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Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(23)2021 11 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542506


Internet addiction (IA) is widespread, comorbid with other conditions, and commonly undetected, which may impede recovery. The Internet Addiction Test (IAT) is widely used to evaluate IA among healthy respondents, with less agreement on its dimensional structure. This study investigated the factor structure, invariance, predictive validity, criterion validity, and reliability of the IAT among Spanish women with eating disorders (EDs, N = 123), Chinese school children (N = 1072), and Malay/Chinese university students (N = 1119). In school children, four factors with eigen values > 1 explained 50.2% of the variance, with several items cross-loading on more than two factors and three items failing to load on any factor. Among 19 tested models, CFA revealed excellent fit of a unidimensional six-item IAT among ED women and university students (χ2(7) = 8.695, 35.038; p = 0.275, 0.001; CFI = 0.998, 981; TLI = 0.996, 0.960; RMSEA = 0.045, 0.060; SRMR = 0.0096, 0.0241). It was perfectly invariant across genders, academic grades, majors, internet use activities, nationalities (Malay vs. Chinese), and Malay/Chinese female university students vs. Spanish women with anorexia nervosa, albeit it was variant at the scalar level in tests involving other EDs, signifying increased tendency for IA in pathological overeating. The six-item IAT correlated with the effects of internet use on academic performance at a greater level than the original IAT (r = -0.106, p < 0.01 vs. r = -0.78, p < 0.05), indicating superior criterion validity. The six-item IAT is a robust and brief measure of IA in healthy and diseased individuals from different cultures.

Behavior, Addictive , Feeding and Eating Disorders , Child , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Feeding and Eating Disorders/diagnosis , Feeding and Eating Disorders/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Internet , Internet Addiction Disorder , Male , Psychometrics , Reproducibility of Results , Students , Surveys and Questionnaires , Universities
Int J Clin Pract ; 75(7): e14242, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1197141


BACKGROUND: The unavailability of data on the long-term efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines and of effective specific treatment, in addition to the emergence of new COVID-19 variants, makes nonpharmaceutical measures a mainstay for preventing the spread of infection. The policy responses of governments to the pandemic should be integrated with public behavioral changes. This study examines public attitudes, practices and perceived quarantine competency in Saudi Arabia during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A cross-sectional descriptive design using an online survey was employed. Convenience and snowball sampling were adopted, and 1022 valid responses were received. FINDINGS: Most respondents demonstrated satisfactory practices, including wearing face masks (76.5%), keeping a safe distance (97.8%) and appropriate hand hygiene (99.2%). Fear of stigma (8.9%) and of financial consequences (0%) were minimal drivers of underreporting of symptoms among the respondents, whereas uncertainty of the relevance of symptoms (30.3%) was a main cause of not reporting to health authorities. Most participants (73.4%) abided by government instructions due to fear of infection rather than of legal penalties. Participants, especially females and Saudi citizens, reported a high level of perceived quarantine competence (12.9 ± 2.59). Spearman's rho correlation showed a significant positive association between wearing face masks and other precautionary practices, including keeping a safe distance (0.25, P < .01) and frequent handwashing (0.224, P < .01), which rules out the concern that wearing face masks would result in less adherence of the participants to other protective measures. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that COVID-19 awareness programs should focus more on males and non-Saudi populations. We also recommend the development of screening protocols and education programs for asthmatic patients in Saudi Arabia to avoid the consequences of confusing COVID-19 symptoms with those of asthma.

COVID-19 , Pandemics , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Male , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires