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1.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 22(1): 26, 2022 02 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2153508

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Ethiopia has a high acute rheumatic fever (ARF) and rheumatic heart disease (RHD) prevalence, and to our knowledge, there are no data on the status of secondary prevention in children with RHD. This study describes the status of secondary RHD prevention. METHODS: A multicenter, prospective study was performed on children aged 5-17 years with RHD in Ethiopia. Good adherence was defined as at least 80% completion of benzathine penicillin (BPG) or oral Amoxicillin within the previous year. The primary outcome measure was adherence to prophylaxis, expressed as a proportion. Socio-demographics, severity of RHD, and ARF recurrence were evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 337 children with a mean age of 12.9 ± 2.6 years were included. The majority (73%) had severe aortic/mitral disease. Participants were on BPG (80%) or Amoxicillin (20%) prophylaxis. Female sex (P = 0.04) use of BPG (0.03) and shorter mean duration of prophylaxis in months (48.5 ± 31.5 vs. 60.7 ± 33, respectively, P < 0.008) predicted good adherence. Running out of medications (35%), interrupted follow-up (27%), and the COVID-19 pandemic (26%) were the most common reasons for missing prophylaxis. Recurrence of ARF was higher in participants on Amoxicillin compared with BPG (40% vs. 16%, P < 0.001) and in those with poor adherence compared with good adherence (36.8% vs. 17.9%, respectively, P = 0.005). Type and duration of prophylaxis (OR 0.5, CI = 0.24, 0.9, P = 0.02; OR = 1.1, CI = 1.1, 1.2, P = 0.04, respectively), and sex (OR = 1.9, CI = 1.1, 3.4, P = 0.03) were independent predictors of poor adherence. CONCLUSION: Poor adherence is prevalent in Ethiopian children living with RHD. Amoxicillin is a suboptimal option for prophylaxis as its use is associated with lower adherence and a higher rate of ARF recurrence.


Subject(s)
Amoxicillin/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Penicillin G Benzathine/therapeutic use , Rheumatic Heart Disease/prevention & control , Secondary Prevention , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Medication Adherence , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Recurrence , Rheumatic Heart Disease/diagnosis , Rheumatic Heart Disease/epidemiology , Rheumatic Heart Disease/microbiology , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Oct 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090136

ABSTRACT

This study examined the support for vaccine mandates and uptake among clinical and non-clinical staff at a tertiary hospital in northern Nigeria, focusing on variation of survey responses based on job position, socio-demographic characteristics, and perceived risk of infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Using an explanatory, sequential, mixed-methods design and deploying a pragmatic paradigm, 370 healthcare workers were administered structured questionnaires. This was followed by in-depth interviews with a sub-sample of respondents to further clarify the responses regarding support for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine mandate. Findings demonstrated that less than one-half of respondents supported the COVID-19 mandate, and only one in three had received the recommended COVID-19 vaccine doses. Support for the vaccine mandate and vaccine uptake were predicted by profession, work experience, number of children, health status, and risk perception. Support for the vaccine mandate was ascribed to ethical and professional duty, whereas opposition was associated with respect for autonomy and human rights. This study documents the need to enhance support for vaccine mandates and uptake among healthcare workers through sustainable strategies, as Nigeria's healthcare workers are considered a source of trust and role models for the rest of society.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Child , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Health Personnel , Health Workforce
4.
Curr HIV Res ; 20(1): 82-90, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742080

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: People living with HIV (PLHIV) are at increased risk of COVID-19 acquisition, severe disease, and poor outcomes. Yet, little is known about COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among PLHIV in high HIV burden countries, such as Nigeria. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to assess the acceptability of the COVID-19 vaccine and identify predictors and reasons for vaccine hesitancy among patients living with HIV and attending a tertiary hospital in Kano, northern Nigeria. METHODS: Using a mixed-methods design, structured questionnaires were administered to a clinic- based sample of patients living with HIV (n = 344), followed by 20 in-depth interviews with a sub-sample. Logistic regression and the framework approach were used to analyze the data. RESULTS: Less than half (46.2 %, n = 159) of the respondents were willing to take the COVID-19 vaccine. Vaccine acceptance was higher among non-Muslim PLHIV (Adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR) = 1.26, 95 % Confidence Interval (95 % CI): 1.10-4.00), persons with high-risk perception (aOR = 2.43, 95 % CI:1.18-5.00), those who were not worried about infertility-related rumors (aOR = 13.54, 95 % CI:7.07-25.94) and persons who perceived antiretroviral drugs are protective against COVID-19 (aOR = 2.76, 95 % CI: 1.48-5.14). In contrast, vaccine acceptance was lower among persons who were not concerned about the potential effects of COVID-19-HIV co-infection (aOR = 0.20, 95 % CI:0.10-0.39). The most common reasons for vaccine hesitancy included doubts about the existence of COVID-19, low-risk perception, anxiety about antiretroviral treatmentvaccine interactions, safety concerns, and infertility-related rumors. CONCLUSION: Covid-19 vaccine acceptance was low among PLHIV. COVID-19 vaccine acceptance was associated with respondents' faith, risk perception, perception of the protective effects of antiretroviral treatment, concerns about COVID-19-HIV co-infection, and infertility-related rumors. Vaccination counseling should be integrated into HIV treatment services to improve COVID-19 vaccine uptake among PLHIV in Kano, Nigeria and similar settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Nigeria/epidemiology
6.
Pathog Glob Health ; 116(4): 254-262, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585286

ABSTRACT

We assessed the acceptability of COVID-19 vaccine, predictors, and reasons for vaccine hesitancy among clinical and non-clinical staff at a tertiary hospital in Kano, northern Nigeria.Using a mixed-methods design, structured questionnaires were administered to 284 hospital staff, followed by 20 in-depth interviews with a purposive sub-sample. Logistic regression and the framework approach were used to analyze the data.Only 24.3% (n = 69) of the respondents were willing to accept the COVID-19 vaccine. Acceptance was lower among females (Adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR) = 0.37, 95% Confidence Interval (95%CI): 0.18-0.77 (male vs. female), nurses/midwives (aOR = 0.41, 95%CI:0.13-0.60, physicians vs. nurses/midwives), persons not tested for COVID-19 (aOR = 0.32, 95%CI 0.13-0.79) (no vs. yes) and those who perceived themselves to be at low risk of COVID-19 (aOR = 0.47, 95%CI,0.21-0.89, low vs. high). In contrast, vaccine acceptance was higher among more experienced workers (aOR = 2.28, 95%CI:1.16-8.55, ≥10 vs. <5 years). Vaccine acceptance was also higher among persons who did not worry about vaccine efficacy (aOR = 2.35, 95%CI:1.18-6.54, no vs. yes), or about vaccine safety (aOR = 1.76, 95%CI: 1.16-5.09, no vs. yes), side effects (aOR = 1.85, 95%CI:1.17-5.04, no vs. yes), or rumors (aOR = 2.55, 95%CI:1.25-5.20, no vs. yes). The top four reasons for vaccine hesitancy included distrust, inadequate information, fear of long-term effects, and infertility-related rumors.Concerted efforts are required to build COVID-19 vaccine confidence among health workers in Kano, Nigeria.Our findings can help guide implementation of COVID-19 vaccination in similar settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , Nigeria/epidemiology , Vaccination
7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(20)2021 10 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470834

ABSTRACT

In Sub-Saharan Africa, communicable and other tropical infectious diseases remain major challenges apart from the continuing HIV/AIDS epidemic. Recognition and prevalence of non-communicable diseases have risen throughout Africa, and the reimagining of healthcare delivery is needed to support communities coping with not only with HIV, tuberculosis, and COVID-19, but also cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and depression. Many non-communicable diseases can be prevented or treated with low-cost interventions, yet implementation of such care has been limited in the region. In this Perspective piece, we argue that deployment of an integrated service delivery model is an urgent next step, propose a South African model for integration, and conclude with recommendations for next steps in research and implementation. An approach that is inspired by South African experience would build on existing HIV-focused infrastructure that has been developed by Ministries of Health with strong support from the U.S. President's Emergency Response for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. An integrated chronic healthcare model holds promise to sustainably deliver infectious disease and non-communicable disease care. Integrated care will be especially critical as health systems seek to cope with the unprecedented challenges associated with COVID-19 and future pandemic threats.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Africa South of the Sahara/epidemiology , Chronic Disease , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 17(11): 4057-4064, 2021 Nov 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455123

ABSTRACT

Vaccination is a critical tool in the global response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Yet, COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy has not been well explored in parts of Nigeria. We assessed the predictors of acceptability of the COVID-19 vaccine and identified reasons for vaccine hesitancy among adults in urban Kano, northern Nigeria. Using a mixed-methods design, we administered structured questionnaires to a cross-section of adults (n = 446), complemented with 20 in-depth interviews. Binary logistic regression and the framework approach were used to analyze the data. About one-half (51.1%, n = 228) of the respondents were willing to take the COVID-19 vaccine. Vaccine acceptance was higher among older respondents (≥30 years) (adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR) = 1.76, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.14-2.99 (≥30 vs. <30), higher-income earners (≥30,000 Naira) (aOR = 2.06, 95%CI:1.12-3.80, ≥30,000 vs. <30,000), and those with a history of a chronic medical disorder (aOR = 1.90, 95%CI:1.06-3.72). Vaccine acceptance was also higher in persons with high risk perception (aOR = 1.61, 95%CI:1.13-2.81, high vs. low), those who were unconcerned about vaccine safety (aOR = 1.71, 95%CI:1.13-3.55), and those who were not worried about efficacy (aOR = 2.02, 95%CI:1.14-4.11) and infertility-related rumors (aOR = 1.98, 95%CI:1.24-3.18). Themes revealed doubts about the existence of COVID-19, mistrust for authorities, and popular credence to rumors and conspiracy theories. In conclusion, COVID-19 vaccine acceptance was sub-optimal and influenced by respondent's age, income, co-morbidities, risk perception, and concerns about vaccine safety, efficacy, and rumors. Context-specific, evidence-based risk communication strategies and trust-building measures could boost vaccine confidence in similar settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Nigeria , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Int J MCH AIDS ; 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-339107

ABSTRACT

The world is currently witnessing a dramatic disruption of everyday life owing to the rapid progression of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. As the pandemic evolves, there is an urgent need to better understand its epidemiology, characterize its potential impact, and identify mitigatory strategies to avert pandemic-related mortality. There is a need for a tool or algorithm to evaluate the extent to which public health policy and/or economic preparedness measures are effectively averting COVID-19 related mortality. We present a simple and yet practical epidemiological tool, the Pandemic Efficiency Index (PEI), that can be utilized globally to test the relative efficiency of measures put in place to avert death resulting from COVID-19 infection. Using the PEI and current COVID-19-related mortality, we determined that so far Germany demonstrates the highest PEI (5.1) among countries with more than 5,000 recorded cases of the infection, indicating high quality measures instituted by the country to avert death during the pandemic. Italy and France currently have the lowest COVID-19-related PEIs. Epidemics and pandemics come and go, but local, national, and global abilities to determine the efficiency of their efforts in averting deaths is critical.

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