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1.
BMC Med ; 20(1): 379, 2022 10 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2064796

ABSTRACT

This study evaluated the persistence of IgM, IgA, and IgG to SARS-CoV-2 spike and nucleocapsid antigens up to 616 days since the onset of symptoms in a longitudinal cohort of 247 primary health care workers from Barcelona, Spain, followed up since the start of the pandemic. The study also assesses factors affecting antibody levels, including comorbidities and the responses to variants of concern as well as the frequency of reinfections. Despite a gradual and significant decline in antibody levels with time, seropositivity to five SARS-CoV-2 antigens combined was always higher than 90% over the whole study period. In a subset of 23 participants who had not yet been vaccinated by November 2021, seropositivity remained at 95.65% (47.83% IgM, 95.65% IgA, 95.65% IgG). IgG seropositivity against Alpha and Delta predominant variants was comparable to that against the Wuhan variant, while it was lower for Gamma and Beta (minority) variants and for IgA and IgM. Antibody levels at the time point closest to infection were associated with age, smoking, obesity, hospitalization, fever, anosmia/hypogeusia, chest pain, and hypertension in multivariable regression models. Up to 1 year later, just before the massive roll out of vaccination, antibody levels were associated with age, occupation, hospitalization, duration of symptoms, anosmia/hypogeusia, fever, and headache. In addition, tachycardia and cutaneous symptoms associated with slower antibody decay, and oxygen supply with faster antibody decay. Eight reinfections (3.23%) were detected in low responders, which is consistent with a sustained protective role for anti-spike naturally acquired antibodies. Stable persistence of IgG and IgA responses and cross-recognition of the predominant variants circulating in the 2020-2021 period indicate long-lasting and largely variant-transcending humoral immunity in the initial 20.5 months of the pandemic, in the absence of vaccination.


Subject(s)
Ageusia , COVID-19 , Anosmia , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M , Oxygen , Reinfection , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Immunology ; 167(4): 528-543, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2019334

ABSTRACT

We evaluated the kinetics of antibody responses to Two years into the COVID-19 pandemic and 1 year after the start of vaccination rollout, the world faced a peak of cases associated with the highly contagious Omicron variant of concern (VoC) of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike (S) and nucleocapsid (N) antigens over five cross-sectional visits (January-November 2021), and the determinants of pre-booster immunoglobulin levels, in a prospective cohort of vaccinated primary health care workers in Catalonia, Spain. Antibodies against S antigens after a full primary vaccination course, mostly with BNT162b2, decreased steadily over time and were higher in pre-exposed (n = 247) than naïve (n = 200) individuals, but seropositivity was maintained at 100% (100% IgG, 95.5% IgA, 30.6% IgM) up to 319 days after the first dose. Antibody binding to variants of concern was highly maintained for IgG compared to wild type but significantly reduced for IgA and IgM, particularly for Beta and Gamma. Factors significantly associated with longer-term antibodies included age, sex, occupation, smoking, adverse reaction to vaccination, levels of pre-vaccination SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, interval between disease onset and vaccination, hospitalization, oxygen supply, post COVID and symptomatology. Earlier morning vaccination hours were associated with higher IgG responses in pre-exposed participants. Symptomatic breakthroughs occurred in 9/447 (2.01%) individuals, all among naïve (9/200, 4.5%) and generally boosted antibody responses. Additionally, an increase in IgA and/or IgM seropositivity to variants, and N seroconversion at later time points (6.54%), indicated asymptomatic breakthrough infections, even among pre-exposed. Seropositivity remained highly stable over almost a year after vaccination. However, gradually waning of anti-S IgGs that correlate with neutralizing activity, coupled to evidence of an increase in breakthrough infections during the Delta and Omicron predominance, provides a rationale for booster immunization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Longitudinal Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , BNT162 Vaccine , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Vaccination , Antibodies, Viral , Primary Health Care , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M , Antibodies, Neutralizing
3.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-309589

ABSTRACT

We assessed the duration and baseline determinants of antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 spike antigens and the occurrence of reinfections in a prospective cohort of 173 Spanish primary health care worker patients followed up initially for nine months and subsequently up to 12.5 months after COVID-19 symptoms onset. Seropositivity to SARS-CoV-2 spike and receptor binding domain antigens up to 149-270 days was 92.49% (90.17% IgG, 76.3% IgA, 60.69% IgM). In a subset of 64 health care workers who had not yet been vaccinated by April 2021, seropositivity was 96.88% (95.31% IgG, 82.81% IgA) up to 322-379 days post symptoms onset. There were four suspected reinfections detected by passive case detection, two among seronegative individuals (five and seven months after the first episode), and one low antibody responder. Antibody levels significantly correlated with fever, hospitalization, anosmia/hypogeusia, allergies, smoking and occupation. Stable sustainment of IgG responses raises hope for long-lasting COVID-19 vaccine immunity.

4.
Front Immunol ; 13: 751705, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686480

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 affects children to a lesser extent than adults but they can still get infected and transmit SARS-CoV-2 to their contacts. Field deployable non-invasive sensitive diagnostic techniques are needed to evaluate the infectivity dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 in pediatric populations and guide public health interventions, particularly if this population is not fully vaccinated. We evaluated the utility of high-throughput Luminex assays to quantify saliva IgM, IgA and IgG antibodies against five SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) and nucleocapsid (N) antigens in a contacts and infectivity longitudinal study in 122 individuals (52 children and 70 adults). We compared saliva versus serum/plasma samples in infected children and adults diagnosed by weekly RT-PCR over 35 days (n=62), and those who consistently tested negative over the same follow up period (n=60), in the Summer of 2020 in Barcelona, Spain. Saliva antibody levels in SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR positive individuals were significantly higher than in negative individuals and correlated with those measured in sera/plasmas. Asymptomatic infected individuals had higher levels of anti-S IgG than symptomatic individuals, suggesting a protective anti-disease role for antibodies. Higher anti-S IgG and IgM levels in serum/plasma and saliva, respectively, in infected children compared to infected adults could also be related to stronger clinical immunity in them. Among infected children, males had higher levels of saliva IgG to N and RBD than females. Despite overall correlation, individual clustering analysis suggested that responses that may not be detected in blood could be patent in saliva, and vice versa. In conclusion, measurement of SARS-CoV-2-specific saliva antibodies should be considered as a complementary non-invasive assay to serum/plasma to determine COVID-19 prevalence and transmission in pediatric populations before and after vaccination campaigns.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/analysis , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Immunoassay/methods , Saliva , Adult , Child , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/analysis , Immunoglobulin G/analysis , Immunoglobulin M/analysis , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain
5.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 309, 2021 11 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528684

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Surveillance tools to estimate viral transmission dynamics in young populations are essential to guide recommendations for school opening and management during viral epidemics. Ideally, sensitive techniques are required to detect low viral load exposures among asymptomatic children. We aimed to estimate SARS-CoV-2 infection rates in children and adult populations in a school-like environment during the initial COVID-19 pandemic waves using an antibody-based field-deployable and non-invasive approach. METHODS: Saliva antibody conversion defined as ≥ 4-fold increase in IgM, IgA, and/or IgG levels to five SARS-CoV-2 antigens including spike and nucleocapsid constructs was evaluated in 1509 children and 396 adults by high-throughput Luminex assays in samples collected weekly in 22 summer schools and 2 pre-schools in 27 venues in Barcelona, Spain, from June 29th to July 31st, 2020. RESULTS: Saliva antibody conversion between two visits over a 5-week period was 3.22% (49/1518) or 2.36% if accounting for potentially cross-reactive antibodies, six times higher than the cumulative infection rate (0.53%) assessed by weekly saliva RT-PCR screening. IgG conversion was higher in adults (2.94%, 11/374) than children (1.31%, 15/1144) (p=0.035), IgG and IgA levels moderately increased with age, and antibodies were higher in females. Most antibody converters increased both IgG and IgA antibodies but some augmented either IgG or IgA, with a faster decay over time for IgA than IgG. Nucleocapsid rather than spike was the main antigen target. Anti-spike antibodies were significantly higher in individuals not reporting symptoms than symptomatic individuals, suggesting a protective role against COVID-19. CONCLUSION: Saliva antibody profiling including three isotypes and multiplexing antigens is a useful and user-friendlier tool for screening pediatric populations to detect low viral load exposures among children, particularly while they are not vaccinated and vulnerable to highly contagious variants, and to recommend public health policies during pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Antibodies, Viral , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Pandemics , Saliva , Schools , Spain/epidemiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
6.
Transl Res ; 240: 26-32, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1492708

ABSTRACT

Antibodies to the nucleocapsid (N) antigen are suggested to be used to monitor infections after COVID-19 vaccination, as first generation subunit vaccines are based on the spike (S) protein. We used multiplex immunoassays to simultaneously measure antibody responses to different fragments of the SARS-CoV-2 S and N antigens for evaluating the immunogenicity of the mRNA-1273 (Spykevax) and the BNT162b2 (Comirnaty) vaccines in 445 health care workers. We report a >4-fold increase post-vaccination of IgG levels to the full length (N FL) and C-terminus of N (N CT) in 5.2% and 18.0% of individuals, respectively, and of IgA in 3.6% (N FL) and 9.0% (N CT) of them. The increase in IgG levels and avidity was more pronounced after Spykevax than Comirnaty vaccination (36.2% vs 13.1% for N CT, and 10.6% vs 3.7% for N FL). Data suggest the induction of cross-reactive antibodies against the N CT region after administering these S-based vaccines, and this should be taken into account when using N seropositivity to detect breakthroughs.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Nucleocapsid/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Longitudinal Studies
7.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4740, 2021 08 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1345557

ABSTRACT

Unraveling the long-term kinetics of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 and the individual characteristics influencing it, including the impact of pre-existing antibodies to human coronaviruses causing common cold (HCoVs), is essential to understand protective immunity to COVID-19 and devise effective surveillance strategies. IgM, IgA and IgG levels against six SARS-CoV-2 antigens and the nucleocapsid antigen of the four HCoV (229E, NL63, OC43 and HKU1) were quantified by Luminex, and antibody neutralization capacity was assessed by flow cytometry, in a cohort of health care workers followed up to 7 months (N = 578). Seroprevalence increases over time from 13.5% (month 0) and 15.6% (month 1) to 16.4% (month 6). Levels of antibodies, including those with neutralizing capacity, are stable over time, except IgG to nucleocapsid antigen and IgM levels that wane. After the peak response, anti-spike antibody levels increase from ~150 days post-symptom onset in all individuals (73% for IgG), in the absence of any evidence of re-exposure. IgG and IgA to HCoV are significantly higher in asymptomatic than symptomatic seropositive individuals. Thus, pre-existing cross-reactive HCoVs antibodies could have a protective effect against SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 disease.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Coronavirus 229E, Human/immunology , Coronavirus NL63, Human/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antigens, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Common Cold/immunology , Common Cold/virology , Cross Protection/immunology , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood
8.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 155, 2021 06 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1286823

ABSTRACT

We assessed the duration and baseline determinants of antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 spike antigens and the occurrence of reinfections in a prospective cohort of 173 Spanish primary health care worker patients followed initially for 9 months and subsequently up to 12.5 months after COVID-19 symptoms onset. Seropositivity to SARS-CoV-2 spike and receptor-binding domain antigens up to 149-270 days was 92.49% (90.17% IgG, 76.3% IgA, 60.69% IgM). In a subset of 64 health care workers who had not yet been vaccinated by April 2021, seropositivity was 96.88% (95.31% IgG, 82.81% IgA) up to 322-379 days post symptoms onset. Four suspected reinfections were detected by passive case detection, two among seronegative individuals (5 and 7 months after the first episode), and one low antibody responder. Antibody levels significantly correlated with fever, hospitalization, anosmia/hypogeusia, allergies, smoking, and occupation. Stable sustainment of IgG responses raises hope for long-lasting COVID-19 vaccine immunity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Reinfection/blood , Reinfection/epidemiology , Reinfection/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Spain/epidemiology
9.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-440593

ABSTRACT

Surveillance tools to estimate infection rates in young populations are essential to guide recommendations for school reopening and management during viral epidemics. Ideally, field-deployable non-invasive, sensitive techniques are required to detect low viral load exposures among asymptomatic children. We determined SARS-CoV-2 antibody conversion by high-throughput Luminex assays in saliva samples collected weekly in 1,509 children and 396 adults in 22 Summer schools and 2 pre-schools in 27 venues in Barcelona, Spain, from June 29th to July 31st 2020, between the first and second COVID-19 pandemic waves. Saliva antibody conversion defined as [≥]4-fold increase in IgM, IgA and/or IgG levels to SARS-CoV-2 antigens between two visits over a 5-week period was 3.22% (49/1518), or 2.36% if accounting for potentially cross-reactive antibodies, six times higher than the cumulative infection rate (0.53%) by weekly saliva RT-PCR screening. IgG conversion was higher in adults (2.94%, 11/374) than children (1.31%, 15/1144) (p=0.035), IgG and IgA levels moderately increased with age, and antibodies were higher in females. Most antibody converters increased both IgG and IgA antibodies but some augmented either IgG or IgA, with a faster decay over time for IgA than IgG. Nucleocapsid rather than spike was the main antigen target. Anti-spike antibodies were significantly higher in individuals not reporting symptoms than symptomatic individuals, suggesting a protective role against COVID-19. To conclude, saliva antibody profiling including three isotypes and multiplexing antigens is a useful and more user-friendly tool for screening pediatric populations to determine SARS-CoV-2 exposure and guide public health policies during pandemics.

10.
J Infect Dis ; 223(1): 62-71, 2021 01 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1010364

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: At the COVID-19 spring 2020 pandemic peak in Spain, prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in a cohort of 578 randomly selected health care workers (HCWs) from Hospital Clínic de Barcelona was 11.2%. METHODS: A follow-up survey 1 month later (April-May 2020) measured infection by rRT-PCR and IgM, IgA, and IgG to the receptor-binding domain of the spike protein by Luminex. Antibody kinetics, including IgG subclasses, was assessed until month 3. RESULTS: At month 1, the prevalence of infection measured by rRT-PCR and serology was 14.9% (84/565) and seroprevalence 14.5% (82/565). We found 25 (5%) new infections in 501 participants without previous evidence of infection. IgM, IgG, and IgA levels declined in 3 months (antibody decay rates 0.15 [95% CI, .11-.19], 0.66 [95% CI, .54-.82], and 0.12 [95% CI, .09-.16], respectively), and 68.33% of HCWs had seroreverted for IgM, 3.08% for IgG, and 24.29% for IgA. The most frequent subclass responses were IgG1 (highest levels) and IgG2, followed by IgG3, and only IgA1 but no IgA2 was detected. CONCLUSIONS: Continuous and improved surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 infections in HCWs remains critical, particularly in high-risk groups. The observed fast decay of IgA and IgM levels has implications for seroprevalence studies using these isotypes.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Health Personnel , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Kinetics , Male , Middle Aged , Seroconversion , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Spain/epidemiology
11.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3500, 2020 07 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-635939

ABSTRACT

Health care workers (HCW) are a high-risk population to acquire SARS-CoV-2 infection from patients or other fellow HCW. This study aims at estimating the seroprevalence against SARS-CoV-2 in a random sample of HCW from a large hospital in Spain. Of the 578 participants recruited from 28 March to 9 April 2020, 54 (9.3%, 95% CI: 7.1-12.0) were seropositive for IgM and/or IgG and/or IgA against SARS-CoV-2. The cumulative prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection (presence of antibodies or past or current positive rRT-PCR) was 11.2% (65/578, 95% CI: 8.8-14.1). Among those with evidence of past or current infection, 40.0% (26/65) had not been previously diagnosed with COVID-19. Here we report a relatively low seroprevalence of antibodies among HCW at the peak of the COVID-19 epidemic in Spain. A large proportion of HCW with past or present infection had not been previously diagnosed with COVID-19, which calls for active periodic rRT-PCR testing in hospital settings.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Health Personnel , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adult , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Occupational Health , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , RNA, Viral/blood , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Spain/epidemiology
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