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1.
Vaccines ; 10(8):1356, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1997861

ABSTRACT

Countries worldwide have deployed mass COVID-19 vaccination drives, but there are people who are hesitant to receive the vaccine. Studies assessing the factors associated with COVID-19 vaccination hesitancy are inconclusive. This study aimed to assess the global prevalence of COVID-19 vaccination hesitancy and determine the potential factors associated with such hesitancy. We performed an organized search for relevant articles in PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science. Extraction of the required information was performed for each study. A single-arm meta-analysis was performed to determine the global prevalence of COVID-19 vaccination hesitancy;the potential factors related to vaccine hesitancy were analyzed using a Z-test. A total of 56 articles were included in our analysis. We found that the global prevalence of COVID-19 vaccination hesitancy was 25%. Being a woman, being a 50-year-old or younger, being single, being unemployed, living in a household with five or more individuals, having an educational attainment lower than an undergraduate degree, having a non-healthcare-related job and considering COVID-19 vaccines to be unsafe were associated with a higher risk of vaccination hesitancy. In contrast, living with children at home, maintaining physical distancing norms, having ever tested for COVID-19, and having a history of influenza vaccination in the past few years were associated with a lower risk of hesitancy to COVID-19 vaccination. Our study provides valuable information on COVID-19 vaccination hesitancy, and we recommend special interventions in the sub-populations with increased risk to reduce COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy.

2.
J Infect Public Health ; 15(6): 685-688, 2022 May 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1945692

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Rheumatic diseases patients receiving Rituximab had severe COVID-19 disease. Although they had impaired humoral immune responses following COVID-19 vaccine, they had preserved cellular immune responses. Waning of COVID-19 antibody responses was observed within six months post vaccination among immunocompromised patients. Recent reports showed fatal outcome of breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infections among vaccinated high-risk rheumatic diseases patients receiving Rituximab. SAR-CoV-2 serological tests were not performed. OBJECTIVE: Evaluation of COVID-19 vaccine humoral responses and breakthrough infections among low risk fully vaccinated rheumatic patients during the Delta Variant Era. METHODS: A case series of 19 fully vaccinated patients with rheumatic diseases were followed to determine post vaccine SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibody titers and to monitor the development of breakthrough infections up to eight months post vaccine at our tertiary care center in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia from 1st April until 30th November 2021. RESULTS: The mean age of patients was 49 years old. 10% of patients were receiving Rituximab. 73% of patients had positive SARS-CoV-2 serological testing post second vaccine. Two mild breakthrough COVID-19 infections were diagnosed six months post second dose of vaccine. Patients were less than 65 years, did not receive Rituximab, did not have interstitial lung diseases and had positive post vaccine serological testing. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated high SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies seroprevalence and self-limiting breakthrough infections in low risk rheumatic diseases patients during the Delta Era. Future studies are needed to study the outcome of rheumatic diseases patients in the Era of Omicron in view of viral immune escape responses.

3.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(7)2022 Jul 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1917875

ABSTRACT

Given the increasing anti-vaccine movements erroneously touting vaccine danger, this review has investigated the rare adverse events potentially associated with BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech), an mRNA vaccine against the severe acute respiratory distress syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Only real-world surveillance studies with at least 0.1 million BNT162b2-vaccinated participants and one unvaccinated control group were selected for review. A total of 21 studies examining the potential association of BNT162b2 with cardiovascular, herpetic, thrombotic or thrombocytopenic, neurological, mortality, and other miscellaneous rare adverse events were described in this review. Only myocarditis is consistently associated with BNT162b2. An unclear direction of association was seen with stroke (hemorrhagic and ischemic), herpes zoster, and paresthesia from BNT162b2, which may require more studies to resolve. Fortunately, most surveillance studies detected no increased risks of the remaining rare adverse events reviewed herein, further reassuring the safety of BNT162b2. In conclusion, this review has concisely summarized the current rare adverse events related and unrelated to BNT162b2, arguably for the first time in sufficient depth, to better communicate vaccine safety to the public.

4.
J Infect Public Health ; 15(8): 902-905, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1914633

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 de-isolation guidelines of health care workers (HCW) were formulated based on evidence describing the duration of infectious viral shedding of the wild SARS-CoV-2 virus. During the periods of COVID-19 vaccination and variants, a test-based approach was recommended to end isolation of HCW, based on emerging data describing the viral kinetics of COVID-19 variants. While Rapid antigen detection tests (RADT) are increasingly used in the diagnosis of COVID-19, their use is limited in de-isolation. METHODS: We described the use of RADT in the de-isolation of COVID-19 vaccinated HCW with mild infection who were asymptomatic on day 7 post diagnosis in a single center retrospective cohort study during the Omicron surge. RESULTS: Of the 480 HCWs, 173 (36%) had positive RADT. The positivity rate of RADT was not different in HCW who received two doses versus three doses of vaccine (34.4% versus 40.3%, p = 0.239). CONCLUSIONS: A symptom based, test-based approach using RADT is a useful tool in the de-isolation of HCW, with mild disease, in the era of Omicron. Further studies are required to evaluate the role of RADT in de-isolation of patients with severe COVID-19 disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Health Personnel , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
5.
J Infect Public Health ; 15(6): 628-630, 2022 Apr 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1873160

ABSTRACT

In the era of SARS-CoV-2 variants and COVID-19 vaccination, the duration of infectious viral shedding and isolation in post vaccine breakthrough infections is challenging and depends on disease severity. The current study described a case of SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant pneumonia requiring hospitalization. The patient received two doses of BNT162b2 COVID-19 vaccines, and he had positive SARS-CoV-2 viral cultures 12 days post symptom onset. The time between the second dose of vaccine and the breakthrough infection was 6 months. While immunosuppression is a known risk factor for prolonged infectious viral shedding, age and time between vaccination and breakthrough infection are important risk factors that warrant further studies.

6.
Infection ; 50(3): 583-596, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1872771

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 vaccines have been developed to compact the current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and have been administered to people all over the world. These vaccines have been quite effective in reducing the possibility of severe illness, hospitalization and death. However, the recent emergence of Variants of Concern specifically the delta variant, B.1.617.2, had resulted in additional waves of the pandemic. METHODS: We aim to review the literature to understand the transmission and disease severity, and determine the efficacy of the current COVID-19 vaccines. We searched Pubmed, Scopus, and Embase till August 4th 2021, and used the search terms "delta variant", "vaccinations"," breakthrough infections", and "neutralizing antibody". For the meta-analysis, 21 studies were screened in particular and five articles (148,071 cases) were included in the study, and only four were analyzed in the meta-analysis. RESULTS: In this review, both in vitro and in vivo studies showed significant reductions in neutralization rates against delta variants for vaccinated individuals and convalescent patients with prior history of COVID-19. However, There was a lower incidence of infection with SARS-CoV-2 due to Delta variant was found after the second dose of Pfizer-BioNTech, Oxford-AstraZeneca and Moderna vaccines. CONCLUSION: In fully vaccinated individuals, symptomatic infection with the delta variant was significantly reduced, and therefore, vaccinations play an important role to assist the fight against delta variant.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccine Efficacy
7.
Int J Health Sci (Qassim) ; 16(1): 22-29, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1824082

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Mildly symptomatic COVID-19 patients may seek medical attention either in the Emergency Department (ED) or Ambulatory Clinics (AC). However, it is unclear if ED patients have different characteristics and outcomes than AC patients when discharged under telemedicine surveillance, which we explored in this study. METHODS: Patients with mild or asymptomatic COVID-19 disease referred to a multidisciplinary Telemedicine clinical service (TM-CS) program in an urban tertiary-care hospital, between June 2020 and February 2021, were evaluated. Those referred from ED were labeled "ED Group" and ones from AC as "AC Group." Their characteristics, clinical features and outcomes including telemedicine parameters, subsequent ED visits, hospital admission, oxygen requirements, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and mortality were compared. RESULTS: Out of 1132 confirmed non-admitted COVID-19 patients, 526 with mild (89%) or asymptomatic (11%) disease were enrolled in TM-CS. Majority of these were referred from ED (n = 370; 70%) and rest (n = 156, 30%) from the AC. Patients in the ED group compared to AC group, had higher BMI (28.9 vs. 27.5), higher Charlson Comorbidity Index (1.4 vs. 0.9), and higher incidence of comorbidities (50% vs. 22%), P ≤ 0.01. However, there were no differences in the ED and AC groups in subsequent ED visits (26% vs. 24%), hospital admission (18% vs. 15%), oxygen requirements (5% vs. 4%), ICU admission (1% vs. 2%), and mortality (0.3% vs. 0.6%), respectively (P > 0.40). CONCLUSION: Significant number of mild COVID-19 patients head to the ED for initial assistance but have similar outcomes to AC patients. TM-CS could be a safe alternative for follow-up monitoring of these patients.

8.
Intervirology ; 2022 Apr 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775041

ABSTRACT

Various studies have shown that SARS-CoV-2 is a highly immunogenic virus. It is known that different types of immunogenic viral pathogens could trigger the formation of HLA antibodies. Therefore, there is a concern that the SARS-CoV-2 could also induce the development of HLA antibodies in volunteers, who donate convalescent plasma after their recovery from COVID-19. HLA antibodies have been identified as the main cause for transfusion related acute lung injury, a well-documented life-threatening complication of transfusions. The TRALI risk could be high in COVID-19 patients who need convalescent plasma, as such patients usually have already an impaired respiratory system affected by the SARS-CoV-2 infection. In this study, we screened 34 convalescent plasma donors on the presence of antibodies against HLA class I and II antigens. All included donors have no any history of sensitization events such as blood transfusions, pregnancy, or previous transplants. We found a high rate of HLA antibody formation in convalescent plasma donors. The frequency of positivity for HLA antibodies for class I, class II, class I and II and the overall reactivity was 23%, 31%, 46% and 76% respectively. The presented data suggest a closed correlation between SARS-CoV-2 virus infection and the development of HLA antibodies in recovered convalescent plasma donors. This finding might have the potential to reduce the risk of TRALI and mortality rate in COVID-19 patients by implementing HLA diagnostic strategies before the administration of convalescent plasma.

9.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 800376, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662577

ABSTRACT

Background: Although genetic diseases are rare, children with such conditions who get infected with COVID-19 tend to have a severe illness requiring hospitalization. Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a rare genetic disorder of collagen resulting in fractures and skeletal deformities. Kyphoscoliosis, restrictive lung disease, and pneumonia worsen the prognosis of patients with OI. The use of bisphosphonate improves bone mineral density (BMD) and reduces fractures in OI. There is no literature describing the impact of COVID-19 in patients with OI. Methodology: A retrospective multi-center study was performed in three hospitals in Jeddah and Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, from March 1st, 2020, until August 31st, 2021, aiming to evaluate the outcome of COVID-19 in patients with OI. Demographics, vaccination status, underlying kyphoscoliosis, functional status, use of bisphosphonate, BMD, and COVID-19 severity, and course were recorded for all patients. Results: Twelve cases of confirmed COVID-19 were identified among 146 patients with OI. 9 (75%) of patients were less than 18 years, 6 (50%) were male, 5 (41%) had kyphoscoliosis, and 5 (41%) were wheelchair-bound. 6 (50%) received bisphosphonate, and 7(58%) had normal BMD. All patients had mild disease and did not require hospitalization. None of OI the patients with COVID-19 were fully vaccinated before the infection, and some were ineligible for vaccination. Conclusion: Patients with OI and COVID-19 in our study recovered without complications, unlike patients with other genetic diseases. Young age and mild illness contributed to the favorable outcome. Half of the patients received bisphosphonate and had normal BMD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Osteogenesis Imperfecta/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adolescent , Adult , Bone Density , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Child , Diphosphonates/therapeutic use , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Fractures, Bone/drug therapy , Fractures, Bone/etiology , Fractures, Bone/pathology , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Osteogenesis Imperfecta/epidemiology , Osteogenesis Imperfecta/virology , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Young Adult
10.
Ann Thorac Med ; 17(1): 59-65, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1643696

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We conducted this study to evaluate the characteristics and outcomes exclusively in high-risk coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) tertiary care patients with multiple comorbidities, as very few have reported outcomes in this specific cohort. METHODS: All patients, with two or more risk factors for COVID-19 and Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) of >2, who were admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) between March and December 2020 were included. Their characteristics, ICU course, and outcomes as well as differences between nonsurvivors and survivors were evaluated. The primary outcome was all-cause 28-day mortality. RESULTS: Out of 1152 COVID-19 patients, 101 met the inclusion criteria. The patients had an average of 4 or more comorbidities with a very high CCI of 5. The 28-day all-cause mortality was 23% and inhospital mortality was 32%. Among all risk factors, only age > 70 years, male gender, and chronic kidney disease were significant determinants of mortality (P < 0.03). Admission PaO2/FiO2 ratio and elevated inflammatory markers were same among survivors and nonsurvivors (P > 0.66). The mean time from presentation to ICU admission (59 vs. 38 h), APACHE II score (20.5 vs. 17), ICU length of stay (25 vs. 12 days), and hospital length of stay (28 vs. 20 days) were all higher in nonsurvivors as compared to survivors, respectively (P < 0.03). Fifty-four percent of the patients were intubated and had higher 28-day (40%) and inhospital (55%) mortality. CONCLUSION: Tertiary care patients with multiple comorbidities have higher mortality than what is reported for mixed populations. Further studies are needed to determine realistic mortality benchmarks for these patients.

11.
Ann Thorac Med ; 17(1): 66-69, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1629729

ABSTRACT

Hypogammaglobulinemia is a heterogeneous group of innate and acquired antibody deficiency with variable disease severity, recurrent pneumonia, and bronchiectasis. The outcome of COVID in patients with hypogammaglobulinemia is variable depending on age, comorbidities, type of immunodeficiency, and use of immunoglobulins. We report the favorable outcome of two family members diagnosed with DNAJC17-related retinitis pigmentosa and hypogammaglobulinemia syndrome and infected with SARS-CoV-2 following contact with their mother who had COVID-19. We describe the different immune dysfunction in these patients and their impact on the course and management of SARS-CoV-2 infection.

12.
Immun Inflamm Dis ; 10(3): e587, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625924

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Tocilizumab was studied to reduce cytokine syndrome in patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients with conflicting results. We aim to study the early use of tocilizumab in SOT with COVID-19 pneumonia on low flow oxygen. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study that was conducted in two transplant centers in Saudi Arabia among 46 SOT with COVID-19 comparing 21 patients who received tocilizumab to 25 patients who received standard of care. Their clinical characteristics and outcomes were described. RESULTS: Compared to patients who received standard of care, patients in the tocilizumab group were older (60.2 ± 12.8 vs. 48.6 ± 12.3, p = .003), had higher ferritin (862.1 ± 919.1 vs. 414 ± 447.3, p = .025) and C-reactive protein (CRP) (85 ± 83.1 vs. 42.9 ± 57.3, p = .012). More patients in the tocilizumab group required high flow oxygen (38.1% vs. 8.0%, p = .028) compared to patients on standard of care. There were no differences in mortality or mechanical ventilation requirement. Hospital stay was significantly shorter in the tocilizumab group than the standard of care group (9.6 ± 7.4 vs. 20.7 ± 11.7, p < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Early use of tocilizumab in SOT was associated with a shorter hospital stay. There was no difference in mortality rate and the requirement for mechanical ventilation in both groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Organ Transplantation , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology
13.
J Infect Public Health ; 15(1): 51-55, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1549934

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in solid organ transplant recipients is associated with suboptimal immune response and risk for breakthrough infection. It is not known whether they are at risk of severe post-vaccine breakthrough infections in the presence of SARSCoV-2 variant of concern. We describe a case series of four fully vaccinated solid organ transplant recipients who developed SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern breakthrough infections. Three patients received BNT162b2 mRNA (Pfizer-BioNTech) and one patient received ChAdOx1 (AZD12220) COVID-19 vaccines. The patients were infected with SARS-CoV-2 variants circulating in Saudi Arabia. Two patients were infected with Alpha variant and had severe pneumonia requiring intensive care admission and ventilatory support and subsequently died. The other two patients recovered; one patient was infected with Beta variant required low supplemental oxygen via nasal flow and the other patient was infected with Delta variant and required high supplemental oxygen nasal flow. Younger patients had a better outcome than older patients. Future large studies are required to confirm our observations and to compare the different vaccine efficacy among solid organ transplants in the era of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Organ Transplantation , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
14.
J Inflamm Res ; 14: 4313-4328, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1417005

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aimed to understand the pathophysiology of host responses to infections caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)/(COVID-19) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and to identify proteins for patient stratification with different grades of illness severity. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Peripheral blood samples from 43 patients with different grades of COVID-19, 7 MERS-CoV patients admitted to the ICU, and 10 healthy subjects were analyzed using label-free quantitative liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). RESULTS: We identified 193 and 91 proteins that differed significantly between COVID-19 and MERS-CoV sample groups, respectively, and 49 overlapped between datasets. Only 10 proteins are diagnostic of asymptomatic cases, 12 are prognostic of recovery from severe illness, and 28 are prognostic of a fatal outcome of COVID-19. These proteins are implicated in virus-specific/related signaling networks. Notable among the top canonical pathways are humoral immunity, inflammation, acute-phase response signaling, liver X receptor/retinoid X receptor (LXR/RXR) activation, coagulation, and the complement system. Furthermore, we confirmed positive viral shedding in 11.76% of 51 additional peripheral blood samples, indicating that caution should be taken to avoid the possible risk of transfusion of infected blood products. CONCLUSION: We identified COVID-19 and MERS-CoV protein panels that have potential as biomarkers and might assist in the prognosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection. The identified markers further our understanding of COVID-19 disease pathophysiology and may have prognostic or therapeutic potential in predicting or managing host cell responses to human COVID-19 and MERS-CoV infections.

15.
Int J Infect Dis ; 108: 112-115, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1351691

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Immunocompromised patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have prolonged infectious viral shedding for more than 20 days. A test-based approach is suggested for de-isolation of these patients. METHODS: The strategy was evaluated by comparing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) viral load (cycle threshold (Ct) values) and viral culture at the time of hospital discharge in a series of 13 COVID-19 patients: six immunocompetent and seven immunocompromised (five solid organ transplant patients, one lymphoma patient, and one hepatocellular carcinoma patient). RESULTS: Three of the 13 (23%) patients had positive viral cultures: one patient with lymphoma (on day 16) and two immunocompetent patients (on day 7 and day 11). Eighty percent of the patients had negative viral cultures and had a mean Ct value of 20.5. None of the solid organ transplant recipients had positive viral cultures. CONCLUSIONS: The mean Ct value for negative viral cultures was 20.5 in this case series of immunocompromised patients. Unlike those with hematological malignancies, none of the solid organ transplant patients had positive viral cultures. Adopting the test-based approach for all immunocompromised patients may lead to prolonged quarantine. Large-scale studies in disease-specific populations are needed to determine whether a test-based approach versus a symptom-based approach or a combination is applicable for the de-isolation of various immunocompromised patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Quarantine , Virus Shedding
16.
Infection ; 49(5): 833-853, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1321896

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The recent emergence of the Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) disease had been associated with reports of fungal infections such as aspergillosis and mucormycosis especially among critically ill patients treated with steroids. The recent surge in cases of COVID-19 in India during the second wave of the pandemic had been associated with increased reporting of invasive mucormycosis post COVID-19. There are multiple case reports and case series describing mucormycosis in COVID-19. PURPOSE: In this review, we included most recent reported case reports and case-series of mucormycosis among patients with COVID-19 and describe the clinical features and outcome. RESULTS: Many  of the mucormycosis reports were eported from India, especially in COVID-19 patients who were treated and recovered patients. The most commonly reported infection sites were rhino-orbital/rhino-cerebral mucormycosis. Those patients  were diabetic and had corticosteroids therapy for controlling the severity of COVID-19, leading to a higher fatality in such cases and complicating the pandemic scenario. The triad of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), corticosteroid use and uncontrolled diabetes mellitus have been evident for significant increase in the incidence of angioinvasive maxillofacial mucormycosis.  In addition, the presence of spores and other factors might play a role as well. CONCLUSION: With the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and increasing number of critically ill patients infected with SARS-CoV-2, it is important to develop a risk-based approach for patients at risk of mucormycosis based on the epidemiological burden of mucormycosis, prevalence of diabetes mellitus, COVID-19 disease severity and use of immune modulating agents including the combined use of corticosteroids and immunosuppressive agents in patients with cancer and transplants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucormycosis , Superinfection , Humans , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Mucormycosis/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Int J Infect Dis ; 110: 267-271, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1313161

ABSTRACT

Immunocompromised patients who have a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection pose many clinical and public health challenges. We describe the case of a hematopoietic stem cell transplantation patient with lymphoma who had a protracted illness requiring three consecutive hospital admissions. Whole genome sequencing confirmed two different SARS-CoV-2 clades. Clinical management issues and the unanswered questions arising from this case are discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Humans , Reinfection , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Shedding
18.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(5)2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1200875

ABSTRACT

Understanding the immune response to Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is crucial for disease prevention and vaccine development. We studied the antibody responses in 48 human MERS-CoV infection survivors who had variable disease severity in Saudi Arabia. MERS-CoV-specific neutralizing antibodies were detected for 6 years postinfection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Animals , Antibody Formation , Camelus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology
19.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 21(3): 385-395, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1162009

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) remains of global public health concern. Dromedary camels are the source of zoonotic infection. Over 70% of MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV)-infected dromedaries are found in Africa but no zoonotic disease has been reported in Africa. We aimed to understand whether individuals with exposure to dromedaries in Africa had been infected by MERS-CoV. METHODS: Workers slaughtering dromedaries in an abattoir in Kano, Nigeria, were compared with abattoir workers without direct dromedary contact, non-abattoir workers from Kano, and controls from Guangzhou, China. Exposure to dromedaries was ascertained using a questionnaire. Serum and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were tested for MERS-CoV specific neutralising antibody and T-cell responses. FINDINGS: None of the participants from Nigeria or Guangdong were MERS-CoV seropositive. 18 (30%) of 61 abattoir workers with exposure to dromedaries, but none of 20 abattoir workers without exposure (p=0·0042), ten non-abattoir workers or 24 controls from Guangzhou (p=0·0002) had evidence of MERS-CoV-specific CD4+ or CD8+ T cells in PBMC. T-cell responses to other endemic human coronaviruses (229E, OC43, HKU-1, and NL-63) were observed in all groups with no association with dromedary exposure. Drinking both unpasteurised camel milk and camel urine was significantly and negatively associated with T-cell positivity (odds ratio 0·07, 95% CI 0·01-0·54). INTERPRETATION: Zoonotic infection of dromedary-exposed individuals is taking place in Nigeria and suggests that the extent of MERS-CoV infections in Africa is underestimated. MERS-CoV could therefore adapt to human transmission in Africa rather than the Arabian Peninsula, where attention is currently focused. FUNDING: The National Science and Technology Major Project, National Institutes of Health.


Subject(s)
Camelus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , Occupational Exposure/statistics & numerical data , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Zoonoses/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Camelus/virology , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Female , Humans , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Nigeria/epidemiology , Young Adult , Zoonoses/transmission , Zoonoses/virology
20.
J King Saud Univ Sci ; 33(3): 101366, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1080393

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The new coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a major health problem worldwide. The surveillance of seropositive individuals serves as an indicator to the extent of infection spread and provides an estimation of herd immunity status among population. Reports from different countries investigated this issue among healthcare workers (HCWs) who are "at risk" and "sources of risk" for COVID-19. This study aims to investigate the seroprevalence of COVID-19 among HCWs in one of the COVID-19 referral centers in Makkah, Saudi Arabia using three different serological methods. METHODS: In-house developed enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA), commercially available electro-chemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA), and microneutralization (MN) assay were utilized to determine the seroprevalence rate among the study population. 204 HCWs participated in the study. Both physicians and nurses working in the COVID-19 and non COVID-19 areas were included. Twelve out of 204 were confirmed cases of COVID-19 with variable disease severity. Samples from recovered HCWs were collected four weeks post diagnosis. RESULTS: The overall seroprevalence rate was 6.3% (13 out of 204) using the in-house ELISA and MN assay and it was 5.8% (12 out of 204) using the commercial ECLIA. Among HCWs undiagnosed with COVID-19, the seroprevalence was 2% (4 out 192). Notably, neutralizing antibodies were not detected in 3 (25%) out 12 confirmed cases of COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Our study, similar to the recent national multi-center study, showed a low seroprevalence of SARS-Cov-2 antibodies among HCWs. Concordance of results between the commercial electro-chemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA), in-house ELISA and MN assay was observed. The in-house ELISA is a promising tool for the serological diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, seroprevalence studies may underestimate the extent of COVID-19 infection as some cases with mild disease did not have detectable antibody responses.

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