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1.
Latin American Journal of Pharmacy ; 42(1):105-113, 2023.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2307243

ABSTRACT

Community pharmacists have an important role in administering vaccines and educating the public about them. Vaccines are one of the most important means to prevent the spread of infections. This study was designed to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and practice of community pharmacists towards providing counseling and administering vaccines in Saudi Arabia during the COVID-19 pandemic. A cross-sectional study was conducted using a sample of 500 pharmacists of Saudi and non-Saudi origins, sampled from various community pharmacies in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The age bracket of the participants was between 23-60 years. The entire duration of the study for was a period of 3 to 6 months. The researchers used the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software to carry out the data analysis. A total of 730 community pharmacists participated in this study, and the response rate was 83.24% of the 877 potential participants to whom the online questionnaires for data collection were emailed upon their informed consent to participant in the study. Most of them (86.58%, n = 632) were males. Their ages ranged between 20 and 59 years, with the age bracket 30-39 years being the modal class with a representation of 54.79% of all the participants. Few of them, 16.99% (n = 124) had Pharmacy diploma as their highest educational qualification, 1.23% (n = 9) had a master's degree, 0.41% (n =3) had a diploma, but the majority, 81.37% (n = 594) had a bachelor's degree in pharmacy. With an exception of 6 respondents (<1%), the participants had good knowledge regarding vaccination and more than half of them had extensive knowledge of doses, indications, side effects of interaction and contraindications to vaccines. Most respondents reported the pivotal role of the vaccine in preventing and controlling the spread of infectious diseases, especially in light of the COVID-19 pandemic. Vaccination continues to gain great importance. Among the participants, 46.16% (n = 337) of them believe that the current situation and the mechanism of adult vaccination is sufficient and (61.10%, n = 446) believe that increasing vaccination coverage among adults is important. A proportion of 40.82% ( n = 298) of respondents highly recommend the importance of having an official certificate in the field of vaccination for pharmacists. Female community pharmacists showed limited experience and average knowledge about vaccination but higher willingness to provide such service. The contribution of female pharmacists in the vaccination against COVID-19 is highly needed and by offering proper training to them they will be ready to succeed in the provision of service.

2.
Mathematics ; 11(6), 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2300650

ABSTRACT

Early illness detection enables medical professionals to deliver the best care and increases the likelihood of a full recovery. In this work, we show that computer-aided design (CAD) systems are capable of using chest X-ray (CXR) medical imaging modalities for the identification of respiratory system disorders. At present, the COVID-19 pandemic is the most well-known illness. We propose a system based on explainable artificial intelligence to detect COVID-19 from CXR images by using several cutting-edge convolutional neural network (CNN) models, as well as the Vision of Transformer (ViT) models. The proposed system also visualizes the infected areas of the CXR images. This gives doctors and other medical professionals a second option for supporting their decision. The proposed system uses some preprocessing of the images, which includes the segmentation of the region of interest using a UNet model and rotation augmentation. CNN employs pixel arrays, while ViT divides the image into visual tokens;therefore, one of the objectives is to compare their performance in COVID-19 detection. In the experiments, a publicly available dataset (COVID-QU-Ex) is used. The experimental results show that the performances of the CNN-based models and the ViT-based models are comparable. The best accuracy was 99.82%, obtained by the EfficientNetB7 (CNN-based) model, followed by the SegFormer (ViT-based). In addition, the segmentation and augmentation enhanced the performance. © 2023 by the authors.

3.
Frontiers in Physics ; 11, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2296252

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has had a global impact, transforming how we manage infectious diseases and interact socially. Researchers from various fields have worked tirelessly to develop vaccines on an unprecedented scale, while different countries have developed various sanitary protocols to deal with more contagious variants. Machine learning-assisted diagnosis has emerged as a powerful tool that can help health professionals deliver faster and more accurate outcomes. However, medical systems that rely on deep learning often require extensive data, which may be impractical for real-world applications. This paper compares lightweight neural architectures for COVID-19 identification using chest X-rays, highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of each approach. Additionally, a web tool has been developed that accepts chest computer tomography images and outputs the probability of COVID-19 infection along with a heatmap of the regions used by the intelligent system to make this determination. The experiments indicate that most lightweight architectures considered in the study can identify COVID-19 correctly, but further investigation is necessary. Lightweight neural architectures show promise in computer-aided COVID-19 diagnosis using chest X-rays, but they did not reach accuracy rates above 88%, which is necessary for medical applications. These findings suggest that additional research is necessary to improve the accuracy of lightweight models and make them practical for real-world use. Copyright © 2023 Hassan, AlQahtani, Alelaiwi and Papa.

4.
Mathematics ; 11(5), 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2262402

ABSTRACT

This study proposes and develops a secured edge-assisted deep learning (DL)-based automatic COVID-19 detection framework that utilizes the cloud and edge computing assistance as a service with a 5G network and blockchain technologies. The development of artificial intelligence methods through services at the edge plays a significant role in serving many applications in different domains. Recently, some DL approaches have been proposed to successfully detect COVID-19 by analyzing chest X-ray (CXR) images in the cloud and edge computing environments. However, the existing DL methods leverage only local and small training datasets. To overcome these limitations, we employed the edges to perform three tasks. The first task was to collect data from different hospitals and send them to a global cloud to train a DL model on massive datasets. The second task was to integrate all the trained models on the cloud to detect COVID-19 cases automatically. The third task was to retrain the trained model on specific COVID-19 data locally at hospitals to improve and generalize the trained model. A feature-level fusion and reduction were adopted for model performance enhancement. Experimental results on a public CXR dataset demonstrated an improvement against recent related work, achieving the quality-of-service requirements. © 2023 by the authors.

5.
Human-Centric Computing and Information Sciences ; 13, 2023.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2232517

ABSTRACT

In epidemic prevention and control measures, unmanned devices based on autonomous driving technology have stepped into the front lines of epidemic prevention, playing a vital role in epidemic prevention measures such as protective measures detection. Autonomous positioning technology is one of the key technologies of autonomous driving. The realization of high-precision positioning can provide accurate location epidemic prevention services and a refined intelligent management system for the government and citizens. In this paper, we propose an unmanned vehicle (UV) positioning system REW_SLAM based on lidar and stereo camera, which realize real-time online pose estimation of UV by using high-precision lidar pose correction visual positioning data. A six-element extended Kalman filter (6-element EKF) is proposed to fusion lidar and stereo camera sensors information, which retains the second-order Taylor series of observation and state equation, and effectively improves the accuracy of data fusion. Meanwhile, considering improving lidar outputs quality, a modified wavelet denoising method is introduced to preprocess the original data of lidar. Our approach was tested on KITTI datasets and real UV platform, respectively. By comparing with the other two algorithms, the relative pose error and absolute trajectory error of this algorithm are increased by 0.26 m and 2.36 m on average, respectively, while the CPU occupancy rate is increased by 6.685% on average, thereby proving the robustness and effectiveness of the algorithm.

6.
Latin American Journal of Pharmacy ; 41(12):2351-2355, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2168980

ABSTRACT

Gemella haemolysans a is facultatively anaerobic gram-positive cocci isolated from the blood cultures of patients with endocarditis. Serious cardiovascular adverse events have been reported following novel coronavirus (COVID-19) vaccination. We report a novel case of G. haemolysans endocarditis following the first dose of the ChAdOx1-S (recombinant) COVID-19 vaccine. A 41-year-old Saudi male with a documented history of congenital valvular heart defects presented to our hospital facility with a sore throat, dry cough, documented high-grade fever of more than 39 degreeC on different occasions and fatigue for two weeks. There was no history of COVID infection in the past or contact with a patient with diagnosed COVID-19 infection. The patient received the first dose of the recombinant ChAdOx1-S COVID-19 vaccine 3 days before the onset of symptoms. A pansystolic murmur diffuse was noted on cardiovascular examination. Laboratory examinations revealed an elevated ESR of 60 mm/h, elevated LDH, raised complement C4 and ferritin concentrations and low levels of monocytes and serum calcium. Transoesophageal echocardiogram demonstrated severe subval-vular pulmonary stenosis with multiple vegetations. The culture and sensitivity test of aerobic blood cultures showed gram-positive cocci of Gemella haemolysans. The patient was diagnosed with pulmonary valve in-fective endocarditis and prolonged antibiotic treatment was initiated. He made a full recovery on antibiotic treatment and subsequently underwent pulmonary valve repair/replacement surgery. Based on this report and the reviewed literature, Gemella haemolysans endocarditis should be suspected in patients with valvular heart disease receiving COVID-19 vaccination and managed appropriately to avoid its severe manifestations and mortality. Clinicians should suspect such infections in case of suggestive symptoms during postvaccina-tion surveillance, and encourage the patients to seek early medical attention. Copyright © 2022, Colegio de Farmaceuticos de la Provincia de Buenos Aires. All rights reserved.

7.
European Journal of Molecular and Clinical Medicine ; 9(7):4651-4662, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2168594

ABSTRACT

Background / Introduction: The novel coronavirus disease pandemic (COVID-19) has affected the world entirely. The government of Saudi Arabia adopted varieties of measures to mitigate the spread of the novel virus;one of the measures taken was to close all schools and universities across the kingdom and promoting online education. The aim of our study is to determine the prevalence of digital eye strain, the associated risk factors and the most prevalent associated symptoms among under graduated medical students at Majmaah University in Saudi Arabia. Objective(s): to study the prevalence of digital eye strain among undergraduate students in the college of medicine, and to identify the risk factors associated with digital eye strain, and to identify the preventive measures taken to avoid eye strain symptoms related to digital device use. Methodology: Observational descriptive study (Cross-sectional study) to evaluate Digital Eye Strain among undergraduate students in the college of medicine at Majmaah University, to determine the prevalence of DES, associated risk factors, and measures taken to relieve the symptoms. Data will be analyzed by researchers using SPSS version 20. Result(s): Our study showed that digital eye strain was positively associated in female gender more than male, also it was positively associated in people who have preexisting eye conditions like myopia. Regarding the incidence of digital eyestrain with the intensity, it has been shown that most of our participants had mild strain eyestrain (41%). Moreover, it was observed that headache was the most common complaints by our participants. Using the digital devices for more than 4 h/day, and takings a breaks during using the devices in frequency 60 minutes or more and not using antiglare screen were significant risk factors linked to sys strain symptoms (P<0.001, P=0.02, P=0.04) respectively .In regard the preventive measure taking to reduce the digital eye strain our study found that there was no significant association between practicing the rule of 20-20-20 and the prevalence of digital eye strain among participant using eye drops was significantly associated with low incidence of digital eye strain (P=0.01). Conclusion(s): In conclusion, digital eye strain is an emergent public health problem that is proportional to the duration of exposure to digital screens. It has also been associated with multiple digital devices among medical students most commonly iPads. Digital devices are mandatory in every institution and prevention of digital eye strains with the consequences must be included in the curriculum. Copyright © 2022 Ubiquity Press. All rights reserved.

9.
International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research ; 21(9):348-369, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2146269

ABSTRACT

The sudden shift to e-learning during the pandemic has challenged the students in setting up proper work areas with available space and resources. However, it is unclear whether these spaces conform to good ergonomic standards, which apply to information about human behaviour, abilities, limitations and other characteristics to the design of tools, machines, tasks, jobs and environments for productive, safe, comfortable and effective human use. This study was conducted, in order to assess the ergonomic perceptions and practices in e-learning during the COVID-19 pandemic among the Princess Nourah bint Abdulrahman University students. An analytical cross-sectional design was used with a convenience sample of 384 students from January to April 2021. A self-administered online questionnaire was used for the data collection. A descriptive data analysis and a Pearson chi-square test were done, using JMP Version 14. The results indicated positive ergonomic perceptions. With regard to practices, most desktop laptop users applied good ergonomic practices (80.7%). In contrast, 50.5% of laptop-without-desk users and 47% of smartphone/tablet users engaged in poor ergonomic practices. Furthermore, the findings showed that there were no significant associations between ergonomic practices and ergonomic perceptions. The study recommends the provision of health-education programmes to encourage the application of correct ergonomic practices. In addition to applying flexible breaks during classes, the study advocates the adoption of practices that avoid. © Authors.

10.
American Journal of Transplantation ; 22(Supplement 3):609, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2063467

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The COVID-19 pandemic affected many aspects of health care, including the provision of care in ambulatory care clinics, necessitating the utilization of telehealth. For example, we implemented phone clinics in our hospital to ease access to health care for liver transplant patients. This study aims to assess the impact of phone clinics on patients' perception, adherence to medication, and potential cost reduction. Method(s): This prospective observational study utilized validated questionnaires: the telehealth usability questionnaire (TUQ) and Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8), to assess patients' perception of telehealth and medication adherence, respectively. We included all liver transplant patients who received their care through phone clinics from June 1st, 2020, to December 31st, 2020. In addition, clinical outcomes were assessed, such as emergency room visits, development of biopsy-proven rejection, need for hospital admissions, and derangement of enzymes as secondary endpoints. Result(s): We had 422 patients served through phone clinics;416 met the inclusion criteria. The majority of patients were males (61.5%), lived outside Riyadh (63%), used 5-10 medications per day (71%), and were above the age of 60 years (43.7%). The average overall adherence scale was 7.2 (+/-0.91 SD), where 94.5% scored to have medium adherence (score of 6-8), followed by 5.5% with low adherence, while no one had high adherence score. Patients perception scores averages toward the utilization of phone clinic were: 1.5 (+/-0.76 SD) for the usefulness of telehealth, 1.4 (+/-0.7 SD) for the ease of use and learnability, 1.54 (+/-0.8 SD) for the interface quality, 1.45 (+/-0.8 SD) for the interaction quality, 2.07 (+/-1.17 SD) for the reliability, and 1.59 (+/-0.88 SD) for satisfaction and future use. The estimated average direct outof- pocket cost savings per patient was 703 SAR (187 USD) per person, with a total reduction of 292,630 SAR (78,033 USD) in all served patients. For clinical outcomes, 31 patients (7.45%) had emergency room visits three months after the phone clinic. Likewise, five patients (1.20%) developed a biopsy-proven rejection, 14 patients (3.36%) were admitted to hospitals, and 50 patients (12.01%) had derangements of enzymes requiring intervention during the specified period. Conclusion(s): Our results show that the utilization of phone clinics in the liver transplant settings was associated with a high satisfaction rate among the served patients with a medium score of medication adherence and potential cost reduction impact.

11.
BMJ Leader ; 5:A10-A11, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1968346

ABSTRACT

Background The increasing frequency of pandemics, and costs of healthcare services requires integrative, efficient and effective health systems. Aim Describe the framework and distinctive outcomes of the Saudi National Health Command Centre (NHCC). Method: A review was performed to describe the system-based engineering approach utilised to design the Saudi NHCC. This smart centre creates a new model of care delivery which impacts clinical and operational indicators by adopting integrative and interdisciplinary methods to analyse, disseminate, manage, and measure outcomes. Results The NHCC is structured into four main departments with data integration and real-time data visualisation to allow for rapid assessment of available resources. It's organised to support technical incubators and empower several initiative. This enhanced the proactive capacity management in the centre and collectively contributed to several favourable outcomes. These included rapidly deploying medical staff and mechanical ventilators during its response to coronavirus disease (COVID-19);bending the curve early of the first wave of COVID-19 resulting in a low mortality rate (<2%);and reducing ICU lengths of stay by 10%, average lead-time of the supply chain from 60 days to 25 days, and surgery waiting times. It also supported the increment bed capacity from 6,000 to10,400, and maintaining the percentage of patients receiving care within 4 hours in emergency departments above 85%. Conclusion The NHCC replaces the traditional reliance on the subjectivity of information-based processes with actionable data, which helps building fairer systems to tackle structural inequalities in healthcare access and outcomes, eliminating waste, and allocating resources more effectively and efficiently. Importantly, a command centre to healthcare design and delivery creates synergy between people, processes, and technology facilitating substantial improvements in both patient and service outcomes.

12.
Medical Science ; 26(122):9, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1887481

ABSTRACT

Background: Hospitalization is not normally necessary in all COVID patients, nor is lab tests and PCR. There is subjective evidence that patients with "slight" COVID-19 may complain of persistent symptoms weeks after the infection. Methods: A group of 489 patients was tracked for 8 months after recovering from mild to severe COVID-19 infection at a Saudi tertiary hospital between March 6th and December 2nd 2021, IRB and informed permission acquired #89742/2022, and participation was freely. We evaluated the clinical condition, lab findings, and demographic features of the patients and used SPSSversion26 to perform our statistical analysis. Results: All of them were followed up until the second follow-up visit at 4.3 months (median 131 days (IQR 112-149). Age was a significant indicator of post CL syndrome, obtained p-value for age, 0.032, was less than critical alpha level of 0.05. BMI was a significant indicator of post CL syndrome, obtained p-value 0.032 (odds ratio (OR) 1.04;95% confidence interval (95% CI): (1.00 - 1.073)), body aches was a significant indicator of post CL syndrome, obtained p-value 0.040 (OR 0.59;95% CI (0.36-0.98)), fatigue was a significant indicator of post CL syndrome, obtained p-value.005 (OR 2.05;95% CI (0.99-4.22)). Conclusion: Manifold signs are present around 3 months after the onset of signs in formerly hospitalized and non-hospitalized participants with established or suspected COVID-19. This suggests the presence of a "(post-COVID-19 syndrome)" and peaks the final healthcare needs in a subset of individuals with "slight" or "Spartan" COVID-19.

13.
Medical Science ; 26(119):10, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1856804

ABSTRACT

Background: Reports revealed rising levels of skin diseases secondary to protective equipment use. Healthcare providers who are working day and night during the pandemic of COVID-19 are more susceptible to the damage of the skin. There is scarce published data about the incidence of skin disorders secondary to protective equipment use during the COVID-19 pandemic and what factors are associated in Saudi Arabia. Aim: Assessing the potential skin damage as a result of personal protection equipment (PPE) and intensive hygiene measures for healthcare providers during COVID-19 pandemic in Aseer region. Methods: This study a cross-sectional questionnaire-based study done in Aseer region from January to October 2021. Personal data and related to history of skin disease, practices toward personal protective equipment, and new skin damage was collected and analyzed. Independent t-test and chi-square test was used to determine factors associated with the incidence of new skin damage during the COVID-19 pandemic. Results: Total of 214 participants was included in the study. (47.7%) of the participants reported experiencing new skin damage during the COVID-19 pandemic, while 112 (52.3%) of the participants did not. Age, having a history of chronic skin disease, and number of worn gloves layers were all significantly associated with the incidence of skin damage during COVID-19 pandemic. Conclusion: The considerable rate of new skin damage during the COVID-19 pandemic makes it essential to take action and start rising awareness toward this topic among health-care workers as well as teaching them how to prevent the incidence of new skin damage.

14.
Arab World English Journal ; : 135-154, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1761547

ABSTRACT

With the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, new words appeared in English. EFL learners need to learn the new words. Learners depend on many strategies to help them learn new terms. Investigating this topic is significant because it will contribute to the knowledge of teaching and learning new words that appeared rapidly and suddenly. This study aims to investigate the acquisition of word-formation processes related to COVID-19 terms. The research seeks to answer two questions: (1) Are Saudi female EFL learners familiar with English word-formation processes? (2) Do word-formation processes aid Saudi female EFL students in learning COVID-19 pandemic terms? The study used a quantitative method. The data was collected from 71 Saudi female students via a multiple-choice electronic questionnaire. The results revealed that the percentages of incorrect responses were higher than the percentages of correct ones, thus suggesting that the students were not familiar with word-formation processes. The findings showed that they had similar results in words formed via compounding and blending, indicating they failed to distinguish between the two processes. The findings show that the Saudi female students did not prefer to use a word-formation process over the other. Further, results showed that even though some of the common COVID-19 terms frequently were used on a daily basis, the students failed to predict and use the correct word-formation processes for those terms. The findings as a whole reveal that Saudi learners had difficulty in learning word-formation processes deriving COVID-19 terms. The study proposes some recommendations for further research.

15.
Teikyo Medical Journal ; 44(5):1333-1344, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1548124

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of COVID 19 has led to the postponement of all elective procedures including screening colonoscopy due to the rising risk of infection with covid-19. Routine use of screening tests for colorectal cancer is not applicable during covid 19 pandemic including colonoscopy, computed tomographic colonography, colon capsule endoscopy, and fecal immunochemical test. Focused reviewing of the impact of covid-19 on the various diagnostic modalities for colorectal cancer screening is the objective of this review. Databases of PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library were searched for literature published before June 2020. This narrative review was created from a conscious dissection of different data obtained from the related articles. Careful categorical writing of the recommendations was done in an easy simple manner. The risk of the spread of COVID 19 infection could be higher after using aerosol-generating procedures such as upper and lower GIT endoscopy. Also, CT might raise the risk of infection. Colon capsule endoscopy may be considered a potentially valuable procedure for colorectal cancer screening during the pandemic of COVID 19. During the post-COVID-19 recovery phase, it is expected to have a high demand for colonoscopy services as waiting lists will grow in that time. Colon capsule endoscopy may be considered a valuable diagnostic modality for prioritizing those who will need screening colonoscopy. Colon capsule endoscopy seems to be superior to other modalities for the screening of colorectal cancer during the pandemic of COVID 19 while postponement of colonoscopy service. Colon capsule endoscopy can be used for triaging those requiring further endoscopic procedures. © 2021 Teikyo University School of Medicine. All rights reserved.

16.
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences ; 34(5):1645-1649, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1527162

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory viral infections are frequently associated with multiple organ failure, including acute kidney damage. The present study aimed to investigate the associated influence of COVID-19 on renal function in patients admitted to the intensive care unit in Asir region, Saudi Arabia. Thirty patients infected with COVID-19 who were referred to the intensive care unit during November and October 2020 at Asir central hospital, Asir region, Saudi Arabia were recruited. The age of patients ranged between 30 and 90 years old. Renal function tests exhibited dramatic changes in the renal biomarkers in patients with COVID-19. Blood urea levels in COVID-19 patients were significantly higher than in the control group. In addition, significantly lower albumin levels with abnormally decreased total protein levels were found in COVID-19 patients. Among the different electrolytes analyzed, a significantly lower calcium level was observed in COVID-19 patients' groups than in the controls. Renal function tests for COVID-19-infected ICU patients revealed significant changes, indicating the major impact of COVID-19 on kidney function. Monitoring renal function tests may assist in the early prognosis of COVID-19 patients. It is, therefore, crucial to increase the understanding of renal function tests in COVID-19 patients who were admitted to the hospital before their condition deteriorated. © 2021 Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. All rights reserved.

17.
Hepatology ; 74(SUPPL 1):341A-342A, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1508738

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID19 pandemic has affected persons dietary habits and life style, with effects on body weight. We have assessed the effect of the pandemic on the liver health by quantifying the changes in liver enzymes, hepatic steatosis and fibrosis in patients with chronic liver disease. Methods: This is a multi-center US study that included 3 tertiary clinical centers. Patients with chronic liver disease (51 NAFLD, 8 with resolved hepatitis C, 3 chronic hepatitis B, 5 primary biliary cholangitis and 36 combination of chronic liver disease), without evidence of an acute process (e.g. alcoholic hepatitis, alcohol abuse or new decompensation of cirrhosis), were enrolled. Patients were assessed between January and March 2020 and January and March 2021. Assessment included laboratory tests and controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) and liver stiffness measurement (LSM) on vibration transient elastography (VCTE). Results: 103 patients were assessed twice during the two periods. Baseline mean alanine aminotransferase (ALT) was 37 ± 36 (SD) U/L;aspartate aminotransferase (AST) 30 ± 18 U/L;total bilirubin 0.6 ± 0.31 mg/dL;albumin, 4.2 ± 0.72 g/dL;CAP score 293 ± 70 dB/m;and LSM on VCTE 8.1 ±6.2 kPa. Weight gain occurred in 54% of the population, whereas 39% lost weight, and 7% had no weight change. LSM increased by >20% in 30% of subjects;decreased by 20% in 27%;and remained within the 20% range in 43%. LSM increase by 20% was associated with significant weight gain and ALT increase (+2.3 ± 6.5 kg, and +17 ± 49.U/L (p<0.05)), in comparison to subjects who had their LSM changes within 20% range (+1.1 (3.7) kg, and -5.3 ±22.0 U/L) or had >20% decrease in LSM (-0.3 ±5.8 kg, and -6.0 ±21 U/L). CAP score median change was -2.9 ±85 dB/m in those who had LSM increase by >20%, whereas the score changed by 0.0 ± 44 dB/m in those who had LSM changes within 20% or 1.0 ± 58 dB/m in those >20% decrease. Conclusion: During the COVID 19 pandemic in this U.S. population, more than half of subjects with chronic liver disease gained weight, but others had no change or decreased weight. Adverse liver changes (LSM>20% and increased ALT) occurred in one-third of the population.

18.
Australasian Journal of Paramedicine ; 18, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1457552

ABSTRACT

Introduction Our research sought to assess the psychological and social wellbeing of paramedics in Riyadh City in Saudi Arabia during the COVID 19 pandemic. It also aimed to assess the therapeutic assistance provided to pre-hospital care givers during the pandemic. Methods In this quantitative cross-sectional analysis an assessment of 106 paramedics was undertaken from data obtained from 28 September to 10 November 2020. The authenticity and durability of Pilot and the Cronbach have been added. Results Of the 106 paramedics surveyed, 60 (56.6%) were 30–39 years of age;101 were male (95.3%). The mean average psychological wellbeing of the paramedics was 6.41 with the standard deviation of 2.42. Family and friends’ average social support score was 9.2 in norm 2.6 deviation. Conclusion Our study showed that during the COVID-19 pandemic paramedics suffered from social and psychological depression. Paramedics must be protected from the socioeconomic and psychological difficulties they face every day in order to combat the COVID-19 pandemic.

19.
Frontiers in Blockchain ; 4:15, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1332113

ABSTRACT

The pandemic has triggered an unprecedented global demand for home caregiving to manage asymptomatic and mild COVID-19 cases. Older people and others with pre-existing medical conditions (including diabetes) appear to be more vulnerable to severe illness caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Approximately 25% of Saudis suffer from diabetes;these 4 million patients require 5.5 million consultations and follow-up visits each year to manage their disease. Furthermore, with the increasing number of patients with diabetes and their need for professional care, it is difficult and time consuming to share patient-care information among caregivers in a traditional way;this increases the financial and psychological burden of home caregivers. Although the pandemic has also triggered a global demand for digital health technology adoption worldwide to achieve higher standards of health, recent developments in advanced technologies and mobile health (mHealth) applications have failed to equip the caregivers with the right ecosystem for patient-centered information sharing to allow for informed care decisions. Therefore, there is a gap in the literature as the current solutions fall short of facilitating an effective communication channel among caregivers and between them and their patients, supporting diverse caregiving groups with multiple languages, distributing tasks between caregivers to alleviate the burden on one caregiver, providing a treatment plan by a specialized care team to be viewed and followed by caregivers and patients, and alerting everyone in case of an emergency. Based on the need for empowering home caregivers to cope with the pressure, we propose eHomeCaregiving, an mHealth solution that can build a transparent blockchain-based patient-centered family caregiving ecosystem. eHomeCaregiving facilitates care continuity in patients with type 2 diabetes in Saudi Arabia by integrating care, saving time and efforts of all caregivers, and improving the patient's quality of life and outcomes, particularly in terms of facing emerging challenges amid the pandemic.

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