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EXCLI J ; 21: 93-103, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1667813


The aim of this study was to investigate the COVID-19 vaccination acceptance rate and its determinants among healthcare workers in a multicenter study. This was a cross-sectional multi-center survey conducted from February 5 to April 29, 2021. The questionnaire consisted of 26 items in 6 subscales. The English version of the questionnaire was translated into seven languages and distributed through Google Forms using snowball sampling; a colleague in each country was responsible for the forward and backward translation, and also the distribution of the questionnaire. A forward stepwise logistic regression was utilized to explore the variables and questionnaire factors tied to the intention to COVID-19 vaccination. 4630 participants from 91 countries completed the questionnaire. According to the United Nations Development Program 2020, 43.6 % of participants were from low Human Development Index (HDI) regions, 48.3 % high and very high, and 8.1 % from medium. The overall vaccination hesitancy rate was 37 %. Three out of six factors of the questionnaire were significantly related to intention to the vaccination. While 'Perceived benefits of the COVID-19 vaccination' (OR: 3.82, p-value<0.001) and 'Prosocial norms' (OR: 5.18, p-value<0.001) were associated with vaccination acceptance, 'The vaccine safety/cost concerns' with OR: 3.52, p-value<0.001 was tied to vaccination hesitancy. Medical doctors and pharmacists were more willing to take the vaccine in comparison to others. Importantly, HDI with OR: 12.28, 95 % CI: 6.10-24.72 was a strong positive determinant of COVID-19 vaccination acceptance. This study highlighted the vaccination hesitancy rate of 37 % in our sample among HCWs. Increasing awareness regarding vaccination benefits, confronting the misinformation, and strengthening the prosocial norms would be the primary domains for maximizing the vaccination coverage. The study also showed that the HDI is strongly associated with the vaccination acceptance/hesitancy, in a way that those living in low HDI contexts are more hesitant to receive the vaccine.

Int J Infect Dis ; 110: 320-329, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309246


BACKGROUND: To date, there is no effective treatment for the new coronavirus disease (COVID-19). We aimed to systematically review the literature on the association between the combination of tocilizumab (TCZ) and systemic corticosteroid therapy (SCT) on outcomes of COVID-19 patients. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, Cochrane Central, and preprints, for studies in which health outcomes were compared between adults with severe COVID-19 who received TCZ and SCT and those who received standard of care without TCZ. Record screening, data extraction, and risk of bias assessment were performed in duplicate. Random effect models were used when pooling crude numbers and adjusted effect estimates of study outcomes. RESULTS: Our search identified seventeen studies. The pooled crude mortality rate was lower in the combination arm (relative risk, RR=0.62, 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.42 - 0.91; I2=60%). The adjusted mortality rates were also lower in the combination arm (RR=0.58, 95% CI=0.42 - 0.81; I2=71%). The rate of superinfections did not differ between the two interventions. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study show that combination of TCZ and SCT compared to SOC has lower mortality rates. There is an urgent need for well-designed randomized trials to assess the safety and efficacy of this combination in subjects with severe COVID-19.

COVID-19 , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Adult , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
Int J Infect Dis ; 102: 110-114, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1059619


BACKGROUND: Global healthcare is challenged following the COVID-19 pandemic, since late 2019. Multiple approaches have been performed to relieve the pressure and support existing healthcare. The Saudi Arabian Ministry of Health (MOH) launched an initiative to support the National Healthcare System. Since the 5th of June 2020, 238 outpatient fever clinics were established nationwide. This study aimed to assess the safety outcome and reported adverse events from hydroxychloroquine use among suspected COVID-19 patients. METHOD: A cross-sectional study included 2,733 patients subjected to MOH treatment protocol (hydroxychloroquine) and followed-up within 3-7 days after initiation. Data was collected through an electronic link and cross-checked with the national database (Health Electronic Surveillance Network, HESN) and reports from the MOH Morbidity and Mortality (M&M) Committee. RESULTS: 240 patients (8.8%) discontinued treatment because of side effects (4.1%) and for non-clinical reasons in the remaining (4.7%). Adverse effects were reported among (6.7%) of all studied participants, including mainly cardiovascular (2.5%, 0.15% with QTc prolongation), and gastrointestinal (2.4%). No Intensive Care Unit admission or death were reported among these patients. CONCLUSION: Our results show that hydroxychloroquine for COVID-19 patients in mild to moderate cases in an outpatient setting, within the protocol recommendation and inclusion/exclusion criteria, is safe, highly tolerable, and with minimum side effects.

COVID-19/drug therapy , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Clinical Protocols , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Outpatients