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1.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Apr 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784324

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There are limited data assessing COVID-19 disease severity in children/adolescents infected with the Omicron variant. METHODS: We identified children and adolescents <18 years with SARS-CoV-2 infection with Delta and propensity-score matched controls with Omicron variant infection from the National COVID-19 Database in Qatar. Primary outcome was disease severity, determined by hospital admission, admission to ICU, or mechanical ventilation within 14 days of diagnosis, or death within 28 days. RESULTS: Among 1,735 cases with Delta variant infection between June 1 and November 6, 2021 and 32 635 cases with Omicron variant infection between January 1 and January 15, 2022 who did not have prior infection and were not vaccinated, we identified 985 propensity-score matched pairs. Among Delta infected, 84.2% had mild, 15.7% had moderate, and 0.1% had severe/critical disease. Among Omicron infected, 97.8% had mild, 2.2% had moderate, and none had severe/critical disease (P < .001). Omicron variant infection (vs. Delta) was associated with significantly lower odds of moderate or severe/critical disease (adjusted odds ratio, 0.12; 95% CI 0.07-0.18). Those aged 6-11, and 12-<18 years had lower odds of developing moderate or severe/critical disease compared with those younger than six years (aOR, 95% CI 0.47; 0.33-0.66 for 6-11 year old; aOR 0.45, 95% CI 0.21-0.94 for 12-<18 years old). CONCLUSIONS: Omicron variant infection in children/adolescents is associated with less severe disease than Delta variant infection as measured by hospitalization rates and need for ICU care or mechanical ventilation. Those 6 to <18 years also have less severe disease than those <6 years old.

4.
Clin Case Rep ; 9(7): e04513, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525422

ABSTRACT

Most of the post-renal transplant patients are taking immunosuppressive medications, including calcineurin inhibitors, anti-proliferative agents, and steroids. This case series highlights the clinical characteristics and outcomes of eight post-renal transplant patients with severe COVID-19 infection admitted to the intensive care unit.

5.
Med Mycol ; 59(12): 1262-1266, 2021 Dec 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462422

ABSTRACT

Patients with COVID-19-associated candidemia (CAC) in an intensive care unit (ICU) were matched 1:2 with those without candidemia, based on ICU admission date and length of stay in ICU being at least equal to that before candidemia in the corresponding case. The incidence rate of CAC was 2.34 per 1000 ICU days. Eighty cases could be matched to appropriate controls. In the multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis, age (P 0.001), and sequential organ failure assessment score (P 0.046) were the only risk factors independently associated with CAC. Tocilizumab and corticosteroids therapy were not independently associated with candidemia. LAY SUMMARY: In COVID-19 patients who need medical care in an intensive care unit, the risk of developing bloodstream Candida infection is higher in older patients and in those who have a more severe critical illness. Treatment with steroids or tocilizumab does not seem to affect the risk of candida bloodstream infection in these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Candidemia/epidemiology , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Incidence , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors
6.
Qatar Med J ; 2021(2): 23, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1395193

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Clinical data on Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients are limited. We herein report the initial clinical experience with COVID-19 in SOT recipients in Qatar. METHODS: All SOT recipients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 up to May 23, 2020 were included. Demographic and clinical data were extracted retrospectively from the hospital's electronic health records. Categorical data are presented as frequency and percentages, while continuous variables are summarized as medians and ranges. RESULTS: Twenty-four SOT recipients with COVID-19 were identified (kidney 16, liver 6, heart 1, and liver and kidney 1). Organ transplantation preceded COVID-19 by a median of 60 months (range 1.7-184). The median age was 57 years (range 24-72), and 9 (37.5%) transplant recipients were females. Five (21%) asymptomatic patients were diagnosed through proactive screening. For the rest, fever (15/19) and cough (13/19) were the most frequent presenting symptoms. Five (20.8%) patients required invasive mechanical ventilation in the intensive care unit (ICU). Eleven (46%) patients developed acute kidney injury, including three in association with drug-drug interactions involving investigational COVID-19 therapies. Maintenance immunosuppressive therapy was modified in 18 (75%) patients, but systemic corticosteroids were not discontinued in any. After a median follow-up of 226 days (26-272), 20 (83.3%) patients had been discharged home, 2 (8.3%) were still hospitalized, 1 (4.2%) was still in the ICU, and 1 (4.2%) had died. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that asymptomatic COVID-19 is possible in SOT recipients and that overall outcomes are not uniformly worse than those in the general population. The results require confirmation in large, international cohorts.

7.
Int J Infect Dis ; 108: 116-118, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1351690

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study examined the initial impact of a national BNT162b2 vaccine rollout on SARS-CoV-2 infections in Qatar. METHODS: All individuals who had completed ≥14 days of follow-up by 16 March 2021 after receiving the BNT162b2 vaccine were included. This study calculated incidence rates (IR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) during days 1-7, 8-14, 15-21, 22-28, and >28 days post-vaccination. Poisson regression was used to calculate incidence rate ratios (IRR) relative to the first 7-day post-vaccination period. RESULTS: A total of 199,219 individuals with 6,521,124 person-days of follow-up were included. SARS-CoV-2 infection was confirmed in 1877 (0.9%), of which 489 (26.1%) were asymptomatic and 123 (6.6%) required oxygen support. The median time from first vaccination to SARS-CoV-2 confirmation was 11.9 days (IQR 7.7-18.2). Compared with the first 7-day post-vaccination period, SARS-CoV-2 infections were lower by 65.8-84.7% during 15-21, 22-28, and >28 days (P < 0.001 for each). For severe COVID-19, the incidence rates were 75.7-93.3% lower during the corresponding time periods (P < 0.001 for each). CONCLUSION: The results were consistent with an early protective effect of BNT162b2 vaccine against all degrees of SARS-CoV-2 severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Humans , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2
8.
J Med Virol ; 93(3): 1678-1686, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196494

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The role of convalescent plasma therapy for patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is unclear. METHODS: We retrospectively compared outcomes in a cohort of critical COVID-19 patients who received standard care (SC Group) and those who, in addition, received convalescent plasma (CP Group). RESULTS: In total, 40 patients were included in each group. The median patient age was 53.5 years (interquartile range [IQR] 42-60.5), and the majority of patients required invasive ventilation (69, 86.2%). Plasma was harvested from donors after a median of 37 days (IQR 31-46) from the first positive severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) result and 26 days (IQR 21-32) after documented viral clearance; it was administered after a median of 10 days (IQR 9-10) from the onset of symptoms and 2.5 days (IQR 2-4) from admission to intensive care unit. The primary endpoint of improvement in respiratory support status within 28 days was achieved in 26 patients (65%) in the SC Group and 31 patients (77.5%) in the CP Group (p = .32). The 28-day all-cause mortality (12.5% vs. 2.5%; p = .22) and viral clearance (65% vs. 55%; p = .49) were not significantly different between the two groups. Convalescent plasma was not significantly associated with the primary endpoint (adjusted hazard ratio 0.87; 95% confidence interval 0.51-1.49; p = .62). Adverse events were balanced between the two study groups. CONCLUSION: In severe COVID-19, convalescent plasma therapy was not associated with clinical benefits. Randomized trials are required to confirm our findings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Plasma/immunology , Adult , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
9.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 777, 2020 Oct 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-873955

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There are limited data on Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) outcomes at a national level, and none after 60 days of follow up. The aim of this study was to describe national, 60-day all-cause mortality associated with COVID-19, and to identify risk factors associated with admission to an intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study including the first consecutive 5000 patients with COVID-19 in Qatar who completed 60 days of follow up by June 17, 2020. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality at 60 days after COVID-19 diagnosis. In addition, we explored risk factors for admission to ICU. RESULTS: Included patients were diagnosed with COVID-19 between February 28 and April 17, 2020. The majority (4436, 88.7%) were males and the median age was 35 years [interquartile range (IQR) 28-43]. By 60 days after COVID-19 diagnosis, 14 patients (0.28%) had died, 10 (0.2%) were still in hospital, and two (0.04%) were still in ICU. Fatal COVID-19 cases had a median age of 59.5 years (IQR 55.8-68), and were mostly males (13, 92.9%). All included pregnant women (26, 0.5%), children (131, 2.6%), and healthcare workers (135, 2.7%) were alive and not hospitalized at the end of follow up. A total of 1424 patients (28.5%) required hospitalization, out of which 108 (7.6%) were admitted to ICU. Most frequent co-morbidities in hospitalized adults were diabetes (23.2%), and hypertension (20.7%). Multivariable logistic regression showed that older age [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.041, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.022-1.061 per year increase; P < 0.001], male sex (aOR 4.375, 95% CI 1.964-9.744; P < 0.001), diabetes (aOR 1.698, 95% CI 1.050-2.746; P 0.031), chronic kidney disease (aOR 3.590, 95% CI 1.596-8.079, P 0.002), and higher BMI (aOR 1.067, 95% CI 1.027-1.108 per unit increase; P 0.001), were all independently associated with increased risk of ICU admission. CONCLUSIONS: In a relatively younger national cohort with a low co-morbidity burden, COVID-19 was associated with low all-cause mortality. Independent risk factors for ICU admission included older age, male sex, higher BMI, and co-existing diabetes or chronic kidney disease.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Child , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Qatar/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
10.
IDCases ; 22: e00935, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-726531

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)-associated pulmonary aspergillosis is an emerging entity. We report two fatal cases of putative COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis. Both cases were diagnosed on the basis of respiratory tract cultures yielding Aspergillus species and otherwise unexplained clinical and radiological deterioration. Existing published literature on COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis indicate poor outcomes and high mortality. CAPA should be considered in patients with critical COVID-19 who have unexplained progressive respiratory failure despite optimized supportive care. Diagnostic work-up should be initiated as early as possible and should ideally include fungal cultures, galactomannan detection and Aspergillus PCR on tracheal aspirates or broncho-alveolar lavage fluid. Empiric systemic antifungal therapy may be justified in selected cases, pending diagnostic work up results. Large, multi-center studies are required to further understand the pathogenesis of invasive aspergillosis in COVID-19, and the optimal diagnostic and treatment strategies.

11.
J Med Virol ; 92(10): 2042-2049, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-306523

ABSTRACT

Tocilizumab, an interleukin-6 inhibitor, may ameliorate the inflammatory manifestations associated with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and thus improve clinical outcomes. This was a retrospective review of patients with laboratory-confirmed severe COVID-19 who received tocilizumab and completed 14 days of follow up. Twenty-five patients were included, median age was 58 years (interquartile range, 50-63) and the majority were males (92%). Co-morbidities included diabetes mellitus (48%), chronic kidney disease (16%), and cardiovascular disease (12%). Fever (92%), cough (84%), and dyspnea (72%) were the commonest presenting symptoms. All patients received at least two concomitant investigational antiviral agents. Median oral temperature was on day 1, 3, and 7 was 38.0°C, 37.3°C (P = .043), and 37.0°C (P = .064), respectively. Corresponding median C-reactive protein was 193 and 7.9 mg/L (P < .0001) and <6 mg/L (P = .0001). Radiological improvement was noted in 44% of patients by day 7% and 68% by day 14. Nine patients (36%) were discharged alive from intensive care unit and three (12%) died. The proportion of patients on invasive ventilation declined from (84%) at the time of tocilizumab initiation to 60% on day 7 (P = .031) and 28% on day 14 (P = .001). The majority (92%) of patients experienced at least one adverse event. However, it is not possible to ascertain which adverse events were directly related to tocilizumab therapy. In patients with severe COVID-19, tocilizumab was associated with dramatic decline in inflammatory markers, radiological improvement and reduced ventilatory support requirements. Given the study's limitations, the results require assessment in adequately powered randomized controlled trials.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Qatar , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies
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