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1.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0272869, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2079728

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe complications from COVID-19 and poor responses to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination were commonly reported in cancer patients compared to those without cancer. Therefore, the identification of predisposing factors to SARS-CoV-2 infection in cancer patients would assist in the prevention of COVID-19 and improve vaccination strategies. The literature lacks reports on this topic from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Therefore, we studied clinical and laboratory data of 139 cancer patients from King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, KSA. METHODS: The cancer patients fall into three categories; (i) uninfected with SARS-CoV-2 pre-vaccination and remained uninfected post-vaccination (control group; n = 114; 81%), (ii) pre-vaccination infected group (n = 16; 11%), or (iii) post-vaccination infected group (n = 9; 6%). Next, the clinical and lab data of the three groups of patients were investigated. RESULTS: Comorbidity factors like diabetes and hemodialysis were associated with the risk of infection in cancer patients before the vaccination (p<0.05). In contrast to breast cancer, papillary thyroid cancer was more prevalent in the infected patients pre- and post-vaccination (p<0.05). Pre-vaccination infected group had earlier cancer stages compared with the control group (p = 0.01). On the other hand, combined therapy was less commonly administrated to the infected groups versus the control group (p<0.05). Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio was lower in the post-vaccination infected group compared to the control group (p = 0.01). CONCLUSION: Collectively, this is the first study from KSA to report potential risk factors of SARS-CoV-2 infection in cancer patients pre- and post-vaccination. Further investigations on these risk factors in a larger cohort are worthwhile to draw a definitive conclusion about their roles in predisposing cancer patients to the infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Neoplasms/complications , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
2.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(10)2022 Oct 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066620

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which emerged in December 2019, is a serious health concern throughout the world. Despite massive COVID-19 vaccination on a global scale, there is a rising need to develop more effective vaccines and drugs to curb the spread of coronavirus. METHODOLOGY: In this study, we screened the amino acid sequence of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of SARS-CoV-2 (the causative agent of COVID-19) for the identification of B and T cell epitopes using various immunoinformatic tools. These identified potent B and T cell epitopes with high antigenicity scores were linked together to design the multi-epitope vaccine construct. The physicochemical properties, overall quality, and stability of the designed vaccine construct were confirmed by suitable bioinformatic tools. RESULTS: After proper in silico prediction and screening, we identified 3 B cell, 18 CTL, and 10 HTL epitopes from the RdRp protein sequence. The screened epitopes were non-toxic, non-allergenic, and highly antigenic in nature as revealed by appropriate servers. Molecular docking revealed stable interactions of the designed multi-epitope vaccine with human TLR3. Moreover, in silico immune simulations showed a substantial immunogenic response of the designed vaccine. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that our designed multi-epitope vaccine possessing intrinsic T cell and B cell epitopes with high antigenicity scores could be considered for the ongoing development of peptide-based novel vaccines against COVID-19. However, further in vitro and in vivo studies need to be performed to confirm our in silico observations.

3.
Infect Drug Resist ; 15: 4127-4136, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1974458

ABSTRACT

Purpose: This study was conducted to investigate antibody immune responses induced by BNT162b2 and AZD1222 human COVID-19 vaccines in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. Patients and Methods: ELISA was used to evaluate antibodies, against the SARS-CoV-2 spike S1 protein, in serum samples from 432 vaccinated individuals at six time points: pre-vaccination (baseline), post-prime, post-boost, 6-months, and 1 year post-vaccination, and 3 weeks post a third dose. Virus microneutralization assay was used to confirm antibody responses in a subset of samples. Results: Anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike IgG were detected in most subjects post-prime, reached a peak level post-boost, and remained at high level at the 6-month follow-up. At 1 year post-vaccine, the antibody levels were low but increased to a significant level higher than the peak following a third dose. The third dose was given at an average of 250 days after the second dose. The virus microneutralization assay confirmed the neutralization activity of the induced SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies. The vaccines induced higher IgG titres at post-prime (p=0.0001) and 6 months (p=0.006) in previously infected individuals. An increased interval between prime and boost, more than recommended time, appeared to enhance the IgG levels (p=0004). Moreover, the vaccines induced higher IgG levels in younger subjects (p=0.01). Conclusion: These data provide insights and build on the current understanding of immune responses induced by these two vaccines; and support a third boosting dose for these COVID-19 vaccines.

4.
J Infect Public Health ; 15(5): 573-577, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1773509

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Two vaccines for COVID-19 have been approved and administered in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA); Pfizer-BioNtech BNT162b2 and AstraZeneca-Oxford AZD1222 vaccines. The purpose of this study was to describe the real-world data on the outcome of single dose of these COVID-19 vaccines in a large cohort in KSA and to analyse demographics and co-morbidities as risk factors for infection post one-dose vaccination. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, a total of 18,543 subjects received one dose of either of the vaccines at a vaccination centre in KSA, and were followed up for three to eight months. Data were collected from three sources; clinical data from medical records, adverse events (AEs) from a self-reporting system, and COVID-19 infection data from the national databases. The study was conducted during the pandemic restrictions on travel, mobility, and social interactions. RESULTS: The median age of participants was 33 years with an average body mass index of 27.3. The majority were males (60.1%). Results showed that 92.17% of the subjects had no COVID-19 infection post-vaccination as infection post-vaccination was documented for 1452 (7.83%). Diabetes mellitus 03), organ transplantation (p = 0.02), and obesity (p < 0.01) were associated with infection post-vaccination. Unlike vaccine type, being Saudi, male, or obese was associated with the occurrence breakthrough infections more than other parameters. AEs included injection site pain, fatigue, fever, myalgia, headache and was reported by 5.8% of the subjects. CONCLUSION: Single dose COVID-19 vaccines showed a protection rate of 92.17% up to eight months follow-up in this cohort. This rate in AZD1222 was higher than what have been previously reported in effectiveness studies and clinical trials. Obese, male, and Saudi were at higher risk of contracting the infection post-vaccination, Saudi and male might have more social interaction with the public when mobility and social interactions were limited during the pandemic. Side effects and AEs were within what has been reported in clinical trials.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Adult , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Obesity/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology
5.
RSC Adv ; 12(13): 7872-7882, 2022 Mar 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1751769

ABSTRACT

Casein kinase 2 (CK2) is a conserved serine/threonine-protein kinase involved in hematopoietic cell survival, cell cycle control, DNA repair, and other cellular processes. It plays a significant role in cancer progression and viral infection. CK2 is considered a potential drug target in cancers and COVID-19 therapy. In this study, we have performed a virtual screening of phytoconstituents from the IMPPAT database to identify some potential inhibitors of CK2. The initial filter was the physicochemical properties of the molecules following the Lipinski rule of five. Then binding affinity calculation, PAINS filter, ADMET, and PASS analyses followed by interaction analysis were carried out to discover nontoxic and better hits. Finally, two compounds, stylopine and dehydroevodiamines with appreciable affinity and specific interaction towards CK2, were identified. Their time-evolution analyses were carried out using all-atom molecular dynamics simulation, principal component analysis and free energy landscape. Altogether, we propose that stylopine and dehydroevodiamines can be further explored in in vitro and in vivo settings to develop anticancer and antiviral therapeutics.

6.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0260259, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1560999

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: After recovery from acute infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), many patients experience long-term symptoms in different body systems. The aim of the present study was to identify these symptoms, their severity, and their duration as a first step in building a system to classify post-recovery long-term symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: An online-based cross-sectional survey was administered between September and October 2020. Data regarding the severity of post-recovery symptoms and their duration were collected using an Arabic questionnaire divided into six categories encompassing the 20 most prevalent symptoms. RESULTS: A total of 979 patients recovered from COVID-19 in Saudi Arabia in the study period, of whom 53% were male and 47% were female. The most common symptoms included general fatigue and weakness (73% each), with moderate severity of neurological symptoms including mood changes (41%) and insomnia (39%). Among the special senses, loss of smell and taste of marked severity were reported by 64% and 55% among respiratory symptoms, cough of mild severity (47%), and dyspnea of moderate severity (43%). Loss of appetite of moderate severity was reported in 42%, and diarrhea, abdominal pain, and nausea of mild severity were reported by 53%, 50%, and 44% of respondents, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term symptoms after recovery from COVID-19 warrant patient follow-up. The authors propose a classification system as a starting point to guide the identification and follow-up of long-term symptoms post-recovery, and recommend larger-scale studies to broaden the definition of recovery from COVID-19, which appears to have two phases, acute and chronic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Child , Cough/etiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fatigue/etiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mood Disorders/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Severity of Illness Index , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/etiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
7.
J Infect Public Health ; 14(11): 1650-1657, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1446870

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has emerged in 2019 and caused a global pandemic in 2020, manifesting in the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The majority of patients exhibit a mild form of the disease with no major complications; however, moderate to severe and fatal cases are of public health concerns. Predicting the potential prognosis of COVID-19 could assist healthcare workers in managing cases and controlling the pandemic in an effective way. Therefore, the objectives of the study were to search for biomarkers associated with COVID-19 mortality and predictors of the overall survival (OS). METHODS: Here, clinical data of 6026 adult COVID-19 patients admitted to two large centers in Saudi Arabia (Riyadh and Hafar Al-Batin cities) between April and June 2020 were retrospectively analysed. RESULTS: More than 23% of the study subjects with available data have died, enabling the prediction of mortality in our cohort. Markers that were significantly associated with mortality in this study were older age, increased d-dimer in the blood, higher counts of WBCs, higher percentage of neutrophil, and a higher chest X-ray (CXR) score. The CXR scores were also positively associated with age, d-dimer, WBC count, and percentage of neutrophil. This supports the utility of CXR scores in the absence of blood testing. Predicting mortality based on Ct values of RT-PCR was not successful, necessitating a more quantitative RT-PCR to determine virus quantity in samples. Our work has also identified age, d-dimer concentration, leukocyte parameters and CXR score to be prognostic markers of the OS of COVID-19 patients. CONCLUSION: Overall, this retrospective study on hospitalised cohort of COVID-19 patients presents that age, haematological, and radiological data at the time of diagnosis are of value and could be used to guide better clinical management of COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Aged , Humans , Pandemics , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Saudi J Biol Sci ; 29(1): 394-401, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401862

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which emerged in December 2019, continues to be a serious health concern worldwide. There is an urgent need to develop effective drugs and vaccines to control the spread of this disease. In the current study, the main phytochemical compounds of Nigella sativa were screened for their binding affinity for the active site of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) enzyme of the severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). The binding affinity was investigated using molecular docking methods, and the interaction of phytochemicals with the RdRp active site was analyzed and visualized using suitable software. Out of the nine phytochemicals of N. sativa screened in this study, a significant docking score was observed for four compounds, namely α-hederin, dithymoquinone, nigellicine, and nigellidine. Based on the findings of our study, we report that α-hederin, which was found to possess the lowest binding energy (-8.6 kcal/mol) and hence the best binding affinity, is the best inhibitor of RdRp of SARS-CoV-2, among all the compounds screened here. Our results prove that the top four potential phytochemical molecules of N. sativa, especially α-hederin, could be considered for ongoing drug development strategies against SARS-CoV-2. However, further in vitro and in vivo testing are required to confirm the findings of this study.

9.
J Infect Public Health ; 14(5): 561-569, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1118565

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDː: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), within few months of being declared as a global pandemic by WHO, the number of confirmed cases has been over 75 million and over 1.6 million deaths since the start of the Pandemic and still counting, there is no consensus on factors that predict COVID-19 case progression despite the diversity of studies that reported sporadic laboratory predictive values predicting severe progression. We review different biomarkers to systematically analyzed these values to evaluate whether are they are correlated with the severity of COVID-19 disease and so their ability to be a predictor for progression. METHODS: The current meta-analysis was carried out to identify relevant articles using eight different databases regarding the values of biomarkers and risk factors of significance that predict progression of mild or moderate cases into severe and critical cases. We defined the eligibility criteria using a PICO model. RESULTS: Twenty-two relevant articles were selected for meta-analysis the following biomarkers C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, LDH, neutrophil, %PD-1 expression, D-dimer, creatinine, AST and Cortisol all recorded high cut-off values linked to severe and critical cases while low lymphocyte count, and low Albumin level were recorded. Also, we meta- analyzed age and comorbidities as a risk factors of progression as hypertension, Diabetes and chronic obstructive lung diseases which significantly correlated with cases progression (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: ː The current meta-analysis is the first step for analysing and getting cut-off references values of significance for prediction COVID-19 case progression. More studies are needed on patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 and on a larger scale to establish clearer threshold values that predict progression from mild to severe cases. In addition, more biomarkers testing also help in building a scoring system for the prediction and guiding for proper timely treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , C-Reactive Protein , Humans , Interleukin-6 , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Viruses ; 12(11):1215, 2020.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-895952

ABSTRACT

MERS-CoV is a zoonotic virus that has emerged in humans in 2012 and caused severe respiratory illness with a mortality rate of 34.4%. Since its appearance, MERS-CoV has been reported in 27 countries and most of these cases were in Saudi Arabia. So far, dromedaries are considered to be the intermediate host and the only known source of human infection. This study was designed to determine the seroprevalence and the infection rate of MERS-CoV in slaughtered food-camels in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A total of 171 nasal swabs along with 161 serum samples were collected during the winter;from January to April 2019. Nasal swabs were examined by Rapid test and RT-PCR to detect MERS-CoV RNA, while serum samples were tested primarily using S1-based ELISA Kit to detect MERS-CoV (IgG) antibodies and subsequently by MERS pseudotyped viral particles (MERSpp) neutralization assay for confirmation. Genetic diversity of the positive isolates was determined based on the amplification and sequencing of the spike gene. Our results showed high prevalence (38.6%) of MERS-CoV infection in slaughtered camels and high seropositivity (70.8%) during the time of the study. These data indicate previous and ongoing MERS-CoV infection in camels. Phylogenic analysis revealed relatively low genetic variability among our isolated samples. When these isolates were aligned against published spike sequences of MERS-CoV, deposited in global databases, there was sequence similarity of 94%. High seroprevalence and high genetic stability of MERS-CoV in camels indicating that camels pose a public health threat. The widespread MERS-CoV infections in camels might lead to a risk of future zoonotic transmission into people with direct contact with these infected camels. This study confirms re-infections in camels, highlighting a challenge for vaccine development when it comes to protective immunity.

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