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2.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0266791, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785206

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic led to emergency measures to continue patient care and research at a comprehensive cancer center while protecting both employees and patients. Determining exposure and infection rates with SARS-CoV-2 were important to adjust workplace policies over time. METHODS: Dana-Farber Cancer Institute (DFCI) has over 7,000 employees. Participation was voluntary. After consent, participants completed questionnaire of demographics, exposures and risk factors for COVID-19 illness at each time point (baseline, 3, 6, and 12 months) along with blood draws for SARS-CoV-2 antibody testing. Primary measure was determination of titers of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein IgG over time. RESULTS: In total, 745 employees enrolled from May 2020 to February 2021 (mean [SD] age, 40[14] years; 572[80%] women). From May to July 2020, 47 of 519 employees (9.2%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 6.7-12.0%) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 spike protein IgG antibodies. Three months later, 40 of 428 employees had positive antibodies (8.5%, 95% CI 6.0-11.0%) with 17 newly positive. At month 6, 78.5% of participants reported having received at least one dose of vaccine and the positivity rate for those vaccinated was 98% (95% CI, 95-100%). Spike protein IgG titers for those vaccinated were 7.9 times higher than participants not vaccinated (median IgG titer = 0.28 for positive antibody but not vaccinated versus 2.2 for vaccinated) but demonstrate evidence of waning over time. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 antibody positivity remained less than 10% at a single comprehensive cancer center prior to vaccination and there is evidence of waning IgG titers over time after vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Adolescent , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
3.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 2022 Apr 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784428

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Limited data are available regarding asymptomatic COVID-19 among people with HIV (PWH). Data on a representative subset of PWH enrolled in REPRIEVE, a global clinical trial are presented here. METHODS: REPRIEVE is an atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) prevention trial among 7,770 PWH on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Beginning April 2020, targeted data on COVID-19 diagnosis and symptoms were collected during routine trial visits. SARS-CoV-2 infection was defined as either COVID-19 clinical diagnosis or presence of SARS-CoV-2 IgG or IgA RBD protein (anti-spike) antibodies in the absence of prior COVID-19 vaccine. RESULTS: The group (N=2,464) had a median age 53 years, 35% female sex, 47% Black or African American race, median CD4 count 649 c/mm3, and 97% with HIV VL <400 cp/m. SARS-CoV-2 infection occurred in 318 persons (13%): 58 with clinical diagnosis and 260 with detectable antibodies. Of these PWH, 304 completed symptom questionnaires: 121 (40%) reported symptoms, but 183 (60%) were asymptomatic. PWH with asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection were more likely to be from Low or Middle Income Regions, of Black or African American race, older in age, and with higher ASCVD risk score. Symptomatic COVID was more common with obesity, metabolic syndrome, and low HDL levels. CD4 counts and HIV viral suppression rates were similar among PWH with symptomatic vs. asymptomatic COVID. CONCLUSIONS: Asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection is common among ART-treated PWH globally. We determined that 60% of infections in PWH were asymptomatic. HIV clinicians must remain vigilant about COVID-19 testing among PWH to identify asymptomatic cases.

4.
Nature ; 2022 Mar 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1773987

ABSTRACT

The global emergence of many severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants jeopardizes the protective antiviral immunity induced following infection or vaccination. To address the public health threat caused by the increasing SARS-CoV-2 genomic diversity, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) within the National Institutes of Health (NIH) established the SARS-CoV-2 Assessment of Viral Evolution (SAVE) program. This effort was designed to provide a real-time risk assessment of SARS-CoV-2 variants potentially impacting transmission, virulence, and resistance to convalescent and vaccine-induced immunity. The SAVE program serves as a critical data-generating component of the United States Government SARS-CoV-2 Interagency Group to assess implications of SARS-CoV-2 variants on diagnostics, vaccines, and therapeutics and for communicating public health risk. Here we describe the coordinated approach used to identify and curate data about emerging variants, their impact on immunity, and effects on vaccine protection using animal models. We report the development of reagents, methodologies, models, and pivotal findings facilitated by this collaborative approach and identify future challenges. This program serves as a template for the response against rapidly evolving pandemic pathogens by monitoring viral evolution in the human population to identify variants that could erode the effectiveness of countermeasures.

5.
J Infect Dis ; 225(7): 1124-1128, 2022 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1774388

ABSTRACT

Individuals on immunosuppressive (IS) therapy have increased mortality from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, and delayed viral clearance may lead to new viral variants. IS therapy reduces antibody responses following coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccination; however, a comprehensive assessment of vaccine immunogenicity is lacking. Here we show that IS therapy reduced neutralizing, binding, and nonneutralizing antibody functions in addition to CD4 and CD8 T-cell interferon-γ responses following COVID-19 mRNA vaccination compared to immunocompetent individuals. Moreover, IS therapy reduced cross-reactivity against SARS-CoV-2 variants. These data suggest that the standard COVID-19 mRNA vaccine regimens will likely not provide optimal protection in immunocompromised individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , RNA, Messenger , Vaccines, Synthetic
6.
Sci Immunol ; : eabo0226, 2022 Mar 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1769818

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 vaccines should induce broadly cross-reactive humoral and T cell responses to protect against emerging variants of concern (VOCs). Here, we inactivated the furin-cleavage site (FCS) of spike expressed by a modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) virus vaccine (MVA/SdFCS) and found that FCS inactivation markedly increased spike binding to human ACE2. Following vaccination of mice, the MVA/SdFCS vaccine induced 8-fold higher neutralizing antibodies compared to MVA/S, which expressed spike without FCS inactivation, and protected against the beta variant. We next added nucleocapsid to the MVA/SdFCS vaccine (MVA/SdFCS-N) and tested its immunogenicity and efficacy via intramuscular (IM), buccal (BU) or sublingual (SL) routes in rhesus macaques. IM vaccination induced spike-specific IgG in serum and mucosae (nose, throat, lung, rectum) which neutralized the homologous (WA-1/2020) and heterologous VOCs, including delta, with minimal loss (<2-fold) of activity. IM vaccination also induced both S and N specific CD4 and CD8 T cell responses in the blood. In contrast, the SL and BU vaccinations induced less spike-specific IgG in secretions and lower levels of polyfunctional IgG in serum compared to IM vaccination. Following challenge with SARS-CoV-2 delta variant, the IM route induced robust protection, BU moderate protection and the SL no protection. Vaccine-induced neutralizing and non-neutralizing antibody effector functions positively correlated with protection, but only the effector functions correlated with early protection. Thus, IM vaccination with MVA/SdFCS-N vaccine elicited cross-reactive antibody and T cell responses, protecting against heterologous SARS-CoV-2 VOC more effectively than other routes of vaccination.

7.
Sci Transl Med ; : eabm2311, 2022 Mar 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765074

ABSTRACT

The successful development of several coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines has substantially reduced morbidity and mortality in regions of the world where the vaccines have been deployed. However, in the wake of the emergence of viral variants that are able to evade vaccine-induced neutralizing antibodies, real-world vaccine efficacy has begun to show differences across the two approved mRNA platforms, BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273; these findings suggest that subtle variation in immune responses induced by the BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273 vaccines may confer differential protection. Given our emerging appreciation for the importance of additional antibody functions beyond neutralization, we profiled the post-boost binding and functional capacity of humoral immune responses induced by the BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273 vaccines in a cohort of hospital staff. Both vaccines induced robust humoral immune responses to wild-type severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and to variants of concern. However, differences emerged across epitope-specific responses, with higher concentrations of receptor binding domain (RBD)- and N-terminal domain-specific IgA observed in recipients of mRNA-1273. Antibodies eliciting neutrophil phagocytosis and natural killer cell activation were also increased in mRNA-1273 vaccine recipients as compared to BNT162b2 recipients. RBD-specific antibody depletion highlighted the different roles of non-RBD-specific antibody effector functions induced across the mRNA vaccines. These data provide insights into potential differences in protective immunity conferred by these vaccines.

8.
Vaccines ; 10(4):492, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1762151

ABSTRACT

Emergent SARS-CoV-2 variants and waning humoral immunity in vaccinated individuals have resulted in increased infections and hospitalizations. Children are not spared from infection nor complications of COVID-19, and the recent recommendation for boosters in individuals ages 12 years or older calls for broader understanding of the adolescent immune profile after mRNA vaccination. We tested the durability and cross-reactivity of anti-SARS-CoV-2 serologic responses over a six-month time course in vaccinated adolescents against the SARS-CoV-2 D614G ('wild type';) and Omicron antigens. Serum from 77 adolescents showed that anti-Spike antibodies wane significantly over six months. After completion of a two-vaccine series, cross-reactivity against Omicron-specific receptor-binding domain (RBD) was seen. Functional humoral activation against wild type and Omicron SARS-CoV-2 also declines over time in vaccinated adolescent children. Evidence of waning mRNA-induced vaccine immunity underscores vulnerabilities in long-term pediatric protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection, while cross-reactivity highlights the additional benefits of vaccination. Characterization of adolescent immune signatures post-vaccination will inform guidance on vaccine platforms and timelines, and ultimately optimize immunoprotection of children.

10.
J Infect Dis ; 2022 Mar 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1758756

ABSTRACT

Allergic symptoms after mRNA COVID-19 vaccines occur in up to 2% of recipients. Compared to nonallergic controls (n=18), individuals with immediate allergic reactions to mRNA COVID-19 vaccines (n=8) mounted lower IgG1 to multiple antigenic targets in SARS-CoV-2 spike following vaccination, with significantly lower IgG1 to full-length spike (p=0.04). Individuals with immediate allergic reactions to mRNA COVID-19 vaccines bound Fcγ-Receptors similarly to non-allergic controls. Although there was a trend towards an overall reduction in opsonophagocytic function in individuals with immediate allergic reactions compared to non-allergic controls, allergic patients produced functional antibodies exhibiting a high ratio of opsonophagocytic function to IgG1 titer.

11.
Sci Transl Med ; : eabn9243, 2022 Mar 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1741565

ABSTRACT

The Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2 has been shown to evade neutralizing antibodies elicited by vaccination or prior infection. Despite the dramatic global spread of the Omicron variant, even among highly vaccinated populations, death rates have not increased concomitantly. These data suggest that immune mechanisms beyond antibody-mediated virus neutralization may protect against severe disease. In addition to neutralizing pathogens, antibodies contribute to control and clearance of infections through Fc-effector mechanisms. Here we probed the ability of vaccine-induced antibodies to drive Fc-effector activity against the Omicron variant using samples from individuals receiving one of three SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. Despite a substantial loss of IgM, IgA, and IgG binding to the Omicron variant Receptor Binding Domain (RBD) in samples from individuals receiving BNT162b2, mRNA-1273, and CoronaVac vaccines, stable binding was maintained against the full-length Omicron Spike protein. Compromised RBD binding IgG was accompanied by a loss of cross RBD-specific antibody Fcγ receptor (FcγR) binding in samples from individuals who received the CoronaVac vaccine, but RBD-specific FcγR2a and FcγR3a binding was preserved in recipients of mRNA vaccines. Conversely, Spike protein-specific antibodies exhibited persistent but reduced binding to FcγRs across all three vaccines, though higher binding was observed in samples from recipients of mRNA vaccines. This was associated with preservation of FcγR2a and FcγR3a binding antibodies and maintenance of Spike protein-specific antibody-dependent natural killer cell activating antibodies. Thus, despite the loss of Omicron neutralization, vaccine-induced Spike protein-specific antibodies continue to drive Fc-effector functions, suggesting a capacity for extra-neutralizing antibodies to contribute to disease control.

12.
13.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Feb 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1713629

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Estimating the cumulative incidence of SARS-CoV-2 is essential for setting public health policies. We leveraged de-identified Massachusetts newborn screening specimens to generate an accessible, retrospective source of maternal antibodies for estimating statewide SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence in a non-test-seeking population. METHODS: We analyzed 72,117 newborn dried blood spots collected from November 2019 through December 2020, representing 337 towns and cities across Massachusetts. Seroprevalence was estimated for the general Massachusetts population after correcting for imperfect test specificity and nonrepresentative sampling using Bayesian multilevel regression and poststratification. RESULTS: Statewide seroprevalence was estimated to be 0.03% (90% credible interval (CI) [0.00, 0.11]) in November 2019 and rose to 1.47% (90% CI [1.00, 2.13]) by May 2020, following sustained SARS-CoV-2 transmission in the spring. Seroprevalence plateaued from May onwards, reaching 2.15% (90% CI [1.56, 2.98]) in December 2020. Seroprevalence varied substantially by community and was particularly associated with community percent non-Hispanic Black (ß = 0.024, 90% CI [0.004, 0.044]); i.e., a 10% increase in community percent non-Hispanic Black was associated with a 27% higher odds of seropositivity. Seroprevalence estimates had good concordance with reported case counts and wastewater surveillance for most of 2020, prior to the resurgence of transmission in winter. CONCLUSIONS: Cumulative incidence of SARS-CoV-2 protective antibody in Massachusetts was low as of December 2020, indicating that a substantial fraction of the population was still susceptible. Maternal seroprevalence data from newborn screening can inform longitudinal trends and identify cities and towns at highest risk, particularly in settings where widespread diagnostic testing is unavailable.

14.
Sci Transl Med ; 14(638): eabm4996, 2022 Mar 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1705843

ABSTRACT

Ad26.COV2.S has demonstrated durability and clinical efficacy against symptomatic COVID-19 in humans. In this study, we report the correlates of durability of humoral and cellular immune responses in 20 rhesus macaques immunized with single-shot Ad26.COV2.S and the immunogenicity of a booster shot at 8 to 10 months after the initial immunization. Ad26.COV2.S elicited durable binding and neutralizing antibodies as well as memory B cells and long-lived bone marrow plasma cells. Innate immune responses and bone marrow plasma cell responses correlated with durable antibody responses. After Ad26.COV2.S boost immunization, binding and neutralizing antibody responses against multiple SARS-CoV-2 variants increased 31- to 69-fold and 23- to 43-fold, respectively, compared with preboost concentrations. Antigen-specific B cell and T cell responses also increased substantially after the boost immunization. Boosting with a modified Ad26.COV2.S.351 vaccine expressing the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein from the beta variant led to largely comparable responses with slightly higher beta- and omicron-specific humoral immune responses. These data demonstrate that a late boost with Ad26.COV2.S or Ad26.COV2.S.351 resulted in a marked increase in humoral and cellular immune responses that were highly cross-reactive across multiple SARS-CoV-2 variants in rhesus macaques.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Macaca mulatta , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Vaccination
15.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-313773

ABSTRACT

The robust protection conferred by SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines represents a critical milestone in the COVID-19 vaccine development. However, the emergence of variants has inspired renewed concern related to the protective efficacy of currently approved vaccines, which lose neutralizing potency against some variants. However, emerging data suggest that antibody functions, beyond neutralization, may contribute to protection from disease. Thus, here we profiled the binding and functional capacity of convalescent antibodies and Moderna mRNA-1273 COVID-19 vaccine-induced antibodies across SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOC). While neutralizing antibody responses are affected by VOCs, antibodies generated after infection exhibited robust binding to VOCs but compromised interactions with Fc-receptors. Conversely, vaccine-induced antibodies bound robustly to VOCs and continued interacting with Fc-receptors and mediated antibody effector functions. These data point to a previously unappreciated resilience in the mRNA vaccine-induced humoral immune response that may continue to provide protection from SARS-CoV-2 VOCs independent of neutralization.Trial Registration: This work used samples from the phase 1, dose-escalation, open-labelclinical trial designed to determine the safety, reactogenicity, and immunogenicity of mRNA-1273 (mRNA-1273 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04283461 mRNA-1273 study;DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa2022483).Funding: We acknowledge support from the Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT, and Harvard, the Massachusetts Consortium on Pathogen Readiness (MassCPR), the NIH (3R37AI080289-11S1, R01AI146785, U19AI42790-01, U19AI135995-02, U19AI42790-01, 1U01CA260476 – 01, CIVIC75N93019C00052), the Gates Foundation Global Health Vaccine Accelerator Platform funding (OPP1146996 and INV-001650), Translational Research Institute for Space Health through NASA Cooperative Agreement (NNX16AO69A), and the Musk Foundation. This work used samples from the phase 1 mRNA-1273 study (NCT04283461;DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa2022483). The mRNA-1273 phase 1 study was sponsored and primarily funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, MD. This trial has been funded in part with federal funds from the NIAID under grant awards UM1AI148373, to Kaiser Washington;UM1AI148576, UM1AI148684, and NIH P51 OD011132, to Emory University;NIH AID AI149644, and contract award HHSN272201500002C, to Emmes. Funding for the manufacture of mRNA-1273 phase 1 material was provided by the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovation.Declaration of Interest: G.A. is a founder of Seromyx Systems Inc. A.C. is employee of Moderna Inc. D.D., P.M., A.S.M, and E.R.M. are employees of Space Exploration Technologies Corp. All other authors have declared that no conflict of interest exists.Ethical Approval: The MGH IRB reviewed the ethics protocol for secondary use under record 2020P004042 and the project was deemed Not Human Research.

16.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327776

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 convalescent plasma (CCP), a passive polyclonal antibody therapeutic, has exhibited mixed results in the treatment of COVID-19. Given that the therapeutic effect of CCP may extend beyond the ability of SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody binding and neutralization to influence the evolution of the endogenous antibody response, we took a systematic and comprehensive approach to analyze SARS-CoV-2 functional antibody profiles of participants in a randomized controlled trial of CCP treatment of individuals hospitalized with COVID-19 pneumonia where CCP was associated with both decreased mortality and improved clinical severity. Using systems serology, we found that the clinical benefit of CCP is related to a shift towards reduced inflammatory Spike (S) responses and enhanced Nucleocapsid (N) humoral responses. We found CCP had the greatest clinical benefit in participants with low pre-existing anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody function, rather than S or N antibody levels or participant demographic features. Further, CCP induced immunomodulatory changes to recipient humoral profiles persisted for at least two months, marked by the selective evolution of anti-inflammatory Fc-glycan profiles and persistently expanded nucleocapsid-specific humoral immunity following CCP therapy. Together, our findings identify a novel mechanism of action of CCP, suggest optimal patient characteristics for CCP treatment, identify long-last immunomodulatory effects of CCP, and provide guidance for development of novel N-focused antibody therapeutics for severe COVID-19 hyperinflammation.

17.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327179

ABSTRACT

Patients with primary antibody deficiency syndromes (PAD) have poor humoral immune responses requiring immunoglobulin replacement therapy. We followed PAD patients after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination by evaluating their immunoglobulin replacement products and serum for anti-spike binding, FcγR binding, and neutralizing activities. Immunoglobulin replacement products had low anti-spike and receptor binding domain (RBD) titers and neutralizing activity. In COVID-19-naive PAD patients, anti-spike and RBD titers increased after mRNA vaccination but decreased to pre-immunization levels by 90 days. Patients vaccinated after SARS-CoV-2 infection developed higher responses comparable to healthy donors. Most vaccinated PAD patients had serum neutralizing antibody titers above an estimated correlate of protection against ancestral SARS-CoV-2 and Delta virus but not against Omicron virus, although this was improved by boosting. Thus, currently used immunoglobulin replacement products likely have limited protective activity, and immunization and boosting of PAD patients with mRNA vaccines should confer at least short-term immunity against SARS-CoV-2 variants, including Omicron.

18.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-319421

ABSTRACT

Antibody transfer via breastmilk represents an evolutionary strategy to boost immunity in early life. Although SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies have been observed in the breastmilk of mothers with COVID-19, the functional quality of these antibodies remains unclear. Here, we applied systems serology to characterize SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies in maternal serum and breastmilk to define the mechanism of antibody transfer into breastmilk. Distinct SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody responses were observed in the serum and breastmilk of lactating individuals previously infected with SARS-CoV-2, with a dominant transfer of both IgA and IgM into breastmilk. A spike-specific functional IgG were present in breastmilk, breastmilk IgGs were functionally attenuated. Breastmilk antibodies were less inflammatory than maternal serum antibodies, pointing to a sieve offunctional antibodies to breastmilk. These data highlight the preferential breastmilk transfer of SARS-CoV-2-specific IgA and IgM to neonates, accompanied by selected subpopulations of IgG, positioned to create a non-pathologic, but highly protective barrier against COVID-19 disease.Funding Statement: This work was supported by by NHLBI (grants K08HL1469630-02 and K08HL146963-02S1, to KJG), the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant No. (#1745302, to KMP), the NIH (U19 AI142790, U19 AI135995, R37AI080289), the Massachusetts Consortium on Pathogen Readiness (MassCPR). Declaration of Interests: G.A. is the founder of Seromyx. K.J.G. has consulted for BillionToOne, Illumina, and Aetion. INCOMPLETE Ethics Approval Statement: This study was approved by the MGH-BWH Institutional Review Board and the BIDMC Institutional Review Board.

19.
PLoS Biol ; 20(2): e3001531, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686076

ABSTRACT

Identifying the potential for SARS-CoV-2 reinfection is crucial for understanding possible long-term epidemic dynamics. We analysed longitudinal PCR and serological testing data from a prospective cohort of 4,411 United States employees in 4 states between April 2020 and February 2021. We conducted a multivariable logistic regression investigating the association between baseline serological status and subsequent PCR test result in order to calculate an odds ratio for reinfection. We estimated an odds ratio for reinfection ranging from 0.14 (95% CI: 0.019 to 0.63) to 0.28 (95% CI: 0.05 to 1.1), implying that the presence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies at baseline is associated with around 72% to 86% reduced odds of a subsequent PCR positive test based on our point estimates. This suggests that primary infection with SARS-CoV-2 provides protection against reinfection in the majority of individuals, at least over a 6-month time period. We also highlight 2 major sources of bias and uncertainty to be considered when estimating the relative risk of reinfection, confounders and the choice of baseline time point, and show how to account for both in reinfection analysis.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Reinfection/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Humans , Logistic Models , Middle Aged , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prospective Studies , Reinfection/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Time Factors , United States/epidemiology , Workplace/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
20.
mBio ; : e0214121, 2022 Jan 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1650754

ABSTRACT

As public health guidelines throughout the world have relaxed in response to vaccination campaigns against SARS-CoV-2, it is likely that SARS-CoV-2 will remain endemic, fueled by the rise of more infectious SARS-CoV-2 variants. Moreover, in the setting of waning natural and vaccine immunity, reinfections have emerged across the globe, even among previously infected and vaccinated individuals. As such, the ability to detect reexposure to and reinfection by SARS-CoV-2 is a key component for global protection against this virus and, more importantly, against the potential emergence of vaccine escape mutations. Accordingly, there is a strong and continued need for the development and deployment of simple methods to detect emerging hot spots of reinfection to inform targeted pandemic response and containment, including targeted and specific deployment of vaccine booster campaigns. In this study, we identify simple, rapid immune biomarkers of reinfection in rhesus macaques, including IgG3 antibody levels against nucleocapsid and FcγR2A receptor binding activity of anti-RBD antibodies, that are recapitulated in human reinfection cases. As such, this cross-species analysis underscores the potential utility of simple antibody titers and function as price-effective and scalable markers of reinfection to provide increased resolution and resilience against new outbreaks. IMPORTANCE As public health and social distancing guidelines loosen in the setting of waning global natural and vaccine immunity, a deeper understanding of the immunological response to reexposure and reinfection to this highly contagious pathogen is necessary to maintain public health. Viral sequencing analysis provides a robust but unrealistic means to monitor reinfection globally. The identification of scalable pathogen-specific biomarkers of reexposure and reinfection, however, could significantly accelerate our capacity to monitor the spread of the virus through naive and experienced hosts, providing key insights into mechanisms of disease attenuation. Using a nonhuman primate model of controlled SARS-CoV-2 reexposure, we deeply probed the humoral immune response following rechallenge with various doses of viral inocula. We identified virus-specific humoral biomarkers of reinfection, with significant increases in antibody titer and function upon rechallenge across a range of humoral features, including IgG1 to the receptor binding domain of the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 (RBD), IgG3 to the nucleocapsid protein (N), and FcγR2A receptor binding to anti-RBD antibodies. These features not only differentiated primary infection from reexposure and reinfection in monkeys but also were recapitulated in a sequencing-confirmed reinfection patient and in a cohort of putatively reinfected humans that evolved a PCR-positive test in spite of preexisting seropositivity. As such, this cross-species analysis using a controlled primate model and human cohorts reveals increases in antibody titers as promising cross-validated serological markers of reinfection and reexposure.

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