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1.
Sustainability ; 15(2):920, 2023.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-2166899

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 vaccine booster dose hesitancy amongst the Saudi Arabia population is a concern. The objectives of the study were to explore the Saudi public's willingness to receive a COVID-19 vaccine booster dose and identify the factors affecting their willingness. Methods: From December 2021 to March 2022, an online cross-sectional survey using an anonymous, structured, and self-administered questionnaire was conducted among members of the Saudi public aged ≥18 years who did not receive a COVID-19 vaccine booster dose. Results: Of the 2101 respondents, 86.8% expressed a willingness to receive a COVID-19 vaccine booster dose. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that age (18 to 25 years) (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.54;95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 1.14-5.74), being single (aOR = 2.85;95% Cl = 1.42-5.72), and prior receipt of an influenza vaccine (aOR = 2.45;95% Cl = 1.80-3.34) were significantly associated with participants' willingness to receive the COVID-19 vaccine booster dose. Having a bachelor's degree or above (aOR = 0.95;95% CI = 0.81-0.99) and not following COVID-19 news (aOR = 0.70;95% CI = 0.52-0.89) were associated with a significant likelihood of having no intention to receive the COVID-19 vaccine boosters. Conclusions: Most Saudi people were willing to have the COVID-19 vaccine booster dose, with age and prior influenza vaccination as the predictors;paradoxically, a university-level qualification was a barrier.

3.
Ann Med Surg (Lond) ; 82: 104686, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2060327
4.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 10(10)2022 Sep 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043671

ABSTRACT

This study examines the association of depressive and anxiety symptoms with diet quality among university students while controlling for different demographic and other health and lifestyle factors. This cross-sectional study was carried out between April 2021 and June 2021 among a total of 440 (unweighted) university students. Diet quality was assessed using a 10-item mini-dietary assessment index tool. The depressive and anxiety symptoms of participants were measured using the validated Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), and the Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7) scale, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression and mediation analyses were performed. In this study, 61.1% (95% CI: 56.6% to 65.7%) of university students' diet quality was good during the COVID-19 pandemic. Being a post-graduate student, an urban resident, having no depressive (AOR = 2.15, 95% CI: 1.20 to 3.84) and anxiety symptoms (AOR = 1.96, 95% CI: 1.07 to 3.59), no changes or improvement in appetite, and no changes in sleep duration were significantly associated with good diet quality among our study participants. Depressive and anxiety symptoms during COVID-19 had a significant effect on the diet quality of university students. Future public health policies need to be focused on improving the mental health and well-being of students particularly during pandemic situations to enhance their diet quality.

7.
Pathogens ; 11(8)2022 Aug 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2023971

ABSTRACT

Monkeypox is re-emerging and spreading over the world, posing a serious threat to human life, especially in non-endemic countries, including Saudi Arabia. Due to the paucity of research on knowledge about monkeypox in Saudi Arabia, this study aimed to evaluate the general population's knowledge of monkeypox in a sample of the country. A web-based cross-sectional survey was conducted from 25 May 2022 to 15 July 2022. Participants' knowledge about monkeypox on a 23-item scale and socio-demographic characteristics were gathered in the survey. Pearson's Chi-square test was used to compare knowledge level (categorized into high and low) and explanatory variables. Out of 480, only 48% of the respondents had high knowledge (mean score > 14). Participants' age, marital status, residential region, living in the urban area, education level, employment status, being a healthcare worker, income, and smoking status were significantly associated with the level of knowledge about monkeypox (p < 0.01). Overall, social media (75.0%) was the most frequently reported source from where participants obtained monkeypox-related information followed by TV and radio (45.6%), family or friend (15.6%), and healthcare provider (13.8%). We found that overall knowledge of monkeypox infection was slightly poor among the Saudi population. These findings highlight the urgent need for public education on monkeypox to promote awareness and engage the public ahead of the outbreak.

9.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(7)2022 Jul 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1957389

ABSTRACT

Backgroundand objectives: Although several vaccines have been produced and administered around the world, new SARS-CoV-2 worsened the COVID-19 infection risk and impacted the initial vaccine dosage effectiveness. Based on studies indicating that the third and fourth COVID-19 vaccine doses significantly reduced COVID-19 transmission, Saudi Arabia has been administering COVID-19 booster vaccine doses to its citizens. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the uptake of the COVID-19 vaccine booster in relation to the socio-demographic characteristics and other associated factors among the Saudi population. Materials and Methods: This study was an online analytical cross-sectional study using a self-administered questionnaire. Pearson Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to determine factors associated with the uptake of COVID-19 booster dose vaccines. Results: A total of 2332 responded to our study. Overall, 527 (22.6%) participants had received a booster dose. An age of 55 and above (aOR: 5.415; 95% CI: 2.719-10.783), Eastern region (aOR: 2.513; 95% CI: 1.566-4.033), history of influenza vaccination at annual intervals (aOR: 2.387; 95% CI: 1.730-3.293), the first dose of Moderna vaccine (aOR: 1.324; 95% CI: 1.160-1.510), and cancer (aOR: 2.161; 95% CI: 1.218-3.879) were independent factors most associated with a higher uptake of the COVID-19 vaccine booster dose. In contrast, the second dose of Moderna vaccine (aOR: 0.794; 95% CI: 0.683-0.922), AstraZeneca vaccine (aOR: 0.691; 95% CI: 0.509-0.939), strong symptoms from side effects after the second dose of the COVID-19 vaccine (aOR: 0.615; 95% CI: 0.404-0.935) were independent factors most associated with a lower uptake of the COVID-19 vaccine booster dose. Conclusions: Our findings indicate low COVID-19 vaccine booster uptake. This necessitates the need for strategies to address discouraging factors of the COVID-19 vaccine booster dose uptake and engage the Saudi population to raise awareness about the importance of the booster dose.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Immunization, Secondary , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology
10.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(5)2022 May 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1953704

ABSTRACT

Background and objectives: The prevalence of type 2 diabetes in Saudi Arabia is high and rising steeply. However, the management of type 2 diabetic patients has largely employed a medical approach and ignored the self-care management approach. This observation has even been obscured further by the COVID-19 pandemic, which has affected the psychological health of these patients. This study aimed to understand the effects of psychological health and DSM on type 2 diabetic patients in the Jazan region during COVID-19. Materials and methods: An analytical cross-sectional study was employed in this study. Participants were type 2 diabetic patients from the diabetic center at Jazan, Saudi Arabia. The Arabic-translated version of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7) were used to collect data. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results: Depression and anxiety were higher in females compared to males and were more reported by participants from urban compared to rural settings. Smoking and Khat chewing were inappropriate diabetic self-care management practices while exercising was appropriate. A negative correlation was observed between depression vs. health care utilization, and depression vs. diabetic self-care management. Anxiety results also showed similar findings to that of depression. Additionally, depression and anxiety were easily predicted by urban residence, and diabetic self-care management was predicted by exercise. Conclusions: Adequate self-care behavior in patients with type 2 diabetes is needed. Medical professionals should ensure improved efforts to accurately ascertain how an individual can implement the recommended lifestyle changes and facilitate self-care education.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Self-Management , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology
11.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 11(5): 1890-1897, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875939

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To estimate SARS-CoV-2 RNA clearance time among non-severe COVID-19 patients and explore factors associated with delayed negative conversion. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted at the COVID-19 unit of a tertiary care center in the Western region of Saudi Arabia. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) confirmed COVID-19 patients diagnosed between April 1 and June 30, 2020, were considered. The primary outcome was the time (days) from disease onset to first negative RT-PCR, which was analyzed using Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression survival methods. Demographic data, clinical history, baseline clinical, radiological and laboratory findings and management, and outcome data were collected and analyzed as factors associated with the viral RNA clearance time. Results: One hundred and forty-four patients were included. The mean (standard deviation [SD]) age was 36.93 (14.41) years, 50.7% were females, and 45.1% were healthcare workers. COVID19 was asymptomatic, mild and moderate in 11.1%, 71.5% and 17.4% of the participants, respectively. Fever (59.4%) and cough (58.0%) were the dominant onset symptoms. The mean viral RNA clearance time was 22.9 days (SD = 8.6; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 21.5-24.3 days). Extended clearance time was associated with older age (mean = 24.0 vs. 22.0 days; log-rank = 0.037), married status (23.2 vs. 22.6 days; log-rank = 0.021), working in health sector (24.2 vs. 21.8 days; log-rank = 0.006), and having a chronic disease (24.8 vs. 21.9 days; log-rank = 0.028), compared to their counterparts, respectively. In the adjusted model, the job sector was the only factor that was independently associated with clearance time. Non-healthcare sector showed hazard ratio 1.8 (95% CI = 1.3-2.7; log-rank = 0.002) with reference to healthcare sector. Conclusion: SARS-CoV-2 RNA clearance time is likely to be longer in non-severe COVID-19 patients, representing an additional risk for the virus dissemination among the community and calling for higher caution among the population.

12.
Medicina ; 58(5):675, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1856900

ABSTRACT

Background and objectives: The prevalence of type 2 diabetes in Saudi Arabia is high and rising steeply. However, the management of type 2 diabetic patients has largely employed a medical approach and ignored the self-care management approach. This observation has even been obscured further by the COVID-19 pandemic, which has affected the psychological health of these patients. This study aimed to understand the effects of psychological health and DSM on type 2 diabetic patients in the Jazan region during COVID-19. Materials and methods: An analytical cross-sectional study was employed in this study. Participants were type 2 diabetic patients from the diabetic center at Jazan, Saudi Arabia. The Arabic-translated version of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7) were used to collect data. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results: Depression and anxiety were higher in females compared to males and were more reported by participants from urban compared to rural settings. Smoking and Khat chewing were inappropriate diabetic self-care management practices while exercising was appropriate. A negative correlation was observed between depression vs. health care utilization, and depression vs. diabetic self-care management. Anxiety results also showed similar findings to that of depression. Additionally, depression and anxiety were easily predicted by urban residence, and diabetic self-care management was predicted by exercise. Conclusions: Adequate self-care behavior in patients with type 2 diabetes is needed. Medical professionals should ensure improved efforts to accurately ascertain how an individual can implement the recommended lifestyle changes and facilitate self-care education.

13.
Psych J ; 11(1): 18-29, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1603473

ABSTRACT

This systematic review and meta-analysis generates evidence of the prevalence and associated factors of common mental disorders (i.e., depression, anxiety, and stress) related to the pandemic among the Saudi general population. Following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines, a comprehensive literature search was performed in the respective databases (e.g., PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science), from 22 July to 17 August 2021, and identified a total of 220 articles. Adhering to the inclusion criteria (i.e., original research concerning the prevalence and/or associated factors of depression and/or anxiety and/or stress disorders among the general Saudi population, published in English peer-reviewed journals), 15 studies were included in this review which consisted of a total of 262,656 participants. The overall prevalence of depression, anxiety, and stress was 30% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 22% to 38%, I2  = 99.58%), 20% (95% CI: 16% to 24%, I2  = 99.32%), and 29% (95% CI: 11% to 47%, I2  = 99.76%), respectively. Risk factors of mental health problems were found to be female sex, younger age group, single/divorced marital status, lower education, lower income, non-Saudis, unemployment status, students, being in a small family and living with elderly of the sociodemographic factors. Smokers, less physical activities, lower resilience, reduced immune status, chronic health problems, and psychiatric illness history were associated with a higher degree of mental health problems. In addition, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related risk factors of mental illness included lack of knowledge, fear, worry and concern, family member or friends' infection or death, lockdown restrictions, quarantine, confirmed or suspected of COVID-19 infection, and even pandemic effects. In conclusion, appropriate mental health preventive approaches for the Saudi general people are highly needed, where this review can be worthy of help by providing in detailed information to the respective authorities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Aged , Anxiety/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Female , Humans , Mental Health , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology
14.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(8)2021 Aug 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1355061

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is a lack of data on Saudi domestic air travellers' understanding regarding COVID-19 and their attitude towards the COVID-19 vaccination. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to assess Saudi domestic air travellers' understanding regarding COVID-19 and attitude towards mandating the COVID-19 vaccination for travellers. METHODS: A survey using a self-administered, structured, and closed-ended questionnaire was conducted among domestic air travellers in Saudi Arabia. Participants' socio-demographic information, travel history, health status, and attitudes and willingness to accept the COVID-19 vaccination were collected and analysed. RESULTS: Of the 2236 respondents who participated in the survey, 542 (24.25%) had a history of COVID-19, 803 (35.9%) were exposed to a COVID-19 case, 1425 (63.7%) were concerned about catching COVID-19 during air travel, 796 (35.6%) thought the COVID-19 vaccination should be obligatory for travellers, 1105 (49.4%) thought it should be optional, and 335 (15.0%) thought the vaccination was unnecessary. Being of the male gender (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.41, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.14-1.69), being concerned about contracting COVID-19 (aOR 1.34, 95% CI 1.12-2.10) and frequent travelling (aOR 1.40, 95% CI 1.10-3.40) were predictors of vaccination uptake. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that although domestic Saudi travellers were concerned about COVID-19 infection, vaccine hesitancy was prevalent among them.

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