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2.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-294072

ABSTRACT

Background: Severe COVID-19 has been proposed to represent a form of viral sepsis. The prevalence of sepsis due to this disease has not been evaluated. Some patients with severe COVID-19 present SARS-CoV-2 antigenemia. Whether antigenemia constitutes a factor associated to viral sepsis and fatal outcome in these patients is unknown. Methods: This study recruited 400 patients hospitalized with COVID-19. Prevalence of sepsis in the first 24 hours following hospitalization was determined using the SEPSIS-3 criteria. Prevalence and concentration of SARS-CoV-2 N-antigenemia was determined in plasma at hospitalization using the Panbio® COVID-19 Ag Rapid Test from Abbott and the COV-QUANTO® ELISA from AAZ. Findings: The prevalence of sepsis due to SARS-CoV-2 infection at hospitalization was of 54%, affecting mostly to the respiratory, renal and coagulation function. Antigenemia was present in the 53% of the patients, and constituted an independent risk factor of sepsis in the multivariate analysis (OR [CI95%], p): presence of N-antigenemia (Panbio®): (1·6 [1·1 - 2·5],0·023);concentration of N-antigen >575 pg/mL (COV-QUANTO®): (1·9 [1·0 - 3·5], 0·043). Antigenemia was associated with a reduction in the survival mean time of 9·42 and 9·33 days in the 90 first days following hospitalization, based on the PANBIO® and the COV-QUANTO® tests respectively. Interpretation: Half of the COVID-19 patients needing of hospitalization fulfill the criteria of sepsis. Antigenemia is strongly linked to the presence of this condition, and confers a higher risk of mortality. Monitoring the presence of antigenemia at the earlier moments of COVID-19 could help to identify those patients at risk of deterioration. Clinical Trial Registration Details: This was a sub-study of the CIBERES-UCI-COVID project, registered at Clinicaltrials.gov with the identification NCT04457505. Funding Information: Instituto de Salud Carlos III (COV20/00110;CP20/00041;FI20/00278), Fundació La Marató de TV3 (473/C/2021).Declaration of Interests: AT, JME, FB, RA and JFBM have a patent application on SARS-CoV-2 antigenemia. The remainder authors declare no conflicts of interest regarding this work.Ethics Approval Statement: Written or oral informed consent was obtained directly from all patients, or their legal representative, before enrolment. Scientific and ethical approval of the study protocol was obtained from the respective scientific committees for clinical research of the participant hospitals.

4.
J Intern Med ; 2021 Oct 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455598

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Anti-SARS-CoV-2 S antibodies prevent viral replication. Critically ill COVID-19 patients show viral material in plasma, associated with a dysregulated host response. If these antibodies influence survival and viral dissemination in ICU-COVID patients is unknown. PATIENTS/METHODS: We studied the impact of anti-SARS-CoV-2 S antibodies levels on survival, viral RNA-load in plasma, and N-antigenaemia in 92 COVID-19 patients over ICU admission. RESULTS: Frequency of N-antigenaemia was >2.5-fold higher in absence of antibodies. Antibodies correlated inversely with viral RNA-load in plasma, representing a protective factor against mortality (Adjusted HR [CI 95%], p): (S IgM [AUC ≥ 60]: 0.44 [0.22; 0.88], 0.020); (S IgG [AUC ≥ 237]: 0.31 [0.16; 0.61], <0.001). Viral RNA-load in plasma and N-antigenaemia predicted increased mortality: (N1-viral load [≥ 2.156 copies/ml]: 2.25 [1.16; 4.36], 0.016); (N-antigenaemia: 2.45 [1.27; 4.69], 0.007). CONCLUSIONS: Low anti-SARS-CoV-2 S antibody levels predict mortality in critical COVID-19. Our findings support that these antibodies contribute to prevent systemic dissemination of SARS-CoV-2.

5.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 331, 2021 09 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1413915

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mortality due to COVID-19 is high, especially in patients requiring mechanical ventilation. The purpose of the study is to investigate associations between mortality and variables measured during the first three days of mechanical ventilation in patients with COVID-19 intubated at ICU admission. METHODS: Multicenter, observational, cohort study includes consecutive patients with COVID-19 admitted to 44 Spanish ICUs between February 25 and July 31, 2020, who required intubation at ICU admission and mechanical ventilation for more than three days. We collected demographic and clinical data prior to admission; information about clinical evolution at days 1 and 3 of mechanical ventilation; and outcomes. RESULTS: Of the 2,095 patients with COVID-19 admitted to the ICU, 1,118 (53.3%) were intubated at day 1 and remained under mechanical ventilation at day three. From days 1 to 3, PaO2/FiO2 increased from 115.6 [80.0-171.2] to 180.0 [135.4-227.9] mmHg and the ventilatory ratio from 1.73 [1.33-2.25] to 1.96 [1.61-2.40]. In-hospital mortality was 38.7%. A higher increase between ICU admission and day 3 in the ventilatory ratio (OR 1.04 [CI 1.01-1.07], p = 0.030) and creatinine levels (OR 1.05 [CI 1.01-1.09], p = 0.005) and a lower increase in platelet counts (OR 0.96 [CI 0.93-1.00], p = 0.037) were independently associated with a higher risk of death. No association between mortality and the PaO2/FiO2 variation was observed (OR 0.99 [CI 0.95 to 1.02], p = 0.47). CONCLUSIONS: Higher ventilatory ratio and its increase at day 3 is associated with mortality in patients with COVID-19 receiving mechanical ventilation at ICU admission. No association was found in the PaO2/FiO2 variation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Ventilation-Perfusion Ratio/physiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cohort Studies , Critical Care/methods , Critical Care/trends , Female , Hospital Mortality/trends , Humans , Intensive Care Units/trends , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Pulmonary Ventilation/physiology , Respiration, Artificial/trends , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/physiopathology , Retrospective Studies , Spain/epidemiology
6.
Emergencias ; 33(4):282-292, 2021.
Article in Spanish | CINAHL | ID: covidwho-1289634

ABSTRACT

Objective. To compare the prognostic value of 3 severity scales: the Pneumonia Severity Index (PSI), the CURB-65 pneumonia severity score, and the Severity Community-Acquired Pneumonia (SCAP) score. To build a new predictive model for in-hospital mortality in patients over the age of 75 years admitted with pneumonia due to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Methods. Retrospective study of patients older than 75 years admitted from the emergency department for COVID-19 pneumonia between March 12 and April 27, 2020. We recorded demographic (age, sex, living in a care facility or not), clinical (symptoms, comorbidities, Charlson Comorbidity Index [CCI]), and analytical (serum biochemistry, blood gases, blood count, and coagulation factors) variables. A risk model was constructed, and the ability of the 3 scales to predict all-cause in-hospital mortality was compared. Results. We included 186 patients with a median age of 85 years (interquartile range, 80-89 years);44.1% were men. Mortality was 47.3%. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs) were as follows for each tool: PSI, 0.74 (95% CI, 0.64-0.82);CURB-65 score, 0.71 (95% CI, 0.62-0.79);and SCAP score, 0.72 (95% CI, 0.63-0.81). Risk factors included in the model were the presence or absence of symptoms (cough, dyspnea), the CCI, and analytical findings (aspartate aminotransferase, potassium, urea, and lactate dehydrogenase. The AUC for the model was 0.81 (95% CI, 0.73-0.88). Conclusions. This study shows that the predictive power of the PSI for mortality is moderate and perceptibly higher than the CURB-65 and SCAP scores. We propose a new predictive model for mortality that offers significantly better performance than any of the 3 scales compared. However, our model must undergo external validation. Objetivo. Los objetivos son comparar la utilidad pronóstica de tres escalas de gravedad (Pneumonia Severity Index: PSI;CURB-65 scale;Severity Community Acquired Pneumonia Score: SCAP) y diseñar un nuevo modelo predictivo de mortalidad hospitalaria en pacientes mayores de 75 años ingresados por neumonía por COVID-19. Método. Estudio retrospectivo de pacientes mayores de 75 años ingresados por neumonía por COVID-19 desde el servicio de urgencias entre el 12 de marzo y el 27 de abril de 2020. Se recogieron variables demográficas (edad, sexo, institucionalización), clínicas (síntomas, comorbilidades, índice de Charlson) y analíticas (bioquímica en suero, gasometría, hematimetría, hemostasia). Se derivó un modelo de riesgo y se compararon las escalas de gravedad PSI, CURB-65 y SCAP para predecir la mortalidad intrahospitalaria por cualquier causa. Resultados. Se incluyeron 186 pacientes, con una mediana de edad de 85 años (RIC 80-89), un 44,1% varones. La mortalidad fue del 47,3%. Las escalas PSI, CURB-65 y SCAP tuvieron un área bajo la curva (ABC) de 0,74 (IC 95% 0,64-0,82), 0,71 (IC 95% 0,62-0,79) y 0,72 (IC 95% 0,63-0,81), respectivamente. El modelo predictivo compuesto por la ausencia o presencia de síntomas (tos y disnea), comorbilidad (índice de Charlson) y datos analíticos (aspartato- aminotransferasa, potasio, urea y lactato-deshidrogenasa) tuvo un ABC de 0,81 (IC 95% 0,73-0,88). Conclusión. Este estudio muestra que la escala PSI tiene una capacidad predictiva de mortalidad moderada, notablemente mejor que las escalas CURB-65 y SCAP. Se propone un nuevo modelo predictivo de mortalidad que mejora significativamente el rendimiento de estas escalas, siendo necesario verificar su validez externa.

8.
Eur J Clin Invest ; 51(12): e13626, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1273086

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Fever-7 is a test evaluating host mRNA expression levels of IFI27, JUP, LAX, HK3, TNIP1, GPAA1 and CTSB in blood able to detect viral infections. This test has been validated mostly in hospital settings. Here we have evaluated Fever-7 to identify the presence of respiratory viral infections in a Community Health Center. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted in the "Servicio de Urgencias de Atención Primaria" in Salamanca, Spain. Patients with clinical signs of respiratory infection and at least one point in the National Early Warning Score were recruited. Fever-7 mRNAs were profiled on a Nanostring nCounter® SPRINT instrument from blood collected upon patient enrolment. Viral diagnosis was performed on nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPAs) using the Biofire-RP2 panel. RESULTS: A respiratory virus was detected in the NPAs of 66 of the 100 patients enrolled. Median National Early Warning Score was 7 in the group with no virus detected and 6.5 in the group with a respiratory viral infection (P > .05). The Fever-7 score yielded an overall AUC of 0.81 to predict a positive viral syndromic test. The optimal operating point for the Fever-7 score yielded a sensitivity of 82% with a specificity of 71%. Multivariate analysis showed that Fever-7 was a robust marker of viral infection independently of age, sex, major comorbidities and disease severity at presentation (OR [CI95%], 3.73 [2.14-6.51], P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Fever-7 is a promising host immune mRNA signature for the early identification of a respiratory viral infection in the community.

10.
Transl Res ; 236: 147-159, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1243239

ABSTRACT

We aimed to examine the circulating microRNA (miRNA) profile of hospitalized COVID-19 patients and evaluate its potential as a source of biomarkers for the management of the disease. This was an observational and multicenter study that included 84 patients with a positive nasopharyngeal swab Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test for SARS-CoV-2 recruited during the first pandemic wave in Spain (March-June 2020). Patients were stratified according to disease severity: hospitalized patients admitted to the clinical wards without requiring critical care and patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). An additional study was completed including ICU nonsurvivors and survivors. Plasma miRNA profiling was performed using reverse transcription polymerase quantitative chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Predictive models were constructed using least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) regression. Ten circulating miRNAs were dysregulated in ICU patients compared to ward patients. LASSO analysis identified a signature of three miRNAs (miR-148a-3p, miR-451a and miR-486-5p) that distinguishes between ICU and ward patients [AUC (95% CI) = 0.89 (0.81-0.97)]. Among critically ill patients, six miRNAs were downregulated between nonsurvivors and survivors. A signature based on two miRNAs (miR-192-5p and miR-323a-3p) differentiated ICU nonsurvivors from survivors [AUC (95% CI) = 0.80 (0.64-0.96)]. The discriminatory potential of the signature was higher than that observed for laboratory parameters such as leukocyte counts, C-reactive protein (CRP) or D-dimer [maximum AUC (95% CI) for these variables = 0.73 (0.55-0.92)]. miRNA levels were correlated with the duration of ICU stay. Specific circulating miRNA profiles are associated with the severity of COVID-19. Plasma miRNA signatures emerge as a novel tool to assist in the early prediction of vital status deterioration among ICU patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/genetics , Circulating MicroRNA/blood , Hospitalization , Severity of Illness Index , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/virology , Critical Illness , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
11.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(6): 622-642, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219780

ABSTRACT

The zoonotic SARS-CoV-2 virus that causes COVID-19 continues to spread worldwide, with devastating consequences. While the medical community has gained insight into the epidemiology of COVID-19, important questions remain about the clinical complexities and underlying mechanisms of disease phenotypes. Severe COVID-19 most commonly involves respiratory manifestations, although other systems are also affected, and acute disease is often followed by protracted complications. Such complex manifestations suggest that SARS-CoV-2 dysregulates the host response, triggering wide-ranging immuno-inflammatory, thrombotic, and parenchymal derangements. We review the intricacies of COVID-19 pathophysiology, its various phenotypes, and the anti-SARS-CoV-2 host response at the humoral and cellular levels. Some similarities exist between COVID-19 and respiratory failure of other origins, but evidence for many distinctive mechanistic features indicates that COVID-19 constitutes a new disease entity, with emerging data suggesting involvement of an endotheliopathy-centred pathophysiology. Further research, combining basic and clinical studies, is needed to advance understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms and to characterise immuno-inflammatory derangements across the range of phenotypes to enable optimum care for patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multiple Organ Failure , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Endothelium/physiopathology , Humans , Immunity , Multiple Organ Failure/etiology , Multiple Organ Failure/physiopathology , Patient Acuity , Severity of Illness Index
12.
Eur J Clin Invest ; 51(6): e13501, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1054522

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in plasma has been linked to disease severity and mortality. We compared RT-qPCR to droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) to detect SARS-CoV-2 RNA in plasma from COVID-19 patients (mild, moderate, and critical disease). METHODS: The presence/concentration of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in plasma was compared in three groups of COVID-19 patients (30 outpatients, 30 ward patients and 30 ICU patients) using both RT-qPCR and ddPCR. Plasma was obtained in the first 24h following admission, and RNA was extracted using eMAG. ddPCR was performed using Bio-Rad SARS-CoV-2 detection kit, and RT-qPCR was performed using GeneFinder™ COVID-19 Plus RealAmp Kit. Statistical analysis was performed using Statistical Package for the Social Science. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected, using ddPCR and RT-qPCR, in 91% and 87% of ICU patients, 27% and 23% of ward patients and 3% and 3% of outpatients. The concordance of the results obtained by both methods was excellent (Cohen's kappa index = 0.953). RT-qPCR was able to detect 34/36 (94.4%) patients positive for viral RNA in plasma by ddPCR. Viral RNA load was higher in ICU patients compared with the other groups (P < .001), by both ddPCR and RT-qPCR. AUC analysis revealed Ct values (RT-qPCR) and viral RNA load values (ddPCR) can similarly differentiate between patients admitted to wards and to the ICU (AUC of 0.90 and 0.89, respectively). CONCLUSION: Both methods yielded similar prevalence of RNAemia between groups, with ICU patients showing the highest (>85%). RT-qPCR was as useful as ddPCR to detect and quantify SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia in plasma.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , RNA, Viral/blood , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Aged , Ambulatory Care , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Patients' Rooms , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Severity of Illness Index
14.
Crit Care ; 24(1): 691, 2020 12 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-977684

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 can course with respiratory and extrapulmonary disease. SARS-CoV-2 RNA is detected in respiratory samples but also in blood, stool and urine. Severe COVID-19 is characterized by a dysregulated host response to this virus. We studied whether viral RNAemia or viral RNA load in plasma is associated with severe COVID-19 and also to this dysregulated response. METHODS: A total of 250 patients with COVID-19 were recruited (50 outpatients, 100 hospitalized ward patients and 100 critically ill). Viral RNA detection and quantification in plasma was performed using droplet digital PCR, targeting the N1 and N2 regions of the SARS-CoV-2 nucleoprotein gene. The association between SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia and viral RNA load in plasma with severity was evaluated by multivariate logistic regression. Correlations between viral RNA load and biomarkers evidencing dysregulation of host response were evaluated by calculating the Spearman correlation coefficients. RESULTS: The frequency of viral RNAemia was higher in the critically ill patients (78%) compared to ward patients (27%) and outpatients (2%) (p < 0.001). Critical patients had higher viral RNA loads in plasma than non-critically ill patients, with non-survivors showing the highest values. When outpatients and ward patients were compared, viral RNAemia did not show significant associations in the multivariate analysis. In contrast, when ward patients were compared with ICU patients, both viral RNAemia and viral RNA load in plasma were associated with critical illness (OR [CI 95%], p): RNAemia (3.92 [1.183-12.968], 0.025), viral RNA load (N1) (1.962 [1.244-3.096], 0.004); viral RNA load (N2) (2.229 [1.382-3.595], 0.001). Viral RNA load in plasma correlated with higher levels of chemokines (CXCL10, CCL2), biomarkers indicative of a systemic inflammatory response (IL-6, CRP, ferritin), activation of NK cells (IL-15), endothelial dysfunction (VCAM-1, angiopoietin-2, ICAM-1), coagulation activation (D-Dimer and INR), tissue damage (LDH, GPT), neutrophil response (neutrophils counts, myeloperoxidase, GM-CSF) and immunodepression (PD-L1, IL-10, lymphopenia and monocytopenia). CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia and viral RNA load in plasma are associated with critical illness in COVID-19. Viral RNA load in plasma correlates with key signatures of dysregulated host responses, suggesting a major role of uncontrolled viral replication in the pathogenesis of this disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , RNA, Viral/analysis , Viral Load/immunology , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/analysis , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , Chi-Square Distribution , Critical Illness , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , RNA, Viral/blood , Statistics, Nonparametric
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