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1.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-318660

ABSTRACT

Background: - Since SARS-CoV-2 spread, evidences regarding sex differences in progression and prognosis of COVID-19 have emerged. Besides this, studies on patients’ clinical characteristics have described electrolyte imbalances as one of the recurrent features of COVID-19. Methods - We performed a case-control study on all patients admitted to the emergency department (ED) from 1st March to 31st May 2020 who had undergone a blood gas analysis and a nasopharyngeal swab test for SARS-CoV-2 by rtPCR. We defined positive patients as cases and negatives as controls. The study was approved by the local ethics committee Area 3 Milan. Data were automatically extracted from the hospital laboratory SQL-based repository in anonymized form. We considered as outcomes potassium (K+), sodium (Na+), chlorine (Cl-) and calcium (Ca++) as continuous and as categorical variables, in their relation with age, sex and SARS-CoV-2 infection status. Results - We observed a higher prevalence of hypokalemia among patients positive for SARS-CoV-2 (13.7% vs 6% of negative subjects). Positive patients had a higher probability to be admitted to the ED with hypokalemia (OR 2.75, 95% CI 1.8-4.1 p<0.0001) and women were twice as likely to be affected than men (OR 2.43, 95% CI 1.67-3.54 p<0.001). Odds ratios for positive patients to manifest with an alteration in serum Na+ was (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.17-2.35 p<0.001) and serum chlorine (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.03-2.69 p<0.001). Notably, OR for positive patients to be hypocalcemic was 7.2 (95% IC 4.8-10.6 p<0.0001) with a low probability for women to be hypocalcemic (OR 0.63, 95% IC 0.4-0.8 p=0.005). Conclusions - SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with a higher prevalence of hypokalemia, hypocalcemia, hypochloremia and sodium alterations. Hypokalemia is more frequent among women and hypocalcemia among men.

2.
Cell Host Microbe ; 30(3): 400-408.e4, 2022 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1650182

ABSTRACT

Breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infections in fully vaccinated individuals are considered a consequence of waning immunity. Serum antibodies represent the most measurable outcome of vaccine-induced B cell memory. When antibodies decline, memory B cells are expected to persist and perform their function, preventing clinical disease. We investigated whether BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine induces durable and functional B cell memory in vivo against SARS-CoV-2 3, 6, and 9 months after the second dose in a cohort of health care workers (HCWs). While we observed physiological decline of SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies, memory B cells persist and increase until 9 months after immunization. HCWs with breakthrough infections had no signs of waning immunity. In 3-4 days, memory B cells responded to SARS-CoV-2 infection by producing high levels of specific antibodies in the serum and anti-Spike IgA in the saliva. Antibodies to the viral nucleoprotein were produced with the slow kinetics typical of the response to a novel antigen.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Vaccination , Vaccines, Synthetic
3.
Int J Clin Pract ; 75(12): e14882, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1555909

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since SARS-CoV-2 spread, evidence regarding sex differences in progression and prognosis of COVID-19 have emerged. Besides this, studies on patients' clinical characteristics have described electrolyte imbalances as one of the recurrent features of COVID-19. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study on all patients admitted to the emergency department (ED) from 1 March to 31 May 2020 who had undergone a blood gas analysis and a nasopharyngeal swab test for SARS-CoV-2 by rtPCR. We defined positive patients as cases (n = 710) and negatives as controls (n = 619), for a total number of patients of 1.329. The study was approved by the local ethics committee Area 3 Milan. Data were automatically extracted from the hospital laboratory SQL-based repository in anonymised form. We considered as outcomes potassium (K+ ), sodium (Na+ ), chlorine (Cl- ) and calcium (Ca++ ) as continuous and as categorical variables, in their relation with age, sex and SARS-CoV-2 infection status. RESULTS: We observed a higher prevalence of hypokalaemia among patients positive for SARS-CoV-2 (13.7% vs 6% of negative subjects). Positive patients had a higher probability to be admitted to the ED with hypokalaemia (OR 2.75, 95% CI 1.8-4.1, P < .0001) and women were twice as likely to be affected than men (OR 2.43, 95% CI 1.67-3.54, P < .001). Odds ratios for positive patients to manifest with an alteration in serum Na+ was (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.17-2.35, P < .001) and serum chlorine (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.03-2.69, P < .001). Notably, OR for positive patients to be hypocalcaemic was 7.2 (95% CI 4.8-10.6, P < .0001) with a low probability for women to be hypocalcaemic (OR 0.63, 95% CI 0.4-0.8, P = .005). CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with a higher prevalence of hypokalaemia, hypocalcaemia, hypochloraemia and sodium alterations. Hypokalaemia is more frequent among women and hypocalcaemia among men.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Electrolytes , Female , Humans , Male , Sex Characteristics
4.
SSRN; 2021.
Preprint in English | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-292059

ABSTRACT

Background: Breakthrough infections in fully vaccinated HCWs are considered a marker of waning immunity. Serum antibodies represent the most visible and measurable outcome of vaccine-induced B-cell memory. When antibodies decline, memory B cells are expected to persist and perform their function, thus preventing clinical disease. We investigated whether BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine induces durable and in vivo functional B-cell memory against SARS-CoV-2 3, 6 and 9 months after the second dose. Methods: We assessed the duration of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine-induced immunity by measuring specific antibodies and memory B cells 3, 6 and 9 months after vaccination. In fully vaccinated HCWs with breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infections, we evaluated the humoral and mucosal response of vaccine-induced memory B cells. Findings: Whereas specific serum antibodies decline, anti-Spike memory B cells continue to increase until 9 months after the last vaccine dose. HCWs with breakthrough infections had no signs of waning immunity on the day of the first positive swab. In 3-4 days, memory B cells responded to SARS-CoV-2 infection by producing high levels of specific antibodies in the serum. In the saliva, anti-Spike IgA also rapidly increased in response to the infection. Antibodies to the viral nucleoprotein were produced with the slow kinetics typical of the response to a novel antigen. Interpretation: SARS-CoV-2 specific antibodies physiologically decline months after vaccination. By contrast, memory B cells persist and increase over time. Parenteral administered vaccines do not generate mucosal immunity and serum antibodies reach mucosal sites in small amounts by transudation. In HCWs with SARS-CoV-2 breakthrough infections, memory B cells react by rapidly differentiating into antibody-producing cells and generating IgA for protection of mucosal sites.

5.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(11): e2132563, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1499193

ABSTRACT

Importance: Although several studies have provided information on short-term clinical outcomes in children with perinatal exposure to SARS-CoV-2, data on the immune response in the first months of life among newborns exposed to the virus in utero are lacking. Objective: To characterize systemic and mucosal antibody production during the first 2 months of life among infants who were born to mothers infected with SARS-CoV-2. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective cohort study enrolled 28 pregnant women who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection and who gave birth at Policlinico Umberto I in Rome, Italy, from November 2020 to May 2021, and their newborns. Maternal and neonatal systemic immune responses were investigated by detecting spike-specific antibodies in serum, and the mucosal immune response was assessed by measuring specific antibodies in maternal breastmilk and infant saliva 48 hours after delivery and 2 months later. Exposures: Maternal infection with SARS-CoV-2 in late pregnancy. Main Outcomes and Measures: The systemic immune response was evaluated by the detection of SARS-CoV-2 IgG and IgA antibodies and receptor binding domain-specific IgM antibodies in maternal and neonatal serum. The mucosal immune response was assessed by measuring spike-specific antibodies in breastmilk and in infant saliva, and the presence of antigen-antibody spike IgA immune complexes was investigated in breastmilk samples. All antibodies were detected using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: In total, 28 mother-infant dyads (mean [SD] maternal age, 31.8 [6.4] years; mean [SD] gestational age, 38.1 [2.3] weeks; 18 [60%] male infants) were enrolled at delivery, and 21 dyads completed the study at 2 months' follow-up. Because maternal infection was recent in all cases, transplacental transfer of virus spike-specific IgG antibodies occurred in only 1 infant. One case of potential vertical transmission and 1 case of horizontal infection were observed. Virus spike protein-specific salivary IgA antibodies were significantly increased (P = .01) in infants fed breastmilk (0.99 arbitrary units [AU]; IQR, 0.39-1.68 AU) vs infants fed an exclusive formula diet (0.16 AU; IQR, 0.02-0.83 AU). Maternal milk contained IgA spike immune complexes at 48 hours (0.53 AU; IQR, 0.25-0.39 AU) and at 2 months (0.09 AU; IQR, 0.03-0.17 AU) and may have functioned as specific stimuli for the infant mucosal immune response. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, SARS-CoV-2 spike-specific IgA antibodies were detected in infant saliva, which may partly explain why newborns are resistant to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Mothers infected in the peripartum period appear to not only passively protect the newborn via breastmilk secretory IgA but also actively stimulate and train the neonatal immune system via breastmilk immune complexes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Immunoglobulin A/immunology , Milk, Human/immunology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/immunology , Adult , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/isolation & purification , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/isolation & purification , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Male , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/blood , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Saliva/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
6.
Cells ; 10(10)2021 09 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438527

ABSTRACT

Specific memory B cells and antibodies are a reliable read-out of vaccine efficacy. We analysed these biomarkers after one and two doses of BNT162b2 vaccine. The second dose significantly increases the level of highly specific memory B cells and antibodies. Two months after the second dose, specific antibody levels decline, but highly specific memory B cells continue to increase, thus predicting a sustained protection from COVID-19. We show that although mucosal IgA is not induced by the vaccination, memory B cells migrate in response to inflammation and secrete IgA at mucosal sites. We show that the first vaccine dose may lead to an insufficient number of highly specific memory B cells and low concentration of serum antibodies, thus leaving vaccinees without the immune robustness needed to ensure viral elimination and herd immunity. We also clarify that the reduction of serum antibodies does not diminish the force and duration of the immune protection induced by vaccination. The vaccine does not induce sterilizing immunity. Infection after vaccination may be caused by the lack of local preventive immunity because of the absence of mucosal IgA.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/cytology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunoglobulin A/immunology , Immunologic Memory , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antigens, Viral/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Cryopreservation , Female , Health Personnel , Healthy Volunteers , Hospitals, Pediatric , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Lactation , Male , Middle Aged , Mucous Membrane/immunology , Patient Safety , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
7.
International Journal of Clinical Practice ; n/a(n/a):e14882, 2021.
Article in English | Wiley | ID: covidwho-1409458

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background Since SARS-CoV-2 spread, evidences regarding sex differences in progression and prognosis of COVID-19 have emerged. Besides this, studies on patients? clinical characteristics have described electrolyte imbalances as one of the recurrent features of COVID-19. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study on all patients admitted to the emergency department (ED) from 1st March to 31st May 2020 who had undergone a blood gas analysis and a nasopharyngeal swab test for SARS-CoV-2 by rtPCR. We defined positive patients as cases (n. 710) and negatives as controls (n. 619), for a total number of patients of 1.329. The study was approved by the local ethics committee Area 3 Milan. Data were automatically extracted from the hospital laboratory SQL-based repository in anonymized form. We considered as outcomes potassium (K+), sodium (Na+), chlorine (Cl-) and calcium (Ca++) as continuous and as categorical variables, in their relation with age, sex and SARS-CoV-2 infection status. Results We observed a higher prevalence of hypokalemia among patients positive for SARS-CoV-2 (13.7% vs 6% of negative subjects). Positive patients had a higher probability to be admitted to the ED with hypokalemia (OR 2.75, 95% CI 1.8-4.1 p<0.0001) and women were twice as likely to be affected than men (OR 2.43, 95% CI 1.67-3.54 p<0.001). Odds ratios for positive patients to manifest with an alteration in serum Na+ was (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.17-2.35 p<0.001) and serum chlorine (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.03-2.69 p<0.001). Notably, OR for positive patients to be hypocalcemic was 7.2 (95% CI 4.8-10.6 p<0.0001) with a low probability for women to be hypocalcemic (OR 0.63, 95% IC 0.4-0.8 p=0.005). Conclusions SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with a higher prevalence of hypokalemia, hypocal- cemia, hypochloremia and sodium alterations. Hypokalemia is more frequent among women and hypocal- cemia among men.

10.
Viruses ; 13(5)2021 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1224249

ABSTRACT

To complement RT-qPCR testing for diagnosis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections, many countries have introduced the use of rapid antigen tests. As they generally display lower real-life performances than expected, their correct positioning as frontline screening is still controversial. Despite the lack of data from daily clinical use, third generation microfluidic assays (such as the LumiraDx SARS-CoV-2 Ag test) have recently been suggested to have similar performances to RT-qPCR and have been proposed as alternative diagnostic tools. By analyzing 960 nasopharyngeal swabs from 960 subjects at the emergency department admissions of a tertiary COVID-19 hospital, LumiraDx assay demonstrated a specificity of 97% (95% CI: 96-98), and a sensitivity of 85% (95% CI: 82-89) in comparison with RT-qPCR, which increases to 91% (95% CI: 86-95) for samples with a cycle threshold ≤ 29. Fifty false-negative LumiraDx-results were confirmed by direct quantification of genomic SARS-CoV-2 RNA through droplet-digital PCR (median (IQR) load = 5880 (1657-41,440) copies/mL). Subgenomic N and E RNAs were detected in 52% (n = 26) and 56% (n = 28) of them, respectively, supporting the presence of active viral replication. Overall, the LumiraDx test complies with the minimum performance requirements of the WHO. Yet, the risk of a misrecognition of patients with active COVID-19 persists, and the need for confirmatory RT-qPCR should not be amended.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Aged , Antigens, Viral/analysis , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , Emergency Service, Hospital , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Microfluidic Analytical Techniques/methods , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/virology , RNA, Viral/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Sensitivity and Specificity
11.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 184, 2021 Feb 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1088583

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recent studies showed that plasma SARS-CoV-2 RNA seems to be associated with worse COVID-19 outcome. However, whether specific population can be at higher risk of viremia are to date unexplored. METHODS: This cross-sectional proof-of-concept study included 41 SARS-CoV-2-positive adult individuals (six affected by haematological malignancies) hospitalized at two major hospital in Milan, for those demographic, clinical and laboratory data were available. SARS-CoV-2 load was quantified by ddPCR in paired plasma and respiratory samples. To assess significant differences between patients with and patients without viremia, Fisher exact test and Wilcoxon test were used for categorical and continuous variables, respectively. RESULTS: Plasma SARS-CoV-2 RNA was found in 8 patients (19.5%), with a median (IQR) value of 694 (209-1023) copies/mL. Viremic patients were characterized by an higher mortality rate (50.0% vs 9.1%; p = 0.018) respect to patients without viremia. Viremic patients were more frequently affected by haematological malignancies (62.5% vs. 3.0%; p < 0.001), and had higher viral load in respiratory samples (9,404,000 [586,060-10,000,000] vs 1560 [312-25,160] copies/mL; p = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: Even if based on a small sample population, this proof-of-concept study poses the basis for an early identification of patients at higher risk of SARS-CoV-2 viremia, and therefore likely to develop severe COVID-19, and supports the need of a quantitative viral load determination in blood and respiratory samples of haematologic patients with COVID-19 in order to predict prognosis and consequently to help their further management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , RNA, Viral/blood , Adult , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Proof of Concept Study , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Serologic Tests , Viral Load , Viremia/virology
13.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 434, 2021 01 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1038209

ABSTRACT

From February to April 2020, Lombardy (Italy) reported the highest numbers of SARS-CoV-2 cases worldwide. By analyzing 346 whole SARS-CoV-2 genomes, we demonstrate the presence of seven viral lineages in Lombardy, frequently sustained by local transmission chains and at least two likely to have originated in Italy. Six single nucleotide polymorphisms (five of them non-synonymous) characterized the SARS-CoV-2 sequences, none of them affecting N-glycosylation sites. The seven lineages, and the presence of local transmission clusters within three of them, revealed that sustained community transmission was underway before the first COVID-19 case had been detected in Lombardy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Genome, Viral/genetics , Genomics/methods , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Epidemics , Female , Geography , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Phylogeny , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
14.
Life (Basel) ; 10(11)2020 Nov 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-945868

ABSTRACT

Our study aimed to investigate the kinetics of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in bile and in different body fluids of two SARS-CoV-2 positive patients with acute cholecystitis by innovative droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) assays. For each patient, nasopharyngeal- and rectal swabs, bile, urine, and plasma samples were collected at different time points for SARS-CoV-2 RNA quantification by two ddPCR assays. For both patients, ddPCR revealed persistent and prolonged detection of viral RNA in the nasopharyngeal swab despite triple-negative or single-positive results by qRT-PCR. In Patient 1, SARS-CoV-2 RNA dropped more rapidly in bile and rectal-swab and declined slowly in nasopharyngeal swab and plasma, becoming undetectable in all compartments 97 days after symptoms started. Conversely, in patient 2, SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected, even if at low copies, in all body samples (with the exception of urine) up to 75 days after the onset of symptoms. This study highlights that SARS-CoV-2 RNA can persist for a prolonged time in respiratory samples and in several biological samples despite negativity to qRT-PCR, supporting SARS-CoV-2's ability to provoke persistent and disseminated infection and therefore to contribute to extra-pulmonary clinical manifestations.

15.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0242765, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-937237

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Through a hospital-based SARS-CoV-2 molecular and serological screening, we evaluated the effectiveness of two months of lockdown and two of surveillance, in Milan, Lombardy, the first to be overwhelmed by COVID-19 pandemics during March-April 2020. METHODS: All subjects presenting at the major hospital of Milan from May-11 to July-5, 2020, underwent a serological screening by chemiluminescent assays. Those admitted were further tested by RT-PCR. RESULTS: The cumulative anti-N IgG seroprevalence in the 2753 subjects analyzed was of 5.1% (95%CI = 4.3%-6.0%), with a peak of 8.4% (6.1%-11.4%) 60-63 days since the peak of diagnoses (March-20). 31/106 (29.2%) anti-N reactive subjects had anti-S1/S2 titers >80 AU/mL. Being tested from May-18 to June-5, or residing in the provinces with higher SARS-CoV-2 circulation, were positively and independently associated with anti-N IgG reactivity (OR [95%CI]: 2.179[1.455-3.264] and 3.127[1.18-8.29], respectively). In the 18 RT-PCR positive, symptomatic subjects, anti-N seroprevalence was 33.3% (95% CI: 14.8%-56.3%). CONCLUSION: SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence in Milan is low, and in a downward trend after only 60-63 days since the peak of diagnoses. Italian confinement measures were effective, but the risk of contagion remains concrete. In hospital-settings, the performance of molecular and serological screenings upon admission remains highly advisable.


Subject(s)
Communicable Disease Control/methods , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Child , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Young Adult
16.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0236311, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-748965

ABSTRACT

Since SARS-CoV-2-based disease (COVID-19) spreads as a pandemic, the necessity of a highly sensitive molecular diagnosis that can drastically reduce false negatives reverse transcription PCR (rtPCR) results, raises as a major clinical need. Here we evaluated the performance of a ddPCR-based assay to quantify SARS-CoV-2 titer in 55 suspected COVID-19 cases with negative rtPCR results thanks to in-house ddPCR assay (targeting RdRp and host RNaseP). Samples were collected at ASST-GOM Niguarda between February and May 2020 at hospital admission. Clinical and imaging data were obtained for clinical staging and definition of disease severity. Patients were mainly female (45.5%) with a median age of 73 (57-84) years. ddPCR-based assay detected SARS-CoV-2 genome in nasopharyngeal samples of 19 (34.5%) patients (median viral-load: 128 copies/mL, IQR: 72-345). In 15 of them (78.9%), chest CT showed a classical COVID-19 bilateral interstitial pneumonia; 14 patients (73.7%) showed severe COVID-19 manifestations. ddPCR did not identify any trace of SARS-CoV-2 genome in the respiratory samples of the remaining 36 patients. The serological assay performed in a subgroup of 34 patients at the later stage of illness (from 3 days to 90 days after) confirmed the presence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in all patients tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 in ddPCR (100%). Contrariwise, negative tests were observed in 95.0% ddPCR negative patients (P<0.001). Thanks to a ddPCR-based assay, we achieved a rapid and accurate SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis in rtPCR-negative respiratory samples of individuals with COVID-19 suspect, allowing the rapid taking care and correct management of these patients.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Nasopharynx/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , RNA, Viral/analysis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Humans , Limit of Detection , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Viral Load
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