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Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(12)2021 06 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282466


Hand hygiene is an essential factor to prevent or minimize the spread of infections. The ability to prepare an alcohol-free hand sanitizer (AFHS) with antimicrobial properties is crucial, especially during pandemics, when there are high demands and a low supply chain for ethanol and isopropanol. The objective of this study was to prepare AFHS gels based on natural materials that contain essential oils (EOs) that would be effective against a broad spectrum of pathogens. The results showed that the organoleptic characteristics of all prepared hand sanitizer gels were considered acceptable. The pH of the formulations was slightly acidic (circa 3.9) owing to the presence of aloe vera in large proportions (90% v/v), which is known for its acidity. The spreadability for all tested formulations was in the acceptable range. The antimicrobial effectiveness test demonstrated that the prepared hand sanitizer gels had antimicrobial activities against different gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and Candida albicans yeast. The highest antibacterial effect was observed with tea tree oil hand sanitizers, which lack activity against the yeast, while clove oil hand sanitizers showed effectiveness against all microorganisms, including Candida albicans. The lavender hand sanitizer exhibited the least antimicrobial efficiency. The acceptability study on 20 human volunteers showed that the hand sanitizer gel containing 1.25% (v/v) clove oil did not produce any signs of skin irritation. This study suggested that the prepared natural hand sanitizer gel with 1.25% (v/v) clove oil can be a potential alternative to commonly used alcohol-based hand sanitizers (ABHS).

Hand Sanitizers , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Ethanol , Gels , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Gram-Positive Bacteria , Hand Disinfection , Humans , Pandemics
Pharmaceutics ; 13(4)2021 Apr 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1178386


Sialic acid that presents on the surface of lung epithelial cells is considered as one of the main binding targets for many respiratory viruses, including influenza and the current coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) through the viral surface protein hemagglutinin. Gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) are extensively used in the diagnostic field owing to a phenomenon known as 'surface plasmonic resonance' in which the scattered light is absorbed by these NPs and can be detected via UV-Vis spectrophotometry. Consequently, sialic acid conjugated Au NPs (SA-Au NPs) were utilized for their plasmonic effect against SARS-CoV-2, influenza B virus, and Middle-East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (MERS) in patients' swab samples. The SA-Au NPs system was prepared by a one-pot synthesis method, through which the NPs solution color changed from pale yellow to dark red wine color, indicting its successful preparation. In addition, the SA-Au NPs had an average particle size of 30 ± 1 nm, negative zeta potential (-30 ± 0.3 mV), and a UV absorbance of 525 nm. These NPs have proven their ability to change the color of the NPs solutions and patients' swabs that contain SARS-CoV-2, influenza B, and MERS viruses, suggesting a rapid and straightforward detection tool that would reduce the spread of these viral infections and accelerate the therapeutic intervention.