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1.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(23)2021 Nov 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542506

ABSTRACT

Internet addiction (IA) is widespread, comorbid with other conditions, and commonly undetected, which may impede recovery. The Internet Addiction Test (IAT) is widely used to evaluate IA among healthy respondents, with less agreement on its dimensional structure. This study investigated the factor structure, invariance, predictive validity, criterion validity, and reliability of the IAT among Spanish women with eating disorders (EDs, N = 123), Chinese school children (N = 1072), and Malay/Chinese university students (N = 1119). In school children, four factors with eigen values > 1 explained 50.2% of the variance, with several items cross-loading on more than two factors and three items failing to load on any factor. Among 19 tested models, CFA revealed excellent fit of a unidimensional six-item IAT among ED women and university students (χ2(7) = 8.695, 35.038; p = 0.275, 0.001; CFI = 0.998, 981; TLI = 0.996, 0.960; RMSEA = 0.045, 0.060; SRMR = 0.0096, 0.0241). It was perfectly invariant across genders, academic grades, majors, internet use activities, nationalities (Malay vs. Chinese), and Malay/Chinese female university students vs. Spanish women with anorexia nervosa, albeit it was variant at the scalar level in tests involving other EDs, signifying increased tendency for IA in pathological overeating. The six-item IAT correlated with the effects of internet use on academic performance at a greater level than the original IAT (r = -0.106, p < 0.01 vs. r = -0.78, p < 0.05), indicating superior criterion validity. The six-item IAT is a robust and brief measure of IA in healthy and diseased individuals from different cultures.

2.
Egypt J Neurol Psychiatr Neurosurg ; 57(1): 150, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496245

ABSTRACT

Background: Since the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic and the significant changes that impacted because of it, people around the world have been left dealing with its consequences-fear of becoming ill and dying, fear of losing loved ones, uncertainty about the future, and imposed social isolation-several elements which could lead to psychological consequences. Moreover, as suggested by recent evidence, the virus acts as a factor in causing psychological symptoms, including depression, anxiety, fatigue, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Case presentation: Here, we report a case of a patient with new-onset OCD after his recovery from the coronavirus disease, which presented in the form of recurrent and persistent intrusive thoughts and doubts which responded to medication. Conclusions: This case shows the potential of COVID-19-associated inflammatory triggers to precipitate or induce obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Although this case cannot support causation, it does stress the bidirectional effects that physical and mental illness share.

3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(19)2021 09 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438622

ABSTRACT

Despite extensive investigations of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21 (DASS-21) since its development in 1995, its factor structure and other psychometric properties still need to be firmly established, with several calls for revising its item structure. Employing confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), this study examined the factor structure of the DASS-21 and five shortened versions of the DASS-21 among psychiatric patients (N = 168) and the general public (N = 992) during the COVID-19 confinement period in Saudi Arabia. Multigroup CFA, Mann Whitney W test, Spearman's correlation, and coefficient alpha were used to examine the shortened versions of the DASS-21 (DASS-13, DASS-12, DASS-9 (two versions), and DASS-8) for invariance across age and gender groups, discriminant validity, predictive validity, item coverage, and internal consistency, respectively. Compared with the DASS-21, all three-factor structures of the shortened versions expressed good fit, with the DASS-8 demonstrating the best fit and highest item loadings on the corresponding factors in both samples (χ2(16, 15) = 16.5, 67.0; p = 0.420, 0.001; CFI = 1.000, 0.998; TLI = 0.999, 0.997; RMSEA = 0.013, 0.059, SRMR = 0.0186, 0.0203). The DASS-8 expressed configural, metric, and scalar invariance across age and gender groups. Its internal consistency was comparable to other versions (α = 0.94). Strong positive correlations of the DASS-8 and its subscales with the DASS-21 and its subscales (r = 0.97 to 0.81) suggest adequate item coverage and good predictive validity of this version. The DASS-8 and its subscales distinguished the clinical sample from the general public at the same level of significance expressed by the DASS-21 and other shortened versions, supporting its discriminant validity. Neither the DASS-21 nor the shortened versions distinguished patients diagnosed with depression and anxiety from each other or from other psychiatric conditions. The DASS-8 represents a valid short version of the DASS-21, which may be useful in research and clinical practice for quick identification of individuals with potential psychopathologies. Diagnosing depression/anxiety disorders may be further confirmed in a next step by clinician-facilitated examinations. Brevity of the DASS-21 would save time and effort used for filling the questionnaire and support comprehensive assessments by allowing the inclusion of more measures on test batteries.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depression , Anxiety/diagnosis , Depression/diagnosis , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Humans , Mental Health , Psychometrics , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/diagnosis , Surveys and Questionnaires
4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(18)2021 Sep 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1409508

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Burnout is an emerging critical issue facing specialists and trainees in all disciplines and not particularly studied among physiatry specialists and trainees in Saudi Arabia during the COVID-19 pandemic. OBJECTIVE: To assess physiatrist burnout, depression, anxiety, and stress during the current COVID-19 pandemic crisis in Saudi Arabia. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: By distributing an electronic survey, the researcher assessed burnout using the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) Human Services Survey (HSS) in the midst of the curfew that Saudi authorities imposed. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred one participating trainees, specialists, and consultants. RESULTS: Of the 101 study participants, the majority (73.3%) were between the ages of 24 and 34 years old, with the rest distributed within the age group ranging from 35 to 65 years old. Junior residents represented 34.7%, senior residents 22.8%, physiatrist specialists 26.7%, and consultants 15.8%. The sample included 55.4% males and 44.6% females; 64.4% of the participants were married, 29.7% were still single, and 5.9% were divorced. Among the total group participating, 25.7% were handling COVID-19 patients. In the total participant sample, 80.2% reported experiencing burnout, 10.9% experienced stress, and 22.8% and 6.9% experienced anxiety and depression, respectively. CONCLUSION: Burnout in Saudi Arabia exists among more than two-thirds of practicing physiatrists in Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation (PM&R), and that did not appear to have a statistically significant influence on stress, anxiety, or depression (p > 0.05). The current COVID-19 global pandemic might escalate burnout and influence mental health outcomes. The healthcare authority and administration should take the lead in identifying the challenges, overcoming the obstacles, and optimizing clinician well-being, delivering up-to-date solutions, and promptly checking their effectiveness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Physiatrists , Adult , Burnout, Psychological/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Young Adult
5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(15)2021 Jul 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1325668

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic is a global health crisis associated with unprecedented levels of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The COVID-19 pandemic has been suggested to contribute to a great burden on global mental health. We assumed that individuals in quarantine outside their home country would be more vulnerable to developing mental health disorders during the current pandemic and might face difficulties in accessing mental health services. AIM: To explore the degree of association between the COVID-19 pandemic and mental health status of Saudi citizens living abroad. OBJECTIVES: (1) To measure the prevalence and risk factors of mental health problems among Saudi citizens studying and living abroad during the COVID-19 pandemic; (2) to assess the correlation between the COVID-19 pandemic and mental health status of Saudi citizens living abroad; and (3) to explore the level of anxiety/depression during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted from August 2020 to September 2020 using a self-administrated questionnaire composed of sociodemographic, (GAD-7) and (PHQ-9) scales. RESULTS: A total of 64% of participants experienced psychiatric symptoms during the pandemic, and 34% and 30% met the diagnostic criteria for symptoms of depression and anxiety, respectively. The risk of psychological symptoms was more likely experienced by females, young, single, or divorced, or those who were living alone. In addition, those who lived in the UK and Ireland were more likely to develop depressive and anxiety symptoms. More than 80% appreciated the response of the Saudi government and embassy to meet the MH needs of students undergoing quarantine abroad and in Saudi Arabia. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic represents an unprecedented threat to global mental health. Two-thirds of study participants who were in foreign countries during the COVID-19 pandemic reported anxiety or depressive symptoms. Living away from family and friends was significantly associated with increased loneliness and psychological distress. These and other findings highlight the need to remove barriers preventing easily accessible online mental health services, social and family support, and timely provision of resources.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Anxiety/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Health Status , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology
6.
Hum Resour Health ; 19(1): 46, 2021 04 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1169966

ABSTRACT

Very few studies have been concerned with assessing the prevalence of burnout and depressive symptoms, especially during an infectious outbreak on non-frontline health care workers, such as a psychiatrist. In such instances, the role of psychiatrists and other mental health providers as a source of psychological support to the public and frontline workers is indispensable and valuable. This study aims to assess the prevalence of burnout and depressive symptoms, and their correlation, during the COVID-19 pandemic among psychiatry residents in Saudi Arabia. A total of 121 out of 150 psychiatry residents in Saudi Arabia completed the Maslach Burnout Inventory and Patient's Health Questionnaire for the assessment of burnout and depressive symptoms. Burnout symptoms were found in 27.3%, and another 27.3% reported having depression symptoms. In addition, 16.5% reported having both burnout and depressive symptoms, with a significant relationship between them. Participants in the first 2 years of training and having a history of receiving mental health treatment in the past 2 years were at higher risk. The need is urgent to increase investment in mental health services and to construct a plan to reduce this risk of burnout and depression among psychiatrists by developing preventative strategies to prevent burnout and promote wellness is more important than ever.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Psychological/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Depression/epidemiology , Health Personnel/psychology , Internship and Residency , Pandemics , Psychiatry , Adult , Burnout, Professional , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia , Young Adult
7.
Risk Manag Healthc Policy ; 13: 3103-3120, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1004551

ABSTRACT

Background: Quarantine is a useful measure for preventing and controlling pandemics; however, it might be stressful for quarantined individuals. Fear and anxiety about a disease can be overwhelming. These emotions were reported for individuals in involuntary quarantine facilities dedicated to quarantine purposes. Methods: This cross-sectional study surveyed the individuals in involuntary quarantine institutions (for a planned period of 14 days of quarantine) in two regions of Saudi Arabia. The mental health status of individuals was assessed using the Revised Impact of Event Scale (IES-R) and Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21). Results: The study surveyed 214 quarantined/isolated individuals. The stress, anxiety, and depression rates were 25.7%, 21.5%, and 32.7%, respectively. On the IES-R, 28.0% of the participants met the criteria for psychological distress. Female gender, self-reported history of psychiatric disorder, and average health status were significantly associated with negative psychological impact and depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms (p<0.05). Watching television was found to be a factor in reducing rates on the IES-R and DASS-21 scale while working out lowered rates on the IES-R alone (p<0.05). Conclusion: During an institutional involuntary quarantine, additional attention should be paid to vulnerable groups like females and individuals with a history of psychiatric illness. More than one-fourth of our sample experienced a negative psychological impact; therefore, coping practices like working out should be encouraged. This study contributes to the ongoing discussion about the psychological aspects of being quarantined. Much work remains to be done to identify strategies that prevent and mitigate psychological distress throughout the quarantine experience and to determine whether these impacts will last for an extended period of time.

8.
Compr Psychiatry ; 102: 152192, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-640027

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is an emerging infection causing a widely spread pandemic of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The current COVID-2019 pandemic is prompting fear of falling sick, dying, helplessness and stigma, urgent and timely understanding of mental health status is needed to help the community. Our investigation designed to survey the general population in Saudi Arabia to assess the degree of psychological impact during the pandemic. METHODS: During the early stage of the outbreak, we conducted an online-based survey using a snowballing sample technique. The surveys collected data about several aspects of participant sociodemographic, knowledge, concerns, psychological impact, and mental health status. We assessed the psychological impact and mental health status using the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R), and the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21). RESULTS: Our survey recruited 1160 respondents of the general public of Saudi Arabia. Of them, 23.6% reported moderate or severe psychological impact of the outbreak, 28.3%,24%, and 22.3% reported moderate to severe depressive, anxiety, and stress symptoms, respectively. Females reported IES-R (B: 5.46, 95% CI: 3.61 to 7.31) and DASS subscales B coefficient ranged from 1.65 to 2.63, along with high-school students, working in the medical field, and poor self-reported health status was significantly associated with a high level of IES-R and DASS scales (p < .05). Experiencing breathing difficulty and dizziness showed a stronger association with higher IES-R and DASS subscales than other somatic symptoms (e.g., headache and fever);(p < .001). Respondents who practiced specific preventative measures (e.g., hand washing, social distancing) demonstrated a protective effect against stress, anxiety, and depression symptoms. Social distancing appeared to be protective on stress and anxiety subscales (B: -1.49, 95% CI: -2.79 to -0.19),(B: -1.53, 95% CI: -2.50 to -0.57),respectively; and hand hygiene on depression subscale (B: -2.43, 95% CI: -4.44 to -0.42). CONCLUSION: Throughout the early stage of the COVID-19 outbreak in Saudi Arabia, the results showed that nearly one-fourth of the sampled general population experienced moderate to severe psychological impact. Following specific precautionary measures appeared to have a protective effect on the individual's mental health. Our findings can be used to construct psychological interventions directed toward vulnerable populations and to implement public mental health strategies in the early stages of the outbreak.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/psychology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Coronavirus , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Fear , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
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