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Rev Int Econ ; 2022 Oct 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2297799


This article employs gravity modeling to examine the effect of COVID-19 on global and intra-Commonwealth trade. It uses bilateral monthly exports, number of COVID-19 cases and deaths and the stringency of measures. The main novelty is the use of price indices as proxies for multilateral resistance terms, which allow us to identify, supply, and demand effects of COVID-19 on bilateral trade. The incidence of COVID-19 impacts Commonwealth trade flows, the effect varies with the development level. High numbers of COVID-19 cases, including deaths, in low-income importers reduced Commonwealth exports unlike high-income importers that show higher exports. The incidence of COVID in an exporters' neighbouring countries impacted trade and restrictions in high-income countries increased Commonwealth trade. Short-term trends project a negative change in both exports and imports of Commonwealth countries.

J Bus Res ; 153: 75-86, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1996317


The COVID-19 pandemic emphasised the global value chains (GVCs) debate by focussing on whether gains from GVC participation outweigh firms associated risks of demand and supply shocks amid rising protectionism. This paper bridges the gap between the international trade and management literature by examining the impact of COVID-19 on Commonwealth countries, an area that has received scant attention in academic literature. Using the Eora database, we simulate scenarios to examine Commonwealth countries' participation in GVCs post-COVID. We draw on the transaction cost economics (TCE) theory to develop a framework that investigates whether growing protectionism, associated with reshoring, decoupling and nearshoring, could potentially affect the constellation and participation of Commonwealth countries in GVCs post-COVID. Results show that trade protectionism is likely to impact the supply chains and lead to GVC reconfiguration, which could offer opportunities for the Commonwealth countries and firms to potentially gain following the geographical redistribution of suppliers.

Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(20)2021 10 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480716


Managing medicine shortages consumes ample time of pharmacists worldwide. This study aimed to explore the strategies and resources being utilized by community pharmacists to tackle a typical shortage problem. Qualitative face-to-face interviews were conducted. A total of 31 community pharmacists from three cities (Lahore, Multan, and Dera Ghazi Khan) in Pakistan were sampled, using a purposive approach. All interviews were audio taped, transcribed verbatim, and subjected to thematic analysis. The analysis yielded five broad themes and eighteen subthemes. The themes highlighted (1) the current scenarios of medicine shortages in a community setting, (2) barriers encountered during the shortage management, (3) impacts, (4) corrective actions performed for handling shortages and (4) future interventions. Participants reported that medicine shortages were frequent. Unethical activities such as black marketing, stockpiling, bias distribution and bulk purchasing were the main barriers. With respect to managing shortages, maintaining inventories was the most common proactive approach, while the recommendation of alternative drugs to patients was the most common counteractive approach. Based on the findings, management strategies for current shortages in community pharmacies are insufficient. Shortages would continue unless potential barriers are addressed through proper monitoring of the sale and consumption of drugs, fair distribution, early communication, and collaboration.

Community Pharmacy Services , Pharmacies , Attitude of Health Personnel , Humans , Pakistan , Pharmacists , Professional Role
Drugs Ther Perspect ; 36(6): 246-249, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-46440