 195, 47.8%), followed by tissue (n = 136, 33.3%) and liver (n = 59, 14.5%). Of the tested specimens, 2.2% (n = 9) were positive for leptospiral DNA. These positive specimens belonged to 9 different patients, of which the vast majority were male (n = 8, 88.9%), with an average age of 37.5 years. Conclusion(s): Albeit low detection of leptospiral DNA among forensic specimens in Malaysia, this study highlighted that majority of the positive patients were males of productive age.Copyright © 2023

3.
International Journal of Infectious Diseases ; 130(Supplement 2):S139, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2325715

ABSTRACT

Intro: The COVID-19 pandemic is caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, an enveloped RNA of the coronavirus family. The advancement in molecular technology and biochemistry has accelerated the development of diagnostic reagents and assays. Much attention has been focused on the S protein, but the high mutation rate in this region could lead to false negative results. Thus, a better target protein for diagnostic application is needed for accurate detection. Method(s): Nucleotide sequences encoded for membrane (M) glycoprotein gene region of SARS-CoV-2 from Malaysian isolates were extracted from GISAID, aligned, and selected accordingly. The DNA plasmid was commercially synthesized with codon optimization for Escherichia coli (E. coli), and the presence of the M gene was confirmed by PCR. The plasmid was then transformed into E. coli. Later, the expression of M glycoprotein was induced, separated on an SDS-PAGE gel, and transferred onto a nitrocellulose membrane, followed by immunostaining. Finding(s): The analysis of the M glycoprotein against the Omicron strains demonstrated that the amino acid is conserved (99.5%). The M glycoprotein was successfully expressed and detected with antibodies from SARS-CoV-2 infected patients at ~26 kDa. The protein is currently upscale for the generation of monoclonal Ab (Mab). Discussion(s): The M protein of SARS-CoV-2 is more conserved among the virus and also has been reported to confer antigenic properties. Selection of M protein perhaps a better option compared to current detection assays that use spike (S) protein, which could lead to false negative results, as this gene region particularly the ribosome-binding domain (RBD) rapidly undergoes mutations. The utilization of M protein potentially improves negative predictive value (NPV) of the diagnostic test. Conclusion(s): Further development of diagnostic reagents is needed to improve the assay's specificity. The newly developed M protein and the MAb can be used to generate a more accurate viral detection assay.Copyright © 2023

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