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1.
American Journal of Transplantation ; 22(Supplement 3):609, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2063467

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The COVID-19 pandemic affected many aspects of health care, including the provision of care in ambulatory care clinics, necessitating the utilization of telehealth. For example, we implemented phone clinics in our hospital to ease access to health care for liver transplant patients. This study aims to assess the impact of phone clinics on patients' perception, adherence to medication, and potential cost reduction. Method(s): This prospective observational study utilized validated questionnaires: the telehealth usability questionnaire (TUQ) and Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8), to assess patients' perception of telehealth and medication adherence, respectively. We included all liver transplant patients who received their care through phone clinics from June 1st, 2020, to December 31st, 2020. In addition, clinical outcomes were assessed, such as emergency room visits, development of biopsy-proven rejection, need for hospital admissions, and derangement of enzymes as secondary endpoints. Result(s): We had 422 patients served through phone clinics;416 met the inclusion criteria. The majority of patients were males (61.5%), lived outside Riyadh (63%), used 5-10 medications per day (71%), and were above the age of 60 years (43.7%). The average overall adherence scale was 7.2 (+/-0.91 SD), where 94.5% scored to have medium adherence (score of 6-8), followed by 5.5% with low adherence, while no one had high adherence score. Patients perception scores averages toward the utilization of phone clinic were: 1.5 (+/-0.76 SD) for the usefulness of telehealth, 1.4 (+/-0.7 SD) for the ease of use and learnability, 1.54 (+/-0.8 SD) for the interface quality, 1.45 (+/-0.8 SD) for the interaction quality, 2.07 (+/-1.17 SD) for the reliability, and 1.59 (+/-0.88 SD) for satisfaction and future use. The estimated average direct outof- pocket cost savings per patient was 703 SAR (187 USD) per person, with a total reduction of 292,630 SAR (78,033 USD) in all served patients. For clinical outcomes, 31 patients (7.45%) had emergency room visits three months after the phone clinic. Likewise, five patients (1.20%) developed a biopsy-proven rejection, 14 patients (3.36%) were admitted to hospitals, and 50 patients (12.01%) had derangements of enzymes requiring intervention during the specified period. Conclusion(s): Our results show that the utilization of phone clinics in the liver transplant settings was associated with a high satisfaction rate among the served patients with a medium score of medication adherence and potential cost reduction impact.

2.
BMJ Leader ; 5:A10-A11, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1968346

ABSTRACT

Background The increasing frequency of pandemics, and costs of healthcare services requires integrative, efficient and effective health systems. Aim Describe the framework and distinctive outcomes of the Saudi National Health Command Centre (NHCC). Method: A review was performed to describe the system-based engineering approach utilised to design the Saudi NHCC. This smart centre creates a new model of care delivery which impacts clinical and operational indicators by adopting integrative and interdisciplinary methods to analyse, disseminate, manage, and measure outcomes. Results The NHCC is structured into four main departments with data integration and real-time data visualisation to allow for rapid assessment of available resources. It's organised to support technical incubators and empower several initiative. This enhanced the proactive capacity management in the centre and collectively contributed to several favourable outcomes. These included rapidly deploying medical staff and mechanical ventilators during its response to coronavirus disease (COVID-19);bending the curve early of the first wave of COVID-19 resulting in a low mortality rate (<2%);and reducing ICU lengths of stay by 10%, average lead-time of the supply chain from 60 days to 25 days, and surgery waiting times. It also supported the increment bed capacity from 6,000 to10,400, and maintaining the percentage of patients receiving care within 4 hours in emergency departments above 85%. Conclusion The NHCC replaces the traditional reliance on the subjectivity of information-based processes with actionable data, which helps building fairer systems to tackle structural inequalities in healthcare access and outcomes, eliminating waste, and allocating resources more effectively and efficiently. Importantly, a command centre to healthcare design and delivery creates synergy between people, processes, and technology facilitating substantial improvements in both patient and service outcomes.

3.
Medical Science ; 26(122):9, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1887481

ABSTRACT

Background: Hospitalization is not normally necessary in all COVID patients, nor is lab tests and PCR. There is subjective evidence that patients with "slight" COVID-19 may complain of persistent symptoms weeks after the infection. Methods: A group of 489 patients was tracked for 8 months after recovering from mild to severe COVID-19 infection at a Saudi tertiary hospital between March 6th and December 2nd 2021, IRB and informed permission acquired #89742/2022, and participation was freely. We evaluated the clinical condition, lab findings, and demographic features of the patients and used SPSSversion26 to perform our statistical analysis. Results: All of them were followed up until the second follow-up visit at 4.3 months (median 131 days (IQR 112-149). Age was a significant indicator of post CL syndrome, obtained p-value for age, 0.032, was less than critical alpha level of 0.05. BMI was a significant indicator of post CL syndrome, obtained p-value 0.032 (odds ratio (OR) 1.04;95% confidence interval (95% CI): (1.00 - 1.073)), body aches was a significant indicator of post CL syndrome, obtained p-value 0.040 (OR 0.59;95% CI (0.36-0.98)), fatigue was a significant indicator of post CL syndrome, obtained p-value.005 (OR 2.05;95% CI (0.99-4.22)). Conclusion: Manifold signs are present around 3 months after the onset of signs in formerly hospitalized and non-hospitalized participants with established or suspected COVID-19. This suggests the presence of a "(post-COVID-19 syndrome)" and peaks the final healthcare needs in a subset of individuals with "slight" or "Spartan" COVID-19.

4.
Medical Science ; 26(119):10, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1856804

ABSTRACT

Background: Reports revealed rising levels of skin diseases secondary to protective equipment use. Healthcare providers who are working day and night during the pandemic of COVID-19 are more susceptible to the damage of the skin. There is scarce published data about the incidence of skin disorders secondary to protective equipment use during the COVID-19 pandemic and what factors are associated in Saudi Arabia. Aim: Assessing the potential skin damage as a result of personal protection equipment (PPE) and intensive hygiene measures for healthcare providers during COVID-19 pandemic in Aseer region. Methods: This study a cross-sectional questionnaire-based study done in Aseer region from January to October 2021. Personal data and related to history of skin disease, practices toward personal protective equipment, and new skin damage was collected and analyzed. Independent t-test and chi-square test was used to determine factors associated with the incidence of new skin damage during the COVID-19 pandemic. Results: Total of 214 participants was included in the study. (47.7%) of the participants reported experiencing new skin damage during the COVID-19 pandemic, while 112 (52.3%) of the participants did not. Age, having a history of chronic skin disease, and number of worn gloves layers were all significantly associated with the incidence of skin damage during COVID-19 pandemic. Conclusion: The considerable rate of new skin damage during the COVID-19 pandemic makes it essential to take action and start rising awareness toward this topic among health-care workers as well as teaching them how to prevent the incidence of new skin damage.

5.
Arab World English Journal ; : 135-154, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1761547

ABSTRACT

With the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, new words appeared in English. EFL learners need to learn the new words. Learners depend on many strategies to help them learn new terms. Investigating this topic is significant because it will contribute to the knowledge of teaching and learning new words that appeared rapidly and suddenly. This study aims to investigate the acquisition of word-formation processes related to COVID-19 terms. The research seeks to answer two questions: (1) Are Saudi female EFL learners familiar with English word-formation processes? (2) Do word-formation processes aid Saudi female EFL students in learning COVID-19 pandemic terms? The study used a quantitative method. The data was collected from 71 Saudi female students via a multiple-choice electronic questionnaire. The results revealed that the percentages of incorrect responses were higher than the percentages of correct ones, thus suggesting that the students were not familiar with word-formation processes. The findings showed that they had similar results in words formed via compounding and blending, indicating they failed to distinguish between the two processes. The findings show that the Saudi female students did not prefer to use a word-formation process over the other. Further, results showed that even though some of the common COVID-19 terms frequently were used on a daily basis, the students failed to predict and use the correct word-formation processes for those terms. The findings as a whole reveal that Saudi learners had difficulty in learning word-formation processes deriving COVID-19 terms. The study proposes some recommendations for further research.

6.
Teikyo Medical Journal ; 44(5):1333-1344, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1548124

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of COVID 19 has led to the postponement of all elective procedures including screening colonoscopy due to the rising risk of infection with covid-19. Routine use of screening tests for colorectal cancer is not applicable during covid 19 pandemic including colonoscopy, computed tomographic colonography, colon capsule endoscopy, and fecal immunochemical test. Focused reviewing of the impact of covid-19 on the various diagnostic modalities for colorectal cancer screening is the objective of this review. Databases of PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library were searched for literature published before June 2020. This narrative review was created from a conscious dissection of different data obtained from the related articles. Careful categorical writing of the recommendations was done in an easy simple manner. The risk of the spread of COVID 19 infection could be higher after using aerosol-generating procedures such as upper and lower GIT endoscopy. Also, CT might raise the risk of infection. Colon capsule endoscopy may be considered a potentially valuable procedure for colorectal cancer screening during the pandemic of COVID 19. During the post-COVID-19 recovery phase, it is expected to have a high demand for colonoscopy services as waiting lists will grow in that time. Colon capsule endoscopy may be considered a valuable diagnostic modality for prioritizing those who will need screening colonoscopy. Colon capsule endoscopy seems to be superior to other modalities for the screening of colorectal cancer during the pandemic of COVID 19 while postponement of colonoscopy service. Colon capsule endoscopy can be used for triaging those requiring further endoscopic procedures. © 2021 Teikyo University School of Medicine. All rights reserved.

7.
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences ; 34(5):1645-1649, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1527162

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory viral infections are frequently associated with multiple organ failure, including acute kidney damage. The present study aimed to investigate the associated influence of COVID-19 on renal function in patients admitted to the intensive care unit in Asir region, Saudi Arabia. Thirty patients infected with COVID-19 who were referred to the intensive care unit during November and October 2020 at Asir central hospital, Asir region, Saudi Arabia were recruited. The age of patients ranged between 30 and 90 years old. Renal function tests exhibited dramatic changes in the renal biomarkers in patients with COVID-19. Blood urea levels in COVID-19 patients were significantly higher than in the control group. In addition, significantly lower albumin levels with abnormally decreased total protein levels were found in COVID-19 patients. Among the different electrolytes analyzed, a significantly lower calcium level was observed in COVID-19 patients' groups than in the controls. Renal function tests for COVID-19-infected ICU patients revealed significant changes, indicating the major impact of COVID-19 on kidney function. Monitoring renal function tests may assist in the early prognosis of COVID-19 patients. It is, therefore, crucial to increase the understanding of renal function tests in COVID-19 patients who were admitted to the hospital before their condition deteriorated. © 2021 Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. All rights reserved.

8.
Hepatology ; 74(SUPPL 1):341A-342A, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1508738

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID19 pandemic has affected persons dietary habits and life style, with effects on body weight. We have assessed the effect of the pandemic on the liver health by quantifying the changes in liver enzymes, hepatic steatosis and fibrosis in patients with chronic liver disease. Methods: This is a multi-center US study that included 3 tertiary clinical centers. Patients with chronic liver disease (51 NAFLD, 8 with resolved hepatitis C, 3 chronic hepatitis B, 5 primary biliary cholangitis and 36 combination of chronic liver disease), without evidence of an acute process (e.g. alcoholic hepatitis, alcohol abuse or new decompensation of cirrhosis), were enrolled. Patients were assessed between January and March 2020 and January and March 2021. Assessment included laboratory tests and controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) and liver stiffness measurement (LSM) on vibration transient elastography (VCTE). Results: 103 patients were assessed twice during the two periods. Baseline mean alanine aminotransferase (ALT) was 37 ± 36 (SD) U/L;aspartate aminotransferase (AST) 30 ± 18 U/L;total bilirubin 0.6 ± 0.31 mg/dL;albumin, 4.2 ± 0.72 g/dL;CAP score 293 ± 70 dB/m;and LSM on VCTE 8.1 ±6.2 kPa. Weight gain occurred in 54% of the population, whereas 39% lost weight, and 7% had no weight change. LSM increased by >20% in 30% of subjects;decreased by 20% in 27%;and remained within the 20% range in 43%. LSM increase by 20% was associated with significant weight gain and ALT increase (+2.3 ± 6.5 kg, and +17 ± 49.U/L (p<0.05)), in comparison to subjects who had their LSM changes within 20% range (+1.1 (3.7) kg, and -5.3 ±22.0 U/L) or had >20% decrease in LSM (-0.3 ±5.8 kg, and -6.0 ±21 U/L). CAP score median change was -2.9 ±85 dB/m in those who had LSM increase by >20%, whereas the score changed by 0.0 ± 44 dB/m in those who had LSM changes within 20% or 1.0 ± 58 dB/m in those >20% decrease. Conclusion: During the COVID 19 pandemic in this U.S. population, more than half of subjects with chronic liver disease gained weight, but others had no change or decreased weight. Adverse liver changes (LSM>20% and increased ALT) occurred in one-third of the population.

9.
Australasian Journal of Paramedicine ; 18, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1457552

ABSTRACT

Introduction Our research sought to assess the psychological and social wellbeing of paramedics in Riyadh City in Saudi Arabia during the COVID 19 pandemic. It also aimed to assess the therapeutic assistance provided to pre-hospital care givers during the pandemic. Methods In this quantitative cross-sectional analysis an assessment of 106 paramedics was undertaken from data obtained from 28 September to 10 November 2020. The authenticity and durability of Pilot and the Cronbach have been added. Results Of the 106 paramedics surveyed, 60 (56.6%) were 30–39 years of age;101 were male (95.3%). The mean average psychological wellbeing of the paramedics was 6.41 with the standard deviation of 2.42. Family and friends’ average social support score was 9.2 in norm 2.6 deviation. Conclusion Our study showed that during the COVID-19 pandemic paramedics suffered from social and psychological depression. Paramedics must be protected from the socioeconomic and psychological difficulties they face every day in order to combat the COVID-19 pandemic.

10.
Frontiers in Blockchain ; 4:15, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1332113

ABSTRACT

The pandemic has triggered an unprecedented global demand for home caregiving to manage asymptomatic and mild COVID-19 cases. Older people and others with pre-existing medical conditions (including diabetes) appear to be more vulnerable to severe illness caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Approximately 25% of Saudis suffer from diabetes;these 4 million patients require 5.5 million consultations and follow-up visits each year to manage their disease. Furthermore, with the increasing number of patients with diabetes and their need for professional care, it is difficult and time consuming to share patient-care information among caregivers in a traditional way;this increases the financial and psychological burden of home caregivers. Although the pandemic has also triggered a global demand for digital health technology adoption worldwide to achieve higher standards of health, recent developments in advanced technologies and mobile health (mHealth) applications have failed to equip the caregivers with the right ecosystem for patient-centered information sharing to allow for informed care decisions. Therefore, there is a gap in the literature as the current solutions fall short of facilitating an effective communication channel among caregivers and between them and their patients, supporting diverse caregiving groups with multiple languages, distributing tasks between caregivers to alleviate the burden on one caregiver, providing a treatment plan by a specialized care team to be viewed and followed by caregivers and patients, and alerting everyone in case of an emergency. Based on the need for empowering home caregivers to cope with the pressure, we propose eHomeCaregiving, an mHealth solution that can build a transparent blockchain-based patient-centered family caregiving ecosystem. eHomeCaregiving facilitates care continuity in patients with type 2 diabetes in Saudi Arabia by integrating care, saving time and efforts of all caregivers, and improving the patient's quality of life and outcomes, particularly in terms of facing emerging challenges amid the pandemic.

12.
Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International ; 33(37A):182-192, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1325996

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus, designated as "Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2" (SARS-CoV-2), is a new coronavirus that has evolved as a global pandemic recently, and it has created a widespread interest in coronaviruses causing human infections. This article compares the pathogenesis, distribution, clinical characteristics, and treatment of the three highly pathogenic coronaviruses that caused epidemics, namely, "Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus" (SARS), "Middle East Respiratory Syndrome" (MERS), and SARS-CoV-2. This narrative review is prepared using the data compiled from literature search using relevant MeSH terms. The clinical manifestation of SARS-CoV-2 infection (COVID-19) is mild with relatively low fatality rate than the other two coronaviruses;however, its overall capability to cause explosive spread of the disease and reach a pandemic level is greater. Unlike SARS and MERS, COVID-19 has no accepted treatment protocols at present. Extensive studies and analyses on COVID-19 are necessary before making strong recommendations for or against any particular treatment, although some recent medications have shown great potential. COVID-19 still needs further investigation, where all of the lessons gained from previous outbreaks of SARS and MERS and the experience from the countries that managed COVID-19 seem to be the best approaches to counteract this new global hazard at present until effective preventive vaccines are available in sufficient quantity for mass vaccination programs worldwide.

13.
Ieee Network ; 35(3):21-26, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1313958

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has had an unprecedented effect on the world. The pandemic has caused considerable death and suffering, triggered economic downturns, and led to significant job loss. Both during and after the pandemic, sophisticated and effective measures must be taken to diagnose COVID-19 patients and mitigate the effects of the virus. Emerging developments in the Internet of Things (IoT), 4G, 5G, and 6G wireless networks, artificial intelligence (AI), and blockchain technology can be harnessed to combat COVID-19. The implementation of IoT in hospitals enables highly integrated digital environments and real-time data collection, which can be utilized to identify clinical patterns, model risk interactions, and forecast effects via AI and deep learning systems. This article emphasizes the potential uses of IoT, AI, and 5G for combating pandemics similar to the COVID-19 pandemic. Then the authors propose a solution that uses federated learning and integrates these three technologies. Experiments were performed using cough sounds and chest X-ray images;the experiments yielded promising results.

14.
Applied Linguistics Research Journal ; 5(4):151-166, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1239212

ABSTRACT

In recent times, the way of learning as well as teaching in educational institutions and organizations has undergone a significant transformation. With the outbreak of the Covid-19, Saudi Arabia's Ministry of Education (higher education sector) has shifted the English language learning via Blackboard. Therefore, it prompts the need to understand the technology and its antecedents better. This paper aims to evaluate the use of Blackboard as a learning tool concerning its usefulness and effectiveness along with learner satisfaction and behavioural intention. This study takes an activity theory approach to develop a research model to assess learner attitudes toward the new technology, Blackboard. The data used in this study were obtained from 156 undergraduate students using Blackboard technology at the University of Jeddah through a comprehensive questionnaire. All data analyses were performed using the structural equation modelling technique through SPSS 22 and AMOS 22. The study involved the calculation of descriptive statistics (frequency, percentage, mean, and standard deviation). Structural equation modelling was used to confirm the standardized factor loading and analyze the hypotheses of the study. The convergent validity was determined using composite reliability and average variance extracted along with standardized factor loading. Perceived self-efficacy, self-regulation, anxiety, autonomy, and ease of use, as well as interactive learning environments, are expected to have a positive effect on the perceived usefulness and satisfaction of Blackboard as learning tools. These are important factors to determine learner behavioural intention that consequently promote learning effectiveness. The study contributes a significant part in the adoption of technology and e-learning, which can help an institution identify the factors that motivate the students to adopt e-learning.

15.
International Journal of Web Based Communities ; 17(2):135-148, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1215168

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, our lives changed forever, as a new virus named COVID-19, disrupted the lives of people worldwide. The spread of this virus has had critical effects on people's health and social interactions, security and national, the economy, and individual attitudes, activities, manners, and behaviour. This dire situation called for governments world-wide to adopt various strategies to contain the spread of the virus and minimise its negative impacts on individuals, communities, and nations. People were asked to self-isolate to avoid contagion and, within a matter of weeks, many began working from home. People started to use sophisticated social networking (SN) applications to communicate, collaborate, connect, and cooperate to exchange information, ideas, keep fit while confined at home, and obtain news about the spread of COVID-19 world-wide. This paper will present an individual perspective on SN during the COVID-19 period, examining and discussing the benefits and challenges associated with SN. Copyright © 2021 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

16.
Antiviral Therapy ; 22:22, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1208724

ABSTRACT

The 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has emerged as a major burden worldwide, resulting in serious public health challenges. HBV infection is another widely spread virus that chronically affects about 257 million people. The management of patients with HBV infection has gained attention in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Patients with COVID-19 have varying levels of liver involvements, resulting from direct viral effects on the liver as well as hepatotoxic drugs. This was demonstrated by elevated levels of liver enzymes, particularly evident in those patients with severe SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, scarce information is available on the management of COVID-19 patients having an underlying chronic liver disease, including HBV infection. Studies have shown reactivation of HBV infection following treatment with tocilizumab and corticosteroids, emphasizing the need for caution when using these agents to treat COVID-19 patients with HBV infection. HBV screening and prophylaxis should be considered in patients with elevated transaminase levels and also in high prevalence populations. In patients with advanced liver disease, attention must be given to minimize the risk of liver decompensation. Nevertheless, further investigation is needed to enable an evidence-based approach for the care of these patients.

17.
Journal of Research in Medical and Dental Science ; 9(2):105-111, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1148618

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19) is an emerging respiratory infection characterized by rapid transmission mainly by close contact with an infected person. To control its spread, Saudi Arabia adopted a very strict control measures including raising public awareness by all available means. The current study investigated the knowledge, attitudes, and practice of Saudi population, towards COVID-19 pandemic. Method: This study was cross-sectional. The study population were Saudis from the five regions of the kingdom. Data were collected by an electronic questionnaire after obtaining an ethics approval and informed consents. Three thousand six hundred and fortytwo subjects were included in the study. Data analysis was performed by SPSS version 23. Results: Most of the participants had average and good knowledge about COVI-19 constituted 52.7% and 44.8% respectively. The population practice and attitude towards COVID-19 was 84.0% and 96.9% respectively. Males had better COVID-19 knowledge compared to females. Nine hundred and ninety-two (48.3%) and 704 (40.9%) of males and females had good knowledge respectively. Females had more positive attitude towards COVID-19 than males (98.4% versus 95.5%). The positive COVI-19 attitude for the single, the married, the divorced and the widow were 95.7%, 98.2%, 97.3% and 96.6% respectively. Conclusion: The level of COVID-19 knowledge of Saudi population is average and the attitude of most population is positive. Males have better COVID-19 knowledge compared to females: however, most females have positive attitude towards the disease compared to males. The level of COVID-19 knowledge increases with age and education level of the population. Population who have higher level of knowledge have positive attitude. The social media (Twitter) is the main source of COVID-19 information for the Saudi population.

18.
IEEE Access ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1080776

ABSTRACT

Next-generation of the cellular network will attempt to overcome the limitations of the current Fifth Generation (5G) networks and equip itself to address the challenges which become obvious in the future. Currently, academia and industry have focused their attention on the Sixth Generation (6G) network, which is anticipated to be the next big game-changer in the telecom industry. The outbreak of COVID’19 has made the whole world to opt for virtual meetings, live video interactions ranging from healthcare, business to education. However, we miss an immersive experience due to the lack of supporting technology. Experts have anticipated that starting from the post-pandemic age, the performance requirements of technology for virtual and real-time communication, the rise of several verticals such as industrial automation, robotics, and autonomous driving will increase tremendously, and will skyrocket during the next decade. In this manuscript, we study the latest perspectives and future megatrends that are most likely to drive 6G. Initially, we describe the instances that lead us to the vision of 6G. Later, we narrate some of the use cases and the KPIs essential to meet their performance requirement. Further, we highlight the key requirements of 6G based on contemporary research such as UN sustainability goals, business model, edge intelligence, digital divide, and the trends in machine learning for 6G. CCBYNCND

19.
Hepatology ; 72(1 SUPPL):296A-297A, 2020.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-986103

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an unprecedented global pandemic caused by the novel betacoronavirus SARS-CoV-2 Extrapulmonary clinical features such as abnormal liver enzymes are often present, and almost 50% of patients experienced different degrees of liver injury in studies from China However, the prevalence of elevated liver enzymes and the association with clinical outcomes in U S based cohorts have not been well studied Aims: 1 ) To assess the prevalence of elevated liver enzymes in patients with COVID-19 in a U S based cohort 2 ) To compare differences in clinical characteristics and outcomes in patients with and without elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, we analyzed data from patients hospitalized at the Johns Hopkins Health System (JHHS) between February 1, 2020, and July 1, 2020, who tested positive for SARSCoV- 2. Identified COVID-19 patients were then stratified into two groups, those with elevated ALT (>35 U/L for men and > 25 U/L for women) at admission or subsequently and thosewith normal ALT Pearson's chi-squared test and analysis of variance and were used to compare variables between the two groups Clinical outcomes assessed included the need for mechanical ventilation or vasopressor support, hospital length of stay (LOS), and mortality Results: During the study period, 2293 patients with COVID-19 were hospitalized at JHHS The mean age was 60 (SD 17 7) years;52 5% were men 35 6% were black, 31 2% white, and 26 3% Hispanic 33 7% were obese;1479 (64 5%) had abnormal liver ALT values Compared to those with normal ALT, patients with elevated ALT were more likely to be non-white (72 3% vs 61 9%, p < 0 001), Hispanic (30 4% vs 18 5%, p < 0 001), obese (43 7% vs 34 2%, p < 0 001), and have underlying liver disease (7 1% vs 3 0%, p < 0 001) Those with elevated ALT more often required mechanical ventilation (23 7% vs 6 0%, p < 0 001) and vasopressor support (23 0% vs 7 2%, p < 0 001) The group with elevated ALT had a longer hospital LOS (11 0 vs 5 9 days, p < 0 001) However, there were no differences in mortality found between the two groups (13 8% vs 15 6%, p = 0 3) Conclusion: There was a high prevalence of elevated ALT among inpatients with COVID-19 (64 5%) The presence of elevated ALT was associated with adverse clinical outcomes, including the need for mechanical ventilation and vasopressor support and prolonged hospital LOS.

20.
Hepatology ; 72(1 SUPPL):262A, 2020.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-986102

ABSTRACT

Background: Patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) often present with various degrees of liver injury Thus, patients with pre-existing chronic liver disease (LD) may be at increased risk of complications from COVID-19, but this has not yet been well characterized Aim: To examine the impact of pre-existing LD on outcomes in patients with COVID-19 Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, we analyzed data from COVID-19 patients hospitalized at the Johns Hopkins Health System between February 1, 2020, and July 1, 2020, who tested positive for COVID-19 Identified patients were then stratified into two groups based on the presence or absence of pre-existing LD The LD group consisted of patients with a diagnosis of pre-existing liver disease at the time of diagnosis of COVID-19 We studied outcomes, including the need for hemodialysis or vasopressor support, hospital length of stay (LOS), and in-hospital mortality We described categorical data as percentages, and continuous data as mean with standard error (SD) We used Pearson's chi-squared tests and analysis of variance to compare variables between the patients with and without LD Results: In a study of 2,293 patients with laboratoryconfirmed COVID-19, 129 (17.8%) patients had pre-existing LD Among them, 32 (24 8%) patients had cirrhosis;18 (14 0%) had non-alcoholic fatty liver disease;20 (15 5%) had chronic hepatitis C;5 (3 87%) had chronic hepatitis B, and 5 (3 87%) were liver transplant recipients Patients with LD were more often black (41 9%) compared to patients with no preexisting LD (35 1%, p = 0 029) LD patients had substantially higher prevalence of comorbidities, including hypertension (79 9% vs 61%, p < 0 001), diabetes (27 9% vs 15 6%, p < 0 001), chronic pulmonary disease (31 0% vs 18 4%, p < 0 0001), and anemia (43 4% vs 22%, p < 0 001) Those with LD required hemodialysis more often (10% vs 4 4%, p = 0 015) There was no difference in need for vasopressor support (20 0% vs 18 8%, p = 0 12) The hospital LOS was similar between the groups (9 5 vs 9 6 days) There was no difference in mortality between the two groups (10 0% vs 14 6%, p = 0 14) Conclusion: Patients with pre-existing LD and COVID-19 infection were more likely black, have underlying comorbidities and require hemodialysis However, they had similar hospital LOS and mortality as those without LD. These findings have important implications for patients with LD but require further validation.

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