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1.
Front Public Health ; 11: 1158979, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2304748

ABSTRACT

Background and objectives: The association between oral and mental health is reciprocal, in which poor oral health may lead to several mental health issues, especially among patients with diabetes. The present study evaluated oral health-related quality of life (OHRQOL) and its association with mental health conditions among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in central Saudi Arabia. Methods: The Arabic version of the Oral Health Impact Profile-14 (OHIP-14) questionnaire and the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale-21 Items (DASS-21) were used to assess the OHRQOL and mental health status of patients with diabetes. We utilized logistic regression analysis to identify the predictors of poor OHRQOL, and Spearman's correlation test to identify any correlations between OHIP-14 and overall DASS-21 scores, as well as each subscale. Results: Of the 677 patients included in the present study, 52.7% had a poor OHRQOL, which was significantly higher (positive association) among patients with a longer duration of diabetes (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 3.31; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.96-4.17) and those who did not periodically monitor their oral health (AOR = 2.85; 95% CI = 1.76-3.89). Some forms (mild, moderate, severe, or extremely severe) of depression, anxiety, and stress were observed in 59.7, 71.1, and 67.1% of the participants, respectively. Furthermore, we found that the total OHRQOL scores had a significant positive association with depression (AOR = 2.32, 95% CI = 1.34-3.71, p = 0.001), anxiety (AOR = 1.81, 95% CI = 1.22-2.79, p = 0.003), and stress (AOR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.14-2.19, p = 0.026). Conclusion: The results of the present study suggest the importance of appropriate and targeted health education programs for T2DM patients to ensure periodic dental examinations and oral health. Additionally, we recommend counseling sessions for all T2DM patients with trained healthcare providers to improve their mental health status during follow-up visits at outpatient diabetes care centers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Humans , Quality of Life/psychology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Pandemics
2.
Immunity, inflammation and disease ; 11(3), 2023.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2249260

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19) is a novel pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‐CoV‐2). It has been shown that SARS‐CoV‐2 infection‐induced inflammatory and oxidative stress and associated endothelial dysfunction may lead to the development of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Therefore, this review aimed to ascertain the link between severe SARS‐CoV‐2 infection and ACS. ACS is a spectrum of acute myocardial ischemia due to a sudden decrease in coronary blood flow, ranging from unstable angina to myocardial infarction (MI). Primary or type 1 MI (T1MI) is mainly caused by coronary plaque rupture and/or erosion with subsequent occlusive thrombosis. Secondary or type 2 MI (T2MI) is due to cardiac and systemic disorders without acute coronary atherothrombotic disruption. Acute SARS‐CoV‐2 infection is linked with the development of nonobstructive coronary disorders such as coronary vasospasm, dilated cardiomyopathy, myocardial fibrosis, and myocarditis. Furthermore, SARS‐CoV‐2 infection is associated with systemic inflammation that might affect coronary atherosclerotic plaque stability through augmentation of cardiac preload and afterload. Nevertheless, major coronary vessels with atherosclerotic plaques develop minor inflammation during COVID‐19 since coronary arteries are not initially and primarily targeted by SARS‐CoV‐2 due to low expression of angiotensin‐converting enzyme 2 in coronary vessels. In conclusion, SARS‐CoV‐2 infection through hypercytokinemia, direct cardiomyocyte injury, and dysregulation of the renin‐angiotensin system may aggravate underlying ACS or cause new‐onset T2MI. As well, arrhythmias induced by anti‐COVID‐19 medications could worsen underlying ACS. SARS‐CoV‐2 infection through hypercytokinemia, direct cardiomyocyte injury, and dysregulation of the renin‐angiotensin system may aggravate acute coronary syndrome (ACS) or cause new‐onset type 2 myocardial infarction. As well, arrhythmias induced by anti‐COVID‐19 medications could worsen ACS.

3.
Immun Inflamm Dis ; 11(3): e798, 2023 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2249259

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a novel pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). It has been shown that SARS-CoV-2 infection-induced inflammatory and oxidative stress and associated endothelial dysfunction may lead to the development of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Therefore, this review aimed to ascertain the link between severe SARS-CoV-2 infection and ACS. ACS is a spectrum of acute myocardial ischemia due to a sudden decrease in coronary blood flow, ranging from unstable angina to myocardial infarction (MI). Primary or type 1 MI (T1MI) is mainly caused by coronary plaque rupture and/or erosion with subsequent occlusive thrombosis. Secondary or type 2 MI (T2MI) is due to cardiac and systemic disorders without acute coronary atherothrombotic disruption. Acute SARS-CoV-2 infection is linked with the development of nonobstructive coronary disorders such as coronary vasospasm, dilated cardiomyopathy, myocardial fibrosis, and myocarditis. Furthermore, SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with systemic inflammation that might affect coronary atherosclerotic plaque stability through augmentation of cardiac preload and afterload. Nevertheless, major coronary vessels with atherosclerotic plaques develop minor inflammation during COVID-19 since coronary arteries are not initially and primarily targeted by SARS-CoV-2 due to low expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 in coronary vessels. In conclusion, SARS-CoV-2 infection through hypercytokinemia, direct cardiomyocyte injury, and dysregulation of the renin-angiotensin system may aggravate underlying ACS or cause new-onset T2MI. As well, arrhythmias induced by anti-COVID-19 medications could worsen underlying ACS.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome , COVID-19 , Myocardial Infarction , Plaque, Atherosclerotic , Humans , COVID-19/complications , Acute Coronary Syndrome/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Myocardial Infarction/complications , Inflammation , Plaque, Atherosclerotic/complications
4.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 10(11)2022 Nov 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2215766

ABSTRACT

The evidence-based practice of primary care physicians is essential because they are the first line of contact with the local community, and they cater to most of their communities' health needs. In the current study, in which we used a cross-sectional survey in northern Saudi Arabia, we assessed primary care physicians' knowledge, attitude, practice, and barriers regarding evidence-based medicine (EBM). Of the 300 physicians who participated, less than half had high knowledge (43.7%) and attitude (47.7%) toward EBM. The chi-square test revealed that the knowledge categories were significantly associated with the age group (p = 0.002) and EBM training received in the past five years (p < 0.001), and the attitude categories were significantly associated with nationality (p = 0.008). Of the respondents, 155 (51.7%) used EBM in their daily clinical practice. Through logistic regression analysis, we found that the identified predictors of including EBM in clinical practice were the 31-45-year-old age group (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.11, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.65-2.73) and EBM training received during last 5 years (AOR = 2.12, 95% CI = 1.35-2.94). We recommend enhancing primary care physicians' knowledge of EBM and its importance in clinical practice through appropriate training programs. A multi-centric mixed-method survey is warranted in other provinces of the KSA to recognize region-specific training demand.

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