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1.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 May 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1927307

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The efficacy of SARS-CoV-2 convalescent plasma (CCP) for preventing infection in exposed, uninfected individuals is unknown. CCP might prevent infection when administered before symptoms or laboratory evidence of infection. METHODS: This double-blinded, phase 2 randomized, controlled trial (RCT) compared the efficacy and safety of prophylactic high titer (≥1:320 by Euroimmun ELISA) CCP with standard plasma. Asymptomatic participants aged ≥18 years with close contact exposure to a person with confirmed COVID-19 in the previous 120 hours and negative SARS-CoV-2 test within 24 hours before transfusion were eligible. The primary outcome was new SARS-CoV-2 infection. RESULTS: 180 participants were enrolled; 87 were assigned to CCP and 93 to control plasma, and 170 transfused at 19 sites across the United States from June 2020 to March 2021. Two were excluded for screening SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR positivity. Of the remaining 168 participants, 12/81 (14·8%) CCP and 13/87 (14·9%) control recipients developed SARS-CoV-2 infection; 6 (7·4%) CCP and 7 (8%) control recipients developed COVID-19 (infection with symptoms). There were no COVID-19-related hospitalizations in CCP and 2 in control recipients. Efficacy by restricted mean infection free time (RMIFT) by 28 days for all SARS-CoV-2 infections (25·3 vs. 25·2 days; p = 0·49) and COVID-19 (26·3 vs. 25·9 days; p = 0·35) was similar for both groups. CONCLUSIONS: Administration of high-titer CCP as post-exposure prophylaxis, while appearing safe, did not prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection.

2.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 2022 Apr 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875278

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: One of the most debated questions in the COVID-19 pandemic has been the role of schools in SARS-CoV-2 transmission. The COVID-19 Schools Infection Survey (SIS) aims to provide much-needed evidence addressing this. OBJECTIVE: This paper presents the study protocol and participation profile for the SIS study, aimed at assessing the role of schools in SARS-CoV-2 infection and transmission within school settings, and investigating how transmission within and from schools could be mitigated through implementation of school COVID-19 control measures. METHODS: SIS was a multisite, prospective, observational cohort study conducted in a stratified random sample of primary and secondary schools in selected local authorities in England. Six bio-behavioural surveys were planned among participating students and staff during the 2020/21 academic year, between November 2020 and July 2021. Key measurements were SARS-CoV-2 virus prevalence, assessed by nasal swab polymerase chain reaction; anti-SARS-CoV-2 (nucleocapsid protein) antibody prevalence and conversion, assessed in finger-prick-blood for staff and oral-fluid for students; student and staff school attendance rates; feasibility and acceptability of school-level implementation of SARS-CoV-2 control measures; and investigation of selected school outbreaks. The study received approvals from the UK Health Security Agency Research Support and Governance Office (NR0237) and London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine Ethics Review Committee (ref:22657). RESULTS: Data collection and laboratory analyses were completed by September 2021. A total of 22,585 individuals: 1,891 staff and 4,654 students from 59 primary schools and 5,852 staff and 10,188 students from 97 secondary schools participated in at least one survey. On average, across survey rounds, staff and student participation rates were 45.2% and 16.4% respectively in primary schools and 30.0% and 15.2% in secondary schools. While primary student participation increased over time, and secondary student participation remained reasonably consistent, staff participation declined across rounds, especially for secondary school staff (41.7% in Round 1 and 22.1% in Round 6). While staff participation overall was generally reflective of the eligible staff population, student participation was higher in schools with low absenteeism, a lower proportion of students eligible for free school meals and from schools in the least deprived locations (in primary schools 9.6% participants were from schools in the least deprived quintile compared with 5.7% of eligible students). CONCLUSIONS: We outline the study design, methods and participation, and reflect on the strengths of the SIS study as well as the practical challenges encountered, and the strategies implemented to address these challenges. The SIS study, by measuring current and incident infection over time, alongside the implementation of control measures in schools, across a range of settings in England, aims to inform national guidance and public health policy for educational settings.

3.
EBioMedicine ; 77: 103902, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1700817

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is an ongoing global effort to design, manufacture, and clinically assess vaccines against SARS-CoV-2. Over the course of the ongoing pandemic a number of new SARS-CoV-2 virus isolates or variants of concern (VoC) have been identified containing mutations in key proteins. METHODS: In this study we describe the generation and preclinical assessment of a ChAdOx1-vectored vaccine (AZD2816) which expresses the spike protein of the Beta VoC (B.1.351). FINDINGS: We demonstrate that AZD2816 is immunogenic after a single dose. When AZD2816 is used as a booster dose in animals primed with a vaccine encoding the original spike protein (ChAdOx1 nCoV-19/ [AZD1222]), an increase in binding and neutralising antibodies against Beta (B.1.351), Gamma (P.1) and Delta (B.1.617.2) is observed following each additional dose. In addition, a strong and polyfunctional T cell response was measured all booster regimens. INTERPRETATION: Real world data is demonstrating that one or more doses of licensed SARS-CoV-2 vaccines confer reduced protection against hospitalisation and deaths caused by divergent VoC, including Omicron. Our data support the ongoing clinical development and testing of booster vaccines to increase immunity against highly mutated VoC. FUNDING: This research was funded by AstraZeneca with supporting funds from MRC and BBSRC.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
4.
BMJ Open ; 11(12), 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1592768

ABSTRACT

ObjectivesThe aim of this study is to fill a key information gap on the nutrition-related epidemiology of orphaned and vulnerable children living within institution-based care (IBC) across six countries.DesignA retrospective analysis with Shewhart control charts and funnel plots to explore intersite and over time variations in nutritional status.SettingWe conducted a retrospective analysis of records from Holt International’s Child Nutrition Programme from 35 sites in six countries;Mongolia, India, Ethiopia, Vietnam, China and the Philippines.ParticipantsDeidentified health records from Holt International’s online nutrition screening database included records from 2926 children, 0–18 years old. Data were collected from 2013 to 2020 and included demographic and health information.ResultsAt initial screening, 717 (28.7%) children were anaemic, 788 (34.1%) underweight, 1048 (37.3%) stunted, 212 (12.6%) wasted, 135 (12%) overweight or obese and 339 (31%) had small head circumference. Many had underlying conditions: low birth weight, 514 (57.5%);prematurity, 294 (42.2%) and disabilities, 739 (25.3%). Children with disabilities had higher prevalence of malnutrition compared with counterparts without disabilities at baseline and 1-year screenings. There was marked intersite variation. Funnel plots highlight sites with malnutrition prevalence outside expected limits for this specific population taking into consideration natural variation at baseline and at 1 year. Control charts show changes in site mean z-scores over time in relation to site control limits.ConclusionsMalnutrition is prevalent among children living within IBC, notably different forms of undernutrition (stunting, underweight, wasting). Underlying risk factors are also common: prematurity, low birth weight and disability. Nutrition interventions should take into account the needs of this vulnerable population, especially for infants and those with disabilities. Using control charts to present data could be especially useful to programme managers as sites outside control limits could represent: problems to be investigated;good practices to be shared.

5.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-296989

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The efficacy of SARS-CoV-2 convalescent plasma (CCP) for preventing infection in exposed, uninfected individuals is unknown. We hypothesized that CCP might prevent infection when administered before symptoms or laboratory evidence of infection. METHODS: This double-blinded, phase 2 randomized, controlled trial (RCT) compared the efficacy and safety of prophylactic high titer (≥1:320) CCP with standard plasma. Asymptomatic participants aged ≥18 years with close contact exposure to a person with confirmed COVID-19 in the previous 120 hours and negative SARS-CoV-2 test within 24 hours before transfusion were eligible. The primary outcome was development of SARS-CoV-2 infection. RESULTS: 180 participants were enrolled;87 were assigned to CCP and 93 to control plasma, and 170 transfused at 19 sites across the United States from June 2020 to March 2021. Two were excluded for SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR positivity at screening. Of the remaining 168 participants, 12/81 (14.8%) CCP and 13/87 (14.9%) control recipients developed SARS-CoV-2 infection;6 (7.4%) CCP and 7 (8%) control recipients developed COVID-19 (infection with symptoms). There were no COVID-19-related hospitalizations in CCP and 2 in control recipients. There were 28 adverse events in CCP and 58 in control recipients. Efficacy by restricted mean infection free time (RMIFT) by 28 days for all SARS-CoV-2 infections (25.3 vs. 25.2 days;p=0.49) and COVID-19 (26.3 vs. 25.9 days;p=0.35) were similar for both groups. CONCLUSION: In this trial, which enrolled persons with recent exposure to a person with confirmed COVID-19, high titer CCP as post-exposure prophylaxis appeared safe, but did not prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection. Trial Registration: Clinicaltrial.gov number NCT04323800 .

6.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-296056

ABSTRACT

There is an ongoing global effort to design, manufacture, and clinically assess vaccines against SARS-CoV-2. Over the course of the ongoing pandemic a number of new SARS-CoV-2 virus isolates or variants of concern (VoC) have been identified containing mutations in key proteins. In this study we describe the generation and preclinical assessment of a ChAdOx1-vectored vaccine (AZD2816) which expresses the spike protein of the Beta VoC (B.1.351). We demonstrate that AZD2816 is immunogenic after a single dose. When AZD2816 is used as a booster dose in animals primed with a vaccine encoding the original spike protein (ChAdOx1 nCoV-19/ [AZD1222]), high titre binding and neutralising antibodies against Beta (B.1.351), Gamma (P.1) and Delta (B.1.617.2) are induced. In addition, a strong and polyfunctional T cell response was measured in these booster regimens. These data support the ongoing clinical development and testing of this new variant vaccine.

7.
Mol Ther ; 29(6): 1970-1983, 2021 06 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1386766

ABSTRACT

A self-transcribing and replicating RNA (STARR)-based vaccine (LUNAR-COV19) has been developed to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection. The vaccine encodes an alphavirus-based replicon and the SARS-CoV-2 full-length spike glycoprotein. Translation of the replicon produces a replicase complex that amplifies and prolongs SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein expression. A single prime vaccination in mice led to robust antibody responses, with neutralizing antibody titers increasing up to day 60. Activation of cell-mediated immunity produced a strong viral antigen-specific CD8+ T lymphocyte response. Assaying for intracellular cytokine staining for interferon (IFN)γ and interleukin-4 (IL-4)-positive CD4+ T helper (Th) lymphocytes as well as anti-spike glycoprotein immunoglobulin G (IgG)2a/IgG1 ratios supported a strong Th1-dominant immune response. Finally, single LUNAR-COV19 vaccination at both 2 µg and 10 µg doses completely protected human ACE2 transgenic mice from both mortality and even measurable infection following wild-type SARS-CoV-2 challenge. Our findings collectively suggest the potential of LUNAR-COV19 as a single-dose vaccine.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/biosynthesis , Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/administration & dosage , Alphavirus/genetics , Alphavirus/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Animals , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/biosynthesis , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Female , Gene Expression , Humans , Immunity, Cellular/drug effects , Immunity, Humoral/drug effects , Interferon-gamma/genetics , Interferon-gamma/immunology , Interleukin-4/genetics , Interleukin-4/immunology , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Replicon/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Th1 Cells/drug effects , Th1 Cells/immunology , Th1 Cells/virology , Transgenes , Treatment Outcome , Vaccination/methods , Vaccines, Synthetic/biosynthesis , Vaccines, Synthetic/genetics , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology
8.
Transfusion ; 61(9): 2756-2767, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367368

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The AABB Clinical Transfusion Medicine Committee (CTMC) compiles an annual synopsis of the published literature covering important developments in the field of transfusion medicine (TM), which has been made available as a manuscript published in Transfusion since 2018. METHODS: CTMC committee members reviewed original manuscripts including TM-related topics published electronically (ahead) or in print from December 2019 to December 2020. The selection of topics and manuscripts was discussed at committee meetings and chosen based on relevance and originality. Next, committee members worked in pairs to create a synopsis of each topic, which was then reviewed by two additional committee members. The first and senior authors of this manuscript assembled the final manuscript. Although this synopsis is extensive, it is not exhaustive, and some papers may have been excluded or missed. RESULTS: The following topics are included: COVID-19 effects on the blood supply and regulatory landscape, COVID convalescent plasma, adult transfusion practices, whole blood, molecular immunohematology, pediatric TM, cellular therapy, and apheresis medicine. CONCLUSIONS: This synopsis provides easy access to relevant topics and may be useful as an educational tool.


Subject(s)
Transfusion Medicine/trends , Humans
9.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2893, 2021 05 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1232068

ABSTRACT

Several vaccines have demonstrated efficacy against SARS-CoV-2 mediated disease, yet there is limited data on the immune response induced by heterologous vaccination regimens using alternate vaccine modalities. Here, we present a detailed description of the immune response, in mice, following vaccination with a self-amplifying RNA (saRNA) vaccine and an adenoviral vectored vaccine (ChAdOx1 nCoV-19/AZD1222) against SARS-CoV-2. We demonstrate that antibody responses are higher in two-dose heterologous vaccination regimens than single-dose regimens. Neutralising titres after heterologous prime-boost were at least comparable or higher than the titres measured after homologous prime boost vaccination with viral vectors. Importantly, the cellular immune response after a heterologous regimen is dominated by cytotoxic T cells and Th1+ CD4 T cells, which is superior to the response induced in homologous vaccination regimens in mice. These results underpin the need for clinical trials to investigate the immunogenicity of heterologous regimens with alternate vaccine technologies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , RNA, Viral/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination/methods , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Immunization, Secondary , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Mice , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic/immunology , Th1 Cells/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Synthetic/genetics , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology
10.
BMJ Open ; 10(12): e039546, 2020 12 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1228877

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Post-randomisation exclusions in randomised controlled trials are common and may include participants identified as not meeting trial eligibility criteria after randomisation. We report how a decision might be reached and reported on, to include or exclude these participants. We illustrate using a motivating scenario from the BREATHE trial (Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02426112) evaluating azithromycin for the treatment of chronic lung disease in people aged 6-19 years with HIV in Zimbabwe and Malawi. KEY POINTS: Including all enrolled and randomised participants in the primary analysis of a trial ensures an unbiased estimate of the intervention effect using intention-to-treat principles, and minimises the effects of confounding through balanced allocation to trial arm. Ineligible participants are sometimes enrolled, due to measurement or human error. Of 347 participants enrolled into the BREATHE trial, 11 (3.2%) were subsequently found to be ineligible based on lung function criteria. We assumed no safety risk of azithromycin treatment; their inclusion in the trial and subsequent analysis of the intervention effect therefore mirrors clinical practice. Senior trial investigators considered diurnal variations in the measurement of lung function, advantages of retaining a higher sample size and advice from the Data Safety and Monitoring Board and Trial Steering Committee, and decided to include these participants in primary analysis. We planned and reported analyses including and excluding these participants, and in our case the interpretation of treatment effect was consistent. CONCLUSION: The decision, by senior investigators, on whether to exclude enrolled participants, should reflect issues of safety, treatment efficacy, statistical power and measurement error. As long as decisions are made prior to finalising the statistical analysis plan for the trial, the risk of exclusions creating bias should be minimal. The decision taken should be transparently reported and a sensitivity analysis can present the opposite decision.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Humans , Malawi , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult , Zimbabwe
11.
ACS Cent Sci ; 7(4): 594-602, 2021 Apr 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225486

ABSTRACT

Vaccine development against the SARS-CoV-2 virus focuses on the principal target of the neutralizing immune response, the spike (S) glycoprotein. Adenovirus-vectored vaccines offer an effective platform for the delivery of viral antigen, but it is important for the generation of neutralizing antibodies that they produce appropriately processed and assembled viral antigen that mimics that observed on the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Here, we describe the structure, conformation, and glycosylation of the S protein derived from the adenovirus-vectored ChAdOx1 nCoV-19/AZD1222 vaccine. We demonstrate native-like post-translational processing and assembly, and reveal the expression of S proteins on the surface of cells adopting the trimeric prefusion conformation. The data presented here confirm the use of ChAdOx1 adenovirus vectors as a leading platform technology for SARS-CoV-2 vaccines.

12.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 56(7): 1951-1956, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1179015

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic profoundly impacted health care utilization. We evaluated asthma-related emergency department (ED) and inpatient health care utilization by a county-specific Medicaid population, ages 2-18, during the COVID-19 pandemic and compared it to utilization from a 3-year average including 2017-2019. All-cause ED utilization and asthma medication fill rates were evaluated during the same timeframes. Relative to the 2017-2019 3-year average, cumulative asthma-related ED visits from January through June decreased by 45.8% (p = .03) and inpatient admission rates decreased by 50.5% (p = .03). The decline in asthma-related ED utilization was greater than the reduction of overall ED use during the same time period, suggesting that the decline involved factors specific to asthma and was not due solely to avoidance of health care facilities. Fill rates for asthma controller medications decreased during this time (p = .03) and quick relief medication fill rates had no significant change (p = .31). Multiple factors may have contributed to the decrease in acute asthma health care visits. Locally, decreased air pollution and viral exposures coincided with the "Stay-at-home" order in Ohio, and increased utilization of telehealth for assessment during exacerbations may have impacted outcomes. Identification of the cause of the decline in visit rates could spur new interventions to limit the need for ED and inpatient visits for asthma patients, leading to both economic and health-associated benefits.


Subject(s)
Asthma/physiopathology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Adolescent , Air Pollution , Asthma/complications , Asthma/drug therapy , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Emergency Service, Hospital , Female , Humans , Inpatients , Male , Medicaid , Morbidity , Ohio/epidemiology , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Telemedicine , United States
16.
Nature ; 586(7830): 578-582, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-691215

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in December 20191,2 and is responsible for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic3. Vaccines are an essential countermeasure and are urgently needed to control the pandemic4. Here we show that the adenovirus-vector-based vaccine ChAdOx1 nCoV-19, which encodes the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2, is immunogenic in mice and elicites a robust humoral and cell-mediated response. This response was predominantly mediated by type-1 T helper cells, as demonstrated by the profiling of the IgG subclass and the expression of cytokines. Vaccination with ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (using either a prime-only or a prime-boost regimen) induced a balanced humoral and cellular immune response of type-1 and type-2 T helper cells in rhesus macaques. We observed a significantly reduced viral load in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lower respiratory tract tissue of vaccinated rhesus macaques that were challenged with SARS-CoV-2 compared with control animals, and no pneumonia was observed in vaccinated SARS-CoV-2-infected animals. However, there was no difference in nasal shedding between vaccinated and control SARS-CoV-2-infected macaques. Notably, we found no evidence of immune-enhanced disease after viral challenge in vaccinated SARS-CoV-2-infected animals. The safety, immunogenicity and efficacy profiles of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 against symptomatic PCR-positive COVID-19 disease will now be assessed in randomized controlled clinical trials in humans.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Disease Models, Animal , Macaca mulatta , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Adenoviridae/genetics , Animals , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cytokines/immunology , Female , Immunity, Cellular , Immunity, Humoral , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Lung/immunology , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Macaca mulatta/immunology , Macaca mulatta/virology , Male , Mice , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Th1 Cells/immunology , Vaccination , Viral Load , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage , Viral Vaccines/genetics
17.
NPJ Vaccines ; 5(1): 69, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-689622

ABSTRACT

Clinical development of the COVID-19 vaccine candidate ChAdOx1 nCoV-19, a replication-deficient simian adenoviral vector expressing the full-length SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein was initiated in April 2020 following non-human primate studies using a single immunisation. Here, we compared the immunogenicity of one or two doses of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 in both mice and pigs. Whilst a single dose induced antigen-specific antibody and T cells responses, a booster immunisation enhanced antibody responses, particularly in pigs, with a significant increase in SARS-CoV-2 neutralising titres.

18.
Immunology ; 160(3): 223-232, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-648052

ABSTRACT

Since the first World Health Organization notification on 31 December 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the respiratory disease caused by the coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), has been responsible for over four million confirmed infections and almost 300 000 deaths worldwide. The pandemic has led to over half of the world's population living under lockdown conditions. To allow normal life to resume, public health interventions will be needed to prevent further waves of infections as lockdown measures are lifted. As one of the most effective countermeasures against infectious diseases, an efficacious vaccine is considered crucial to containing the COVID-19 pandemic. Following the publication of the genome sequence of SARS-CoV-2, vaccine development has accelerated at an unprecedented pace across the world. Here we review the different platforms employed to develop vaccines, the standard timelines of development and how they can be condensed in a pandemic situation. We focus on vaccine development in the UK and vaccines that have entered clinical trials around the world.


Subject(s)
Viral Vaccines , Animals , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Clinical Trials as Topic , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Protein Subunits/immunology , United Kingdom , Vaccines, Attenuated/immunology , Vaccines, DNA/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology
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