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J Drug Deliv Sci Technol ; 86: 104663, 2023 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237876


Deficiency of selenium (Se) has been described in a significant number of COVID-19 patients having a higher incidence of mortality, which makes it a pertinent issue to be addressed clinically for effective management of the COVID-19 pandemic. Se nanoparticles (SeNPs) provide a unique option for managing the havoc caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. SeNPs possess promising anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects by virtue of their nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-stimulator of activated B cells (NFκB), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPKs), and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-ß) modulatory activity. In addition, SeNPs possess remarkable immunomodulatory effects, making them a suitable option for supplementation with a much lower risk of toxicity compared to their elemental counterpart. Further, SeNPs have been shown to curtail viral and microbial infections, thus, making it a novel means to halt viral growth. In addition, it can be administered in the form of aerosol spray, direct injection, or infused thin-film transdermal patches to reduce the spread of this highly contagious viral infection. Moreover, a considerable decrease in the expression of selenoprotein along with enhanced expression of IL-6 in COVID-19 suggests a potential association among selenoprotein expression and COVID-19. In this review, we highlight the unique antimicrobial and antiviral properties of SeNPs and the immunomodulatory potential of selenoproteins. We provide the rationale behind their potentially interesting properties and further exploration in the context of microbial and viral infections. Further, the importance of selenoproteins and their role in maintaining a successful immune response along with their association to Se status is summarized.

Sens Int ; 2: 100101, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1253644


COVID-19 is a highly contagious and widespread disease that has strained the global healthcare system to the hilt. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are well known for their potent antimicrobial, antiviral, immunomodulatory and biosensing properties. AgNPs have been found to be potential antiviral agent that act against many deadly viruses and is presumed to be effective against COVID-19. AgNPs can generate free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to apoptosis mediated cell death thereby inhibiting viral infection. The shape and size of AgNPs play an important role in its biomedical applications as alterations may result in variable biological interaction and activity. Herein, we propose that AgNPs can be utilized for effective management of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic by highlighting the current status of AgNPs in the fight against COVID-19.

Med Hypotheses ; 152: 110612, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1240509


Coronavirus pandemic has emerged as an extraordinary healthcare crisis in modern times. The SARS-CoV-2 novel coronavirus has high transmission rate, is more aggressive and virulent in comparison to previously known coronaviruses. It primarily attacks the respiratory system by inducing cytokine storm that causes systemic inflammation and pulmonary fibrosis. Decorin is a pluripotent molecule belonging to a leucine rich proteoglycan group that exerts critical role in extracellular matrix (ECM) assembly and regulates cell growth, adhesion, proliferation, inflammation, and fibrogenesis. Interestingly, decorin has potent anti-inflammatory, cytokine inhibitory, and anti-fibrillogenesis effects which make it a potential drug candidate against the COVID-19 related complications especially in the context of lung fibrosis. Herein, we postulate that owing to its distinctive pharmacological actions and immunomodulatory effect, decorin can be a promising preclinical therapeutic agent for the therapy of COVID-19.

COVID-19 , Cytokines , Decorin , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
Nano Today ; 38: 101142, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1157629


The emergency use authorization (EUA) by the US-FDA for two mRNA-based vaccines BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) and mRNA-1273 (Moderna) has brought hope of addressing the COVID-19 pandemic which has killed more than two million people globally. Nanotechnology has played a significant role in the success of these vaccines. Nanoparticles (NPs) aid in improving stability by protecting the encapsulated mRNA from ribonucleases and facilitate delivery of intact mRNA to the target site. The overwhelming success of these two mRNA based vaccines with ~95% efficacy in phase III clinical trials can be attributed to their unique nanocarrier, the "lipid nanoparticles" (LNPs). LNPs are unique compared with bilayered liposomes and provide improved stability of the cargo, possess rigid morphology, and aid in better cellular penetration. This EUA is a major milestone and showcases the immense potential of nanotechnology for vaccine delivery and for fighting against future pandemics. Currently, these two vaccines are aiding in the alleviation of the COVID-19 health crisis and demonstrate the potential utility of nanomedicine for tackling health problems at the global level.

Nano Today ; 35: 100982, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-759198


The COVID-19 pandemic has emerged as an unprecedented global healthcare emergency and has devastated the global economy. The SARS-CoV-2 virus replicates in the host cells and is seemingly much more virulent compared to other flu viruses, as well as the SARS-CoV-1. The respiratory complications of the disease include acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), cytokine storm, systemic inflammation, and pulmonary fibrosis. Nanoceria (NC) is a versatile rare earth nanoparticle with remarkable catalase and superoxide dismutase mimetic redox regenerative properties. Interestingly, NC possesses promising anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-fibrotic properties, making it an attractive tool to fight against the SARS-CoV-2 as well as the associated systemic complications. Until now, there is no clinically approved vaccine or drug for the treatment of COVID-19, and the conquest to find a novel therapy for this global havoc is being undertaken at a warlike pace. Herein, based on preclinical evidence, we hypothesize that NC owing to its unique pharmacological properties, might be an attractive preclinical candidate to win the battle over COVID-19. Further, it may be used as a prevention or treatment strategy in combination with other drugs.

Med Hypotheses ; 144: 110259, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-753088


The COVID-19 pandemic is the most devastating health emergency that humans have seen over the past century. The war against the disease has been handicapped by unavailability of effective therapeutic options. Till date, there is no clinically approved vaccine or drug for the treatment of COVID-19, and the ongoing search to find a novel therapy is progressing at pandemic pace. Herein, we propose a novel hypothesis based on sound research evidence that electric stimulation can be a potential adjuvant to the currently used symptomatic therapies and antiviral drugs. Based on preclinical evidence, we propose that electric stimulation can improve respiratory functions, inhibit SARS-CoV-2 growth, reduce pain, boost immunity and improve the penetration of antiviral drugs. We envisage that our hypothesis, if used clinically as an adjuvant, may significantly improve the therapeutic outcomes of the current treatment regimen being used around the globe for the management of COVID-19.

COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Electric Stimulation Therapy , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , HIV Infections/immunology , HIV Infections/therapy , Humans , Immune System , Models, Theoretical , Pain Management , Respiration , Respiration Disorders/immunology , Respiration Disorders/virology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Treatment Outcome