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1.
Molecules ; 26(20)2021 Oct 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518621

ABSTRACT

In continuation of our previous effort, different in silico selection methods were applied to 310 naturally isolated metabolites that exhibited antiviral potentialities before. The applied selection methods aimed to pick the most relevant inhibitor of SARS-CoV-2 nsp10. At first, a structural similarity study against the co-crystallized ligand, S-Adenosyl Methionine (SAM), of SARS-CoV-2 nonstructural protein (nsp10) (PDB ID: 6W4H) was carried out. The similarity analysis culled 30 candidates. Secondly, a fingerprint study against SAM preferred compounds 44, 48, 85, 102, 105, 182, 220, 221, 282, 284, 285, 301, and 302. The docking studies picked 48, 182, 220, 221, and 284. While the ADMET analysis expected the likeness of the five candidates to be drugs, the toxicity study preferred compounds 48 and 182. Finally, a density-functional theory (DFT) study suggested vidarabine (182) to be the most relevant SARS-Cov-2 nsp10 inhibitor.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Biological Products/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Viral Regulatory and Accessory Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Binding Sites , Biological Products/metabolism , Biological Products/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/pathology , Density Functional Theory , Humans , Ligands , Molecular Docking Simulation , S-Adenosylmethionine/chemistry , S-Adenosylmethionine/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Small Molecule Libraries/chemistry , Small Molecule Libraries/metabolism , Small Molecule Libraries/therapeutic use , Vidarabine/chemistry , Vidarabine/metabolism , Vidarabine/therapeutic use , Viral Regulatory and Accessory Proteins/metabolism
2.
Molecules ; 26(21)2021 Oct 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488678

ABSTRACT

Papain-like protease is an essential enzyme in the proteolytic processing required for the replication of SARS-CoV-2. Accordingly, such an enzyme is an important target for the development of anti-SARS-CoV-2 agents which may reduce the mortality associated with outbreaks of SARS-CoV-2. A set of 69 semi-synthesized molecules that exhibited the structural features of SARS-CoV-2 papain-like protease inhibitors (PLPI) were docked against the coronavirus papain-like protease (PLpro) enzyme (PDB ID: (4OW0). Docking studies showed that derivatives 34 and 58 were better than the co-crystallized ligand while derivatives 17, 28, 31, 40, 41, 43, 47, 54, and 65 exhibited good binding modes and binding free energies. The pharmacokinetic profiling study was conducted according to the four principles of the Lipinski rules and excluded derivative 31. Furthermore, ADMET and toxicity studies showed that derivatives 28, 34, and 47 have the potential to be drugs and have been demonstrated as safe when assessed via seven toxicity models. Finally, comparing the molecular orbital energies and the molecular electrostatic potential maps of 28, 34, and 47 against the co-crystallized ligand in a DFT study indicated that 28 is the most promising candidate to interact with the target receptor (PLpro).


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/metabolism , Computer Simulation , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/drug effects , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical/methods , Humans , Ligands , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Papain/metabolism , Peptide Hydrolases/metabolism , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Protease Inhibitors/metabolism , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
3.
Molecules ; 26(20)2021 Oct 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463775

ABSTRACT

In continuation of our previous effort, different in silico selection methods were applied to 310 naturally isolated metabolites that exhibited antiviral potentialities before. The applied selection methods aimed to pick the most relevant inhibitor of SARS-CoV-2 nsp10. At first, a structural similarity study against the co-crystallized ligand, S-Adenosyl Methionine (SAM), of SARS-CoV-2 nonstructural protein (nsp10) (PDB ID: 6W4H) was carried out. The similarity analysis culled 30 candidates. Secondly, a fingerprint study against SAM preferred compounds 44, 48, 85, 102, 105, 182, 220, 221, 282, 284, 285, 301, and 302. The docking studies picked 48, 182, 220, 221, and 284. While the ADMET analysis expected the likeness of the five candidates to be drugs, the toxicity study preferred compounds 48 and 182. Finally, a density-functional theory (DFT) study suggested vidarabine (182) to be the most relevant SARS-Cov-2 nsp10 inhibitor.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Biological Products/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Viral Regulatory and Accessory Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Binding Sites , Biological Products/metabolism , Biological Products/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/pathology , Density Functional Theory , Humans , Ligands , Molecular Docking Simulation , S-Adenosylmethionine/chemistry , S-Adenosylmethionine/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Small Molecule Libraries/chemistry , Small Molecule Libraries/metabolism , Small Molecule Libraries/therapeutic use , Vidarabine/chemistry , Vidarabine/metabolism , Vidarabine/therapeutic use , Viral Regulatory and Accessory Proteins/metabolism
4.
Molecules ; 26(19)2021 Sep 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438676

ABSTRACT

In response to the urgent need to control Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19), this study aims to explore potential anti-SARS-CoV-2 agents from natural sources. Moreover, cytokine immunological responses to the viral infection could lead to acute respiratory distress which is considered a critical and life-threatening complication associated with the infection. Therefore, the anti-viral and anti-inflammatory agents can be key to the management of patients with COVID-19. Four bioactive compounds, namely ferulic acid 1, rutin 2, gallic acid 3, and chlorogenic acid 4 were isolated from the leaves of Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr (ethyl acetate extract) and identified using spectroscopic evidence. Furthermore, molecular docking and dynamics simulations were performed for the isolated and identified compounds (1-4) against SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro) as a proposed mechanism of action. Furthermore, all compounds were tested for their half-maximal cytotoxicity (CC50) and SARS-CoV-2 inhibitory concentrations (IC50). Additionally, lung toxicity was induced in rats by mercuric chloride and the effects of treatment with P. dioca aqueous extract, ferulic acid 1, rutin 2, gallic acid 3, and chlorogenic acid 4 were recorded through measuring TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-2, IL-10, G-CSF, and genetic expression of miRNA 21-3P and miRNA-155 levels to assess their anti-inflammatory effects essential for COVID-19 patients. Interestingly, rutin 2, gallic acid 3, and chlorogenic acid 4 showed remarkable anti-SARS-CoV-2 activities with IC50 values of 31 µg/mL, 108 µg/mL, and 360 µg/mL, respectively. Moreover, the anti-inflammatory effects were found to be better in ferulic acid 1 and rutin 2 treatments. Our results could be promising for more advanced preclinical and clinical studies especially on rutin 2 either alone or in combination with other isolates for COVID-19 management.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Chlorocebus aethiops , Chlorogenic Acid/isolation & purification , Chlorogenic Acid/pharmacology , Coumaric Acids/isolation & purification , Coumaric Acids/pharmacology , Gallic Acid/isolation & purification , Gallic Acid/pharmacology , Humans , Male , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Rats , Rutin/isolation & purification , Rutin/pharmacology , Vero Cells
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