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Journal of the Bahrain Medical Society ; 34(1):9-19, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2321482


Objective: Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is a newly emerging infectious disease that has become a global pandemic. This study aimed to identify the risk factors at presentation to predict intensive care unit (ICU) admissions. Materials & Methods: This retrospective observational study recruited 188 confirmed laboratory COVID-19 patients who were hospitalized in Jidhafs Maternity Hospital (JMH) from 1st June to 5th July 2020. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to Explore risk factors associated with the increased risk of ICU admission. Results: The study revealed that older age (>60 years old) (16[38.1%], P=0.044), male gender (30 [40.0%], P=0.000) were significantly associated with the increased risk of ICU admissions. The most prevalent symptoms in admission were myalgia (13[40.6%], P=0.035), fever (39[34.2%], P=0.002) and cough (37[31.4%], P=0.032). In addition, raised serum level of alanine amino-transferase (ALAT) (34.7% vs. 20.7%, P=0.033), D-dimers (30.7% vs 12.2%, P=0.012), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (31.6% vs 0.0%, P=0.025) and ferritin (37.7% vs 16.7%, P=0.011) found to be important predictor of ICU admission. Conclusion: The finding indicates that older age, male gender, with increased alanine transferase (ALT), increased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), high D-dimer and high ferritin was associated with an increased risk of ICU admissions. Identification of such factors will help to detect people who are more likely to develop severe COVID-19 disease and will help physicians to determine if patients need regular health care or ICU admission.

Journal of the Bahrain Medical Society ; 35(1):20-33, 2023.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2319203


Background: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic led to the restructuring of traditional clinical activity;hence, globally, 58% of countries implemented the use of telemedicine to meet their healthcare needs. Background: To examine patients' satisfaction with telemedicine medical service and experience at the level of primary care in the Kingdom of Bahrain. Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted on 335 patients who used teleconsultations in January 2022 in primary care. A validated questionnaire was modified to assess patients' satisfaction with teleconsultation medical services and experience during the COVID-19 pandemic. Results: A total of 315 responses were included in the final analysis (response rate 94%). Almost all expressed extreme satisfaction with the medical service as they were able to easily explain their medical problem over the phone and fully understood their illness after the consultation. They were also satisfied with the ability of the doctor to understand their problem, explain their treatment, and provide appropriate management over the phone. Over 90% were satisfied with the consultation time that it does not require transportation and would like to use it in the future. Sharing private or personal information over the phone received the lowest satisfaction rate (77.5%). Conclusion: The overall satisfaction expressed by respondents of this survey with the teleconsultation medical service and experience is very high. Such a result confirms that patients have a positive attitude towards telemedicine services in primary care and are willing to use it again and, therefore, must be adopted as a proactive strategy to ensure long-term sustainability.

Bahrain Medical Bulletin ; 42(4):240-243, 2020.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1001271


Background: The standard test for diagnosing Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test. Since the start of the pandemic, there has been a rush in the development of tests that can detect the presence of antibodies produced by COVID-19 cases as a response to the exposure to the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Objective: To evaluate the validity of the serology tests for detecting SARS-CoV-2 protective IgG antibodies. Design: Cross-Sectional Prospective Study. Setting: COVID-19 Testing and Caring Facilities, Kingdom of Bahrain. Method: From 22 June to 1 July 2020, healthcare workers, non-national laborers, symptomatic and asymptomatic patients were included in the study. All patients underwent PCR and serology tests. The presence of IgG antibodies among participants were measured. The sensitivity and specificity of the serology tests were evaluated. Result: Three hundred eighty-eight participants were included in the study, the mean age was 40±13 years. Two-hundred thirty-two (59.7%) were males and 242 (62.3%) were Bahrainis. Seventy-three (18.8%) were healthcare workers, 87 (22.4%) were non-national laborers, 109 (28.1%) were symptomatic and 119 (30.7%) were asymptomatic. One hundred sixty-four (42.2%) participants were COVID-19 positive. Ninety-six (24.7%) had a positive serology test with IgG level >1.4. The sensitivity of the serology test at <7 days was 28% (CI: 19.4%-38.4%), at 7-13 days was 77.8% (CI: 60.9%-89.9%) and >14 days was 84.4% (CI: 67.2%-94.7%). The specificity of the test was 93.3% (CI: 89.2%-96.2%). Conclusion: The sensitivity of the serology test to detect the IgG antibodies 14 days after testing positive with COVID-19 was 84% and the specificity was 93.3%. The result supports the use of the test in a serosurvey study. © 2020, Bahrain Medical Bulletin. All rights reserved.