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1.
Journal of Taibah University Medical Sciences ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1842609

ABSTRACT

Objective In the COVID-19 pandemic, the SARS-CoV-2 virus has infected millions of people worldwide. Mortality primarily results from the inflammation state and its complications. High-dose melatonin has been established as an anti-inflammatory agent. This study evaluated high-dose melatonin as an adjuvant therapy in critically ill patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Methods We conducted a double-blinded, randomized clinical trial of 21 mg of melatonin per day compared with a placebo in 67 patients with COVID-19. We enrolled patients older than 18 years of age with documented SARS-CoV-2 infection, who were admitted to the intensive care unit and underwent invasive mechanical ventilation. Administration of melatonin and placebo through a nasogastric tube continued for 5 days. The main outcomes were mortality rate, duration of mechanical ventilation, changes in oxygenation indices, and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. Results No significant differences were observed in mortality and duration of mechanical ventilation between the control and intervention groups. After 5 days of the intervention, the mean (±standard deviation) CRP and platelet count were 47.28 (±38.86) mg/L and 195.73 (±87.13) × 1000/μL, respectively, in the intervention group and 75.52 (±48.02) mg/L and 149.62 (±68.03) × 1000/μL, respectively, in the control group (P < 0.05). Conclusion High-dose melatonin in intubated patients with COVID-19 was associated with a decrease in CRP levels. However, this treatment did not apparently affect patient outcomes.

2.
Journal of Taibah University Medical Sciences ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1837069

ABSTRACT

Objective Identifying the epidemiological characteristics of COVID-19 could help to control the pandemic. The aim of this study was to characterize the epidemiological features of hospitalized COVID-19 patients in Iran. Methods Data were collected on patients admitted to a military referral hospital in Tehran, Iran, from February 8, 2020 to July 28, 2021. Gender, age, clinical symptoms, outcome, type of comorbidities, level of blood Spo2, time of admission, and time of discharge were investigated. Sex ratio, case fatality rate (CFR), and daily trends of hospital admissions and deaths were also determined. Descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression with 95% confidence intervals were used for data analysis. The statistical significance level was set at 0.05. STATA16.0 and Excel 2010 were used for data analysis. Results The median hospital length of stay (LOS) was 6 days. The following symptoms were most common: cough (63.5%), fever (50%), respiratory distress (46.1%), and muscular pain (40.8%). Hypertension (29.5%), diabetes (24.7%), and cardiovascular diseases (21.8%) were the most prevalent comorbidities. The CFR was calculated at 8.30%. Respiratory symptoms increased the odds of death by 45% (OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.03–2.06). Gastrointestinal symptoms were associated with a reduction in the mortality of COVID-19 cases, but this association was not statistically significant (OR 0.94, 95% CI 0.73–1.21). Conclusions The results of this study emphasize higher mortality rates among older age groups, male patients, and patients with underlying diseases.

3.
Iran J Public Health ; 49(7): 1211-1221, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1791608

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The current study aimed to identify effective factors on the death among COVID-19 patients. METHODS: All articles published in the period Jan 1, 2020, to Mar 23, 2020, written in English and reporting factors associated with COVID-19 mortality were reviewed. The random-effects model with 95% CI was used to calculate the pooled Odds Ratio (OR) and Hazard Ratio (HR). Data were analyzed using Stata ver.11.0. RESULTS: The older age OR: 1.21(1.10-1.33) and male gender OR: 1.41(1.04-1.89) were most prone to death due to COVID-19. The Comorbidity with some chronic diseases such as Diabetes type2 OR: 2.42(1.06-5.52), Hypertension OR: 2.54(1.21-5.32), Kidney disorder OR: 2.61(1.22-5.60), Respiratory disorder 3.09 (1.39-6.88) and Heart diseases OR: 4.37 (1.13-16.90) can increase the risk of COVID19 mortality. CONCLUSION: Infection with COVID-19 is associated with substantial mortality mainly in older patients with comorbidities. We found the significant effect of age, gender and comorbidities such as Diabetes Mellitus, Hypertension, Kidney disorders and Heart diseases on the risk of death in patients with COVID-19. The factors associated with mortality found in this research can help to recognize patients with COVID-19 who are at higher risk of a poor prognosis. Monitoring these factors can serve to give early warning for the appropriate interventions.

4.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 22(1): 119, 2022 Mar 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736343

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We aimed to find the association between gastrointestinal (GI) and respiratory symptoms with mortality and hospitalization among COVID-19 patients. METHODS: We analyzed the registered data of COVID-19 patients from February 20, 2020, to March 10, 2021. Depending on the patients' disease symptoms, four categories were defined: patients with only GI symptoms, patients with only respiratory symptoms, patients with both symptoms, and patients with other symptoms. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association of groups with outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 42,964 patients from 23 hospitals were included, of which 26.5% patients had at least one or more GI symptoms. Of total patients, 51.58% patients were hospitalized among which 22.8% had at least one or more GI symptoms. GI symptoms significantly decreased the odds of mortality (OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.56-0.92), but respiratory symptoms increased the odds for mortality (1.36: 1.24-1.50), compared with patients with other symptoms. Moreover, the odds ratio of patients who had both respiratory and GI symptoms increased (1.52: 1.31-1.78) compared with patients with other symptoms. The same results were observed for hospitalization as the outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed that the presence of GI symptoms in COVID-19 at the time of admission was associated with a lower odds of hospitalization and mortality; however, this association had higher odds for respiratory symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Gastrointestinal Diseases/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Odds Ratio , SARS-CoV-2
5.
JAMA Oncol ; 8(3): 420-444, 2022 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1664325

ABSTRACT

IMPORTANCE: The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2019 (GBD 2019) provided systematic estimates of incidence, morbidity, and mortality to inform local and international efforts toward reducing cancer burden. OBJECTIVE: To estimate cancer burden and trends globally for 204 countries and territories and by Sociodemographic Index (SDI) quintiles from 2010 to 2019. EVIDENCE REVIEW: The GBD 2019 estimation methods were used to describe cancer incidence, mortality, years lived with disability, years of life lost, and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in 2019 and over the past decade. Estimates are also provided by quintiles of the SDI, a composite measure of educational attainment, income per capita, and total fertility rate for those younger than 25 years. Estimates include 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs). FINDINGS: In 2019, there were an estimated 23.6 million (95% UI, 22.2-24.9 million) new cancer cases (17.2 million when excluding nonmelanoma skin cancer) and 10.0 million (95% UI, 9.36-10.6 million) cancer deaths globally, with an estimated 250 million (235-264 million) DALYs due to cancer. Since 2010, these represented a 26.3% (95% UI, 20.3%-32.3%) increase in new cases, a 20.9% (95% UI, 14.2%-27.6%) increase in deaths, and a 16.0% (95% UI, 9.3%-22.8%) increase in DALYs. Among 22 groups of diseases and injuries in the GBD 2019 study, cancer was second only to cardiovascular diseases for the number of deaths, years of life lost, and DALYs globally in 2019. Cancer burden differed across SDI quintiles. The proportion of years lived with disability that contributed to DALYs increased with SDI, ranging from 1.4% (1.1%-1.8%) in the low SDI quintile to 5.7% (4.2%-7.1%) in the high SDI quintile. While the high SDI quintile had the highest number of new cases in 2019, the middle SDI quintile had the highest number of cancer deaths and DALYs. From 2010 to 2019, the largest percentage increase in the numbers of cases and deaths occurred in the low and low-middle SDI quintiles. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: The results of this systematic analysis suggest that the global burden of cancer is substantial and growing, with burden differing by SDI. These results provide comprehensive and comparable estimates that can potentially inform efforts toward equitable cancer control around the world.


Subject(s)
Global Burden of Disease , Neoplasms , Disability-Adjusted Life Years , Global Health , Humans , Incidence , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Prevalence , Quality-Adjusted Life Years , Risk Factors
6.
J Med Virol ; 93(12): 6557-6565, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544300

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of Atazanavir/Ritonavir/Dolutegravir/Hydroxychloroquine and Lopinavir/Ritonavir/Hydroxychloroquine treatment regimens in COVID-19 patients based on clinical and laboratory parameters. We prospectively evaluated the clinical and laboratory outcomes of 62 moderate to severe COVID-19 patients during a 10-day treatment plan. Patients were randomly assigned to either KH (receiving Lopinavir/Ritonavir [Kaletra] plus Hydroxychloroquine) or ADH (receiving Atazanavir/Ritonavir, Dolutegravir, and Hydroxychloroquine) groups. During this period, clinical and laboratory parameters and outcomes such as intensive care unit (ICU) admission or mortality rate were recorded. Compared to the KH group, after the treatment period, patients in the ADH group had higher activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) (12, [95% confidence interval [CI]: 6.97, 17.06), p = <0.01), international normalized ratio (INR) (0.17, [95% CI: 0.07, 0.27), p = <0.01) and lower C-reactive protein (CRP) (-14.29, (95% CI: -26.87, -1.71), p = 0.03) and potassium (-0.53, (95% CI: -1.03, -0.03), p = 0.04) values. Moreover, a higher number of patients in the KH group needed invasive ventilation (6 (20%) vs. 1 (3.1%), p = 0.05) and antibiotic administration (27 (90%) vs. 21(65.6), p = 0.02) during hospitalization while patients in the ADH group needed more corticosteroid administration (9 (28.1%) vs. 2 (6.7%), p = 0.03). There was no difference in mortality rate, ICU admission rate, and hospitalization period between the study groups. Our results suggest that the Atazanavir/Dolutegravir treatment regimen may result in a less severe disease course compared to the Lopinavir/Ritonavir treatment regimen and can be considered as an alternative treatment option beside standard care. However, to confirm our results, larger-scale studies are recommended.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Atazanavir Sulfate/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Heterocyclic Compounds, 3-Ring/therapeutic use , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Oxazines/therapeutic use , Piperazines/therapeutic use , Pyridones/therapeutic use , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Atazanavir Sulfate/administration & dosage , COVID-19/pathology , Drug Combinations , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Heterocyclic Compounds, 3-Ring/administration & dosage , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Lopinavir/administration & dosage , Male , Middle Aged , Oxazines/administration & dosage , Piperazines/administration & dosage , Pyridones/administration & dosage , Ritonavir/administration & dosage , Treatment Outcome
7.
J Prev Med Hyg ; 62(2): E321-E325, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1355280

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: To enhance the COVID-19 patients' care and to optimize utilizing medical resources during the pandemic, relevant biomarkers are needed for prediction of the disease's progression. The current study was aimed to determine the factors that affect the mortality of COVID-19 patients admitted in Baharloo hospital in Iran. METHODS: in the current retrospective study, 56 survived patients and 56 patients who were died (a total of 112 cases) because of COVID-19 infection were randomly selected from those who were admitted to Baharloo hospital. Each patient who was diagnosed with COVID-19 and had recovered from it matched with each non-survived patient in the term of age. Laboratory tests of all these patients at the time of admission were recorded and compared. All analyses performed using spss version 22 by considering α = 0.05 as a significant level. RESULTS: There was no statistical difference in the age and gender distribution between the two groups (p > 0.05). The prevalence of diabetes among survived patients was 37.5% and among non-survived patients was 26.8% and there was no statistical difference between two groups regarding this comorbidity (p = 0.22). Also, there was no statistical difference in the prevalence of hypertension and coronary heart diseases between two groups (p > 0.05). Lymphocyte percentage, blood oxygen level, and platelet (PLT) count was significantly higher in patients who had recovered (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: LDH level, Lymphocyte percentage, PLT count, and blood Oxygen saturation have associations with severe forms of COVID-19 infection and can be used as predictors to assess the patients who are suspected of infection with COVID-19 at the time of admission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Male , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
8.
J Prev Med Hyg ; 62(2): E311-E320, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1355279

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The ongoing novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality due to its contagious nature and absence of vaccine and treatment. Although numerous primary studies reported extremely variable case fatality rate (CFR) of COVID-19, no review study attempted to estimate the CFR of COVID-19. The current systematic review and meta-analysis were aimed to assess the pooled CFR of COVID-19. METHODS: Electronic databases: PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, and Google Scholar were searched to retrieve the eligible primary studies that reported CFR of COVID-19. Keywords: ("COVID-19"OR "COVID-2019" OR "severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2"OR "severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2" OR "2019-nCoV" OR "SARS-CoV-2" OR "2019nCoV" OR (("Wuhan" AND ("coronavirus" OR "coronavirus")) AND (2019/12[PDAT] OR 2020[PDAT]))) AND ("mortality "OR "mortality" OR ("case" AND "fatality" AND "rate") OR "case fatality rate") were used as free text and MeSH term in searching process. A random-effects model was used to estimate the CFR in this study. I2 statistics, Cochran's Q test, and T2 were used to assess the functional heterogeneity between included studies. RESULTS: The overall pooled CFR of COVID 19 was 10.0%(95% CI: 8.0-11.0); P < 0.001; I2 = 99.7). The pooled CFR of COVID-19 in general population was 1.0% (95% CI: 1.0-3.0); P < 0.001; I2 = 94.3), while in hospitalized patients was 13.0% (95% CI: 9.0-17.0); P < 0.001, I2 = 95.6). The pooled CFR in patients admitted in intensive care unit (ICU) was 37.0% (95% CI: 24.0-51.0); P < 0.001, I2 = 97.8) and in patients older than 50 years was 19.0% (95% CI: 13.0-24.0); P < 0.001; I2 = 99.8). CONCLUSION: The present review results highlighted the need for transparency in testing and reporting policies and denominators used in CFR estimation. It is also necessary to report the case's age, sex, and the comorbidity distribution of all patients, which essential in comparing the CFR among different segments of the population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Survival Rate
9.
J Med Virol ; 93(12): 6557-6565, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1306657

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of Atazanavir/Ritonavir/Dolutegravir/Hydroxychloroquine and Lopinavir/Ritonavir/Hydroxychloroquine treatment regimens in COVID-19 patients based on clinical and laboratory parameters. We prospectively evaluated the clinical and laboratory outcomes of 62 moderate to severe COVID-19 patients during a 10-day treatment plan. Patients were randomly assigned to either KH (receiving Lopinavir/Ritonavir [Kaletra] plus Hydroxychloroquine) or ADH (receiving Atazanavir/Ritonavir, Dolutegravir, and Hydroxychloroquine) groups. During this period, clinical and laboratory parameters and outcomes such as intensive care unit (ICU) admission or mortality rate were recorded. Compared to the KH group, after the treatment period, patients in the ADH group had higher activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) (12, [95% confidence interval [CI]: 6.97, 17.06), p = <0.01), international normalized ratio (INR) (0.17, [95% CI: 0.07, 0.27), p = <0.01) and lower C-reactive protein (CRP) (-14.29, (95% CI: -26.87, -1.71), p = 0.03) and potassium (-0.53, (95% CI: -1.03, -0.03), p = 0.04) values. Moreover, a higher number of patients in the KH group needed invasive ventilation (6 (20%) vs. 1 (3.1%), p = 0.05) and antibiotic administration (27 (90%) vs. 21(65.6), p = 0.02) during hospitalization while patients in the ADH group needed more corticosteroid administration (9 (28.1%) vs. 2 (6.7%), p = 0.03). There was no difference in mortality rate, ICU admission rate, and hospitalization period between the study groups. Our results suggest that the Atazanavir/Dolutegravir treatment regimen may result in a less severe disease course compared to the Lopinavir/Ritonavir treatment regimen and can be considered as an alternative treatment option beside standard care. However, to confirm our results, larger-scale studies are recommended.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Atazanavir Sulfate/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Heterocyclic Compounds, 3-Ring/therapeutic use , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Oxazines/therapeutic use , Piperazines/therapeutic use , Pyridones/therapeutic use , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Atazanavir Sulfate/administration & dosage , COVID-19/pathology , Drug Combinations , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Heterocyclic Compounds, 3-Ring/administration & dosage , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Lopinavir/administration & dosage , Male , Middle Aged , Oxazines/administration & dosage , Piperazines/administration & dosage , Pyridones/administration & dosage , Ritonavir/administration & dosage , Treatment Outcome
10.
J Prev Med Hyg ; 61(3): E304-E312, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-881536

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 is an emerging infectious disease. The study about features of this infection could be very helpful in better knowledge about this infectious disease. The current systematic review and meta-analysis were aimed to estimate the prevalence of clinical symptoms of COVID-19 in a systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: A systematic review using Medline/PubMed, Scopus, and Google scholar has been conducted. In the current systematic review and meta-analysis, the articles published in the period January 1, 2020, to April 2, 2020, written in English and reporting clinical symptoms of COVID-19 was reviewed. To assess, the presence of heterogeneity, the Cochran's Q statistic, the I2 index, and the tau-squared test were used. Because of significant heterogeneity between the studies the random-effects model with 95% CI was used to calculate the pooled estimation of each symptom prevalence. RESULTS: The most common symptoms in COVID-19 patients include: Fever 81.2% (95% CI: 77.9-84.4); Cough: 58.5% (95% CI: 54.2-62.8); Fatigue 38.5% (95% CI: 30.6-45.3); Dyspnea: 26.1% (95% CI: 20.4-31.8); and the Sputum: 25.8% (95% CI: 21.1-30.4). Based on the meta-regression results, the sample size used in different studies did not have a significant effect on the final estimate value (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Considering the main symptoms of COVID-19 such as Fever, Cough, Fatigue, and Dyspnea can have a key role in early detection of this disease and prevent the transmission of the disease to other people.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Cough/virology , Diagnosis, Differential , Dyspnea/virology , Fatigue/virology , Fever/virology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sputum/virology
11.
Risk Manag Healthc Policy ; 13: 1695-1700, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-820271

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Numerous actions have been taken to control the COVID-19 pandemic and reduce their morbidity and mortality. One of the most important measures in this regard is social distancing. However, there is limited evidence on the effectiveness of social distancing on COVID-19 incidence and mortality. Thus, the current study aimed to assess the effectiveness of social distancing measures on the COVID-19 incidence and mortality in Iran. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the current quasi-experimental study, we evaluated the daily incidence cases and the number of deaths of COVID-19 in Iran before and after the implementation of social distancing measures. The segmented regression model was used to analyze the data. We also performed the interrupted time series (ITS) analysis using Newey ordinary least squares (OLS) regression-based methods. RESULTS: After the implementation of social distancing, the trend of both daily new cases and deaths due to COVID-19 was decreasing [(ß = -1.70 (95% CI = [-2.30 - -1.10; P < 0.001])) and (ß = -0.07 (95% CI = [-0.10 - -0.05; P < 0.001], respectively))]. CONCLUSION: Social distancing along with other public health interventions could reduce the morbidity and mortality of COVID-19 to some degrees, and it seems to be crucial to control the pandemic.

12.
J Prev Med Public Health ; 53(3): 151-157, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-532856

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is one of the main public health challenges currently facing the world. Because of its high transmissibility, COVID-19 has already caused extensive morbidity and mortality in many countries throughout the world. An accurate estimation of the basic reproduction number (R0) of COVID-19 would be beneficial for prevention programs. In light of discrepancies in original research on this issue, this systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to estimate the pooled R0 for COVID-19 in the current outbreak. METHODS: International databases (including Google Scholar, Science Direct, PubMed, and Scopus) were searched to identify studies conducted regarding the R0 of COVID-19. Articles were searched using the following keywords: "COVID-19" and "basic reproduction number" or "R0." The heterogeneity among studies was assessed using the I2 index, the Cochran Q test, and T2. A random-effects model was used to estimate R0 in this study. RESULTS: The mean reported R0 in the identified articles was 3.38±1.40, with a range of 1.90 to 6.49. According to the results of the random-effects model, the pooled R0 for COVID-19 was estimated as 3.32 (95% confidence interval, 2.81 to 3.82). According to the results of the meta-regression analysis, the type of model used to estimate R0 did not have a significant effect on heterogeneity among studies (p=0.81). CONCLUSIONS: Considering the estimated R0 for COVID-19, reducing the number of contacts within the population is a necessary step to control the epidemic. The estimated overall R0 was higher than the World Health Organization estimate.


Subject(s)
Basic Reproduction Number/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Global Health , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , SARS-CoV-2
13.
J Clin Virol ; 127: 104378, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-153917

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: An outbreak of COVID-19 in Iran has spread throughout the country. Identifying the epidemiological characteristics of this disease will help to make appropriate decisions and thus control the epidemic. The aim of this study was characterization of the epidemiological features of COVID-19 in Iran. METHODS: In this retrospective study, data related to the epidemiological characteristics of COVID-19 patients admitted to Baqiyatallah Hospital in Tehran, Iran, from 19 February 2020 to 15 April 2020 have been analyzed and reported. Patient characteristics including age, gender and underlying diseases were investigated. Data were collected through patient records. Sex ratio, Case Fatality Rate (CFR) and daily trend of cases were also determined. A multiple logistic regression analysis was also performed to assess affecting factors on mortality. RESULTS: From February 19, 2020 to April 15, 2020, 12870 patients referred to the hospital emergency department, of which 2968 were hospitalized with COVID-19 diagnosis. The majority of cases were in the age group of 50 to 60 years of old. The male-to-female ratio was 1.93:1. A total of 239 deaths occurred among all cases for an overall CFR of 1.85% based on the total number of patients (both outpatient and inpatient) and 8.06% among hospitalized patients. Out of all patients 10.89% had comorbidity. Diabetes, chronic respiratory diseases, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, chronic Kidney diseases and cancer were the most common comorbidities with 3.81, 2.02 , 1.99 , 1.25, 0.60 and 0.57 %, respectively. Male gender (OR=1.45, 95% CI: 1.08-1.96), older age (OR=1.05, 95% CI: 1.04-1.06) and having underlying diseases (OR=1.53, 95% CI: 1.04-2.24) were significantly associated with mortality. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study showed that Male gender, older age and having comorbidities were significantly associated with the risk of death among COVID-19 patients. It is important to pay special attention to male elderly patients with underlying diseases.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Iran/epidemiology , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors , Young Adult
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