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1.
Curr Res Transl Med ; 70(4): 103357, 2022 Jun 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1946446
2.
Bull World Health Organ ; 100(6): 409-410, 2022 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1902861

Subject(s)
Health Care Sector , Humans
4.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; : 1-7, 2022 Feb 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1709330

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the protective measures among health-care workers (HCWs) in a war-torn area during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. METHODS: An online cross-sectional questionnaire was administrated to HCWs in Syria between April 1 and May 21, 2020. The questions aimed to assess the HCWs' application of safety, hygiene, and necessary protection considerations while attending to suspected or proven COVID-19 cases. Unpaired t-test and 1-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: Of the 290 participants included in the statistical analysis, 250 were medical doctors. Low scores of protective practices were noticed among the participants, as only 12% of doctors had a score above 6/15 points, and only 37.5% of nurses had a score of more than 4/12 points. Medical doctors who were not on the frontlines scored significantly higher than those who were on the frontlines (4.69 vs 3.80 points, respectively; P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: More courses and training sessions should be implemented to improve the practice of protective measures among HCWs (frontliners in particular) in areas with fragile health systems, such as Syria, during the COVID-19 pandemic, especially those on the frontlines. Moreover, specific COVID-19 protection measures guidelines to low-income countries are needed.

5.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-305420

ABSTRACT

Background: The question about the role of the senior medical students in the fight against COVID-19 pandemic was raised after the serious shortage in healthcare workers faced by many healthcare systems. This research aimed to explore the ability of the final-year medical students to assist during COVID-19 in a war-torn health system. Methods: : Final-year medical students in Syrian Universities were approached between 9 th -17 th April 2020 through an online questionnaire that assessed the students’ COVID-19-related medical knowledge (5-point score), clinical judgment (5-point score), preparedness and willingness to integrate in the healthcare facilities. An overall score of 10 points was built and multivariate analysis was conducted. Results: : A total of 1764 responses were received. Valid responses were (1673) with 1199 (71.66%) responses from the final-year students. Of the latter, 728 (60.71%) scored 4 points or higher in the medical knowledge score (mean 3.69 points [SD 0.96]), while 298 (24.85%) scored 4 or higher in the clinical judgment score. Final-year students scored significantly higher than the fourth-year students in the clinical judgment score (mean 2.69 points [SD 1.12] vs 2.47 [1.15];adjusted P=0.012). Nearly 72.4% of the final-year participants had an overall score of 7 points or more out of 10 (mean 6.39 points [SD 1.57]). Having fears of infection (log OR 0.24, 95% CI 0.05– 0.44;P=0.01) correlated with a higher overall score, contritely to beginner, intermediate English level, and male gender (log OR -0.68 [95% CI -1.01– -0.35];P<0.001, -0.3 [-0.5 – -0.1];P= 0.003, -0.25 [-0.43 – -0.08];P=0.004, respectively). Finally, 682 (56.88%) of the final-year students expressed willingness to volunteer with healthcare teams. Conclusion: Integrating final-year medical students may be an alternative in case of pandemics especially for fragile systems or those hit by a long-lasting war, while taking into consideration fulfilling personal protective measures, intensive training, and/or adequate supervision.

6.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-305257

ABSTRACT

Background: Since the declaration of COVID-19 as a global pandemic, there has been a dramatic increase in the number of infected cases. Thus, the number of hospital admissions has peaked during a short period, which in return has created a huge burden on healthcare workers. The effect of this pandemic on HCWs can be more severe in war-torn countries. This research aims to explore the psychological effects of the current pandemic on healthcare providers in Syria and compare it with the situation of Syrian HCP outside Syria. Methods: : 660 has participated in this cross-sectional study using an online questionnaire during two phases (two months apart). The first sample included 76 participants which were used for comparison only, and the second sample consisted of 584 participants (118 outside Syria, 466 inside Syria). The study included demographic, social, and workplace-related questions, as well as three scoring systems including The Pittsburgh, Sleep quality index (PSQI), Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10), and Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD 7). Results: : 72.4% of the first sample had poor sleep quality compared to 80% for the second sample, while over 40% of the first sample had scored well on the Kessler scale and 17% scored severe stress disorder, the second sample scored 29.8% and 27.9% on the same index retrospectively. Over 70% of the two samples scored mild on the generalized stress disorder index.Both inside and outside Syria samples had very similar results on the three indices, and no significant difference was noticed between the sample inside Syria and the sample outside Syria for the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (P=0.900), and for the Generalized Anxiety Disorder score (P=0.798), and no significant difference was noticed between the two samples for the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (P=0.231). Conclusion: The current pandemic has imposed new concerns related to the preparedness of health systems worldwide but especially in countries with limited resources. Additionally, addressing mental health issues has become vital to ensure that healthcare systems are more effective.Regions of low income and those suffering from armed conflict may benefit from the conclusions of this study to ameliorate the medical practice conditions in the setting of such pandemics as COVID-19.

8.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-296985

ABSTRACT

Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 continues to impose itself on all populations of the world. Given the slow pace of vaccination in the developing world and the absence of effective treatments, adherence to precautionary infection control measures remains the best way to prevent the COVID-19 pandemic from spiraling out of control. In this study, we aim to evaluate the extent to which the Syrian population adheres to these measures and analyze the relationship between demographic variables and adherence. Methods This cross-sectional study took place in Syria between January 17 and March 17, 2021. A structured self-administered questionnaire was used to collect the data. The questionnaire was distributed in both electronic and printed versions. Collected data were analyzed using SPSS v.25. The chi-square test was used to address the correlation between adherence and demographic variables. Results Of the 10083 reached out, only (74.6%) responded. Of them, 4026 (53.5%) were women, 3984 (52.9%) were single, and 1908 (25.3%) had earned university degrees. 5286 (70.25) were classified as the good adherers to protective measures. Statistically significant differences across age, sex, marital status, financial status, employment, and educational attainment when correlated against commitment to preventive measures. Young age, female sex, good financial status, and having a full-time job and post-graduate education were positively correlated to the stronger commitment to preventive measures. Furthermore, those who believed that COVID-19 poses a major risk to them or society were more committed to preventive measures than those who did not. Conclusion The participants in this study generally showed a high level of adherence to the preventive measures compared to participants in other studies from around the world, with some concerns regarding risk perception and the sources of information they depend on. Public health and community education efforts should focus on maintaining, if not expanding, this level of commitment, which would mitigate the pandemic’s impact on Syrian society.

9.
Med Confl Surviv ; 38(1): 31-48, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1573699

ABSTRACT

In Syria, medical students were placed on call to provide sufficient human resources during COVID-19 pandemic. This research aimed to explore the ability and willingness of the final-year medical students to assist during COVID-19 in the Syrian war-torn and fragile health-system. Final-year Syrian medical students were approached between 9th-17th April 2020 through an online questionnaire. Students' COVID-19-related medical knowledge (5-point score), clinical judgement (5-point score), and preparedness and willingness to integrate in healthcare facilities were assessed. A 10-point score was created, and linear regression and Tukey's HSD test were conducted. 1673 valid responses were received, of which 1199 (71.66%) responses were from the final-year students. Of the latter, 728 (60.71%) scored 4 points or higher in the medical knowledge score (mean 3.69 points), while 298 (24.85%) scored 4 or higher in the clinical judgement score. Final-year students scored significantly higher than the fourth-year students in the clinical judgement score. Finally, 682 (56.88%) of the final-year students expressed willingness to volunteer with healthcare teams. Final-year medical students may provide medical aid, on voluntary basis, by working in fragile health systems during pandemics. However, this should be undertaken in cases of extreme need. Sufficient personal protective measures, intensive training, and adequate supervision should be guaranteed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Students, Medical , COVID-19/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
10.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 2117, 2021 11 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1523298

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 continues to spread globally and in the absence of an effective treatment, the vaccine remains the best hope for controlling this disease. In this study, we seek to find out the extent to which people in Syria accept the Corona vaccine and what are the factors that affect their decision. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Syria during the period from January 3 to March 17, 2021. A structured self-administered questionnaire was distributed in two phases: The first phase included distributing the questionnaire as a Google Form on social media platforms. In the second phase, a paper version of the questionnaire was handed to patients, their companions, and workers in public hospitals. SPSS v.25 and R v.4.1.1 were used to analyze the data. Pearson Chi-square test and Logistic Regression were used to study the associations between categorical groups. RESULTS: Of 7531 respondents, 3505 (46.5%) were males and 4026 (53.5%) were females. 3124 (41.5%) were 18-24 years old. Healthcare workers were participants' main sources of information (50.9%), followed by Social Media users (46.3%). 2790 (37%) of the participant are willing to be vaccinated, and 2334 (31%) were uncertain about it. Fear of possible side effects was the main reason for the reluctance to take the vaccine 1615 (62.4%), followed by mistrust of the vaccine formula 1522 (58.8%). 2218 (29.5%) participants think COVID-19 poses a major risk to them personally. Vaccination intention was significantly associated with gender, residence, financial status, educational level, and geographic origin. CONCLUSION: This study showed very negatively important results. The study participants Vaccination acceptance rate is almost the lowest when compared to its peers. A Lot of efforts should be made to correct misinformation about the vaccine and answer all questions about it, especially with a health system that has been ravaged by war for 10 years.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Syria , Vaccination , Young Adult
13.
Curr Res Transl Med ; 68(3): 83-91, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-610063

ABSTRACT

MOTIVATION: COVID-19 is one of the most widely affecting pandemics. As for many respiratory viruses-caused diseases, diagnosis of COVID-19 relies on two main compartments: clinical and paraclinical diagnostic criteria. Rapid and accurate diagnosis is vital in such a pandemic. On one side, rapidity may enhance management effectiveness, while on the other, coupling efficiency and less costly procedures may permit more effective community-scale management. METHODOLOGY AND MAIN STRUCTURE: In this review, we shed light on the most used and the most validated diagnostic tools. Furthermore, we intend to include few under-development techniques that may be potentially useful in this context. The practical intent of our work is to provide clinicians with a realistic summarized review of the essential elements in the applied paraclinical diagnosis of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/trends , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Emergency Medical Technicians , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/classification , Coronavirus Infections/classification , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Emergency Medical Services/methods , Emergency Medical Technicians/organization & administration , Emergency Medical Technicians/trends , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity , Time Factors
14.
J Public Health (Oxf) ; 42(3): 642-643, 2020 Aug 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-506093

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the outbreak of coronavirus COVID-19, social media platforms have shown effectiveness in information dissemination. Delivering evidence-based medical knowledge and trustworthy recommendations is a difficult mission for classical entities, especially in a war-torn country with a fragile health system. In this context, the role of non-governmental scientific organizations was proven, filling the gap between original scientific sources and a non-English speaking population. METHODS: We reviewed an example of an organization named Syrian Researchers, which publishes based-on-reliable-sources of scientific content and has massive reachability across Middle East and beyond. RESULTS: We strongly believe that this model is a simple and suitable approach that may be helpful for other low-income or war-torn countries in the context of health-related disasters. CONCLUSIONS: This subject is of high importance and we believe that this approach may ameliorate public health knowledge, thus, participate in defying the COVID-19 consequences.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Developing Countries/statistics & numerical data , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Information Dissemination/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Social Media , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Syria/epidemiology
15.
Curr Res Transl Med ; 68(3): 93-104, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-437426

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION AND MOTIVATION: Since the end of 2019, the COVID-19 pandemic has affected millions of people worldwide. With the rapid spread of this virus, an immense burden has fallen upon both healthcare and economic systems. As a consequence, there is an unprecedented urgency for researchers and scientific committees from all over the world to find an effective treatment and vaccine. REVIEW STRUCTURE: Many potential therapies are currently under investigation, with some, like Hydroxychloroquine, being authorized for emergency use in some countries. The crucial issue is now clearly to find the suitable treatment strategy for patients given comorbidities and the timeline of the illness. Vaccines are also under development and phase 1 clinical trials are rolling. Despite all efforts, no single drug or vaccine has yet been approved. In this review, we aim at presenting the proposed pathophysiological mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 and to provide clinicians with a brief and solid overview of the current potential treatments classified according to their use at the three different currently proposed disease stages. In light of pathogenesis and proposed clinical classification, this review's purpose is to summarize and simplify the most important updates on the management and the potential treatment of this emergent disease.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/classification , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , Viral Vaccines/therapeutic use
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