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1.
Hamostaseologie ; 42(S 01): S14-S23, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2087355

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is associated with increased thromboembolic complications. Long-term alteration in the coagulation system after acute COVID-19 infection is still a subject of research. Furthermore, the effect of sera from convalescent subjects on platelets is not known. In this study, we investigated platelet phenotype, coagulation, and fibrinolysis in COVID-19 convalescent plasma (CCP) donors and analyzed convalescent sera-induced effects on platelets. We investigated CCP donors who had a history of mild COVID-19 infection and donors who did not have COVID-19 were used as controls. We analyzed phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization, CD62p expression, and glycoprotein VI (GPVI) shedding both in platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and after incubation of washed healthy platelets with donors' sera using flow cytometry. Coagulation and fibrinolysis systems were assessed with thromboelastometry. Forty-seven CCP donors (22 males, 25 females; mean age (±SD): 41.4 ± 13.7 years) with a history of mild COVID-19 infection were included. Median duration after acute COVID-19 infection was 97 days (range, 34-401). We did not find an increased PS externalization, CD62p expression, or GPVI shedding in platelets from CCP donors. Sera from CCP donors did not induce PS externalization or GPVI shedding in healthy platelets. Sera-induced CD62p expression was slightly, albeit statistically significantly, lower in CCP donors than in plasma donors without a history of COVID-19. One patient showed increased maximum clot firmness and prolonged lysis time in thromboelastometry. Our findings suggest that procoagulant platelet phenotype is not present after mild COVID-19. Furthermore, CCP sera do not affect the activation status of platelets.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Male , Female , Humans , Phosphatidylserines/metabolism , Phosphatidylserines/pharmacology , Blood Platelets/metabolism , Phenotype
2.
Blood Adv ; 2022 Sep 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2021227

ABSTRACT

Thromboembolic events are frequent and life-threating complications of COVID 19, but are also observed in patients with sepsis. Disseminated thrombosis can occur despite anticoagulation, suggesting that platelets play a direct, but yet incompletely understood role. Several studies demonstrated altered platelet function in COVID 19 with in part controversial findings, while underlying disease-specific mechanisms remain ill-defined. We performed a comprehensive cohort study with 111 patients, comprising 37 with COVID-19, 46 with sepsis, and 28 with infection, compared to controls. Platelet phenotype and function were assessed under static and flow conditions, revealing unexpected disease-specific differences. From hospital admission on, platelets in COVID-19 failed to activate integrin GPIIb/IIIa in response to multiple agonists. Dense granule release was markedly impaired due to virtually missing granules, also demonstrated by whole mount electron microscopy. In contrast, alpha-granule marker CD62P exposure was only mildly affected, revealing a subpopulation of PAC-1-/CD62P+ platelets, independently confirmed by automated clustering. This uncoupling of alpha-granule release was not observed in sepsis patients, despite a similar disease severity. We found overall unaltered thrombus formation in COVID 19 and sepsis samples under venous shear rates, which was dependent on the presence of tissue factor. Unexpectedly, under arterial shear rates thrombus formation was virtually abrogated in sepsis, while we detected overall normal-sized and stable thrombi in blood from COVID-19 patients. These thrombi were susceptible to subthreshold levels of GPIIb/IIIa blockers eptifibatide or tirofiban that had only a minor effect in control blood. We provide evidence that low dose GPIIb/IIIa blockade could be a therapeutic approach in COVID-19.

3.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Jun 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1898424

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The rapid emergence of the omicron variant and its large number of mutations led to its classification as a variant of concern (VOC) by the WHO. Subsequently, omicron evolved into distinct sublineages (e.g. BA1 and BA2), which currently represent the majority of global infections. Initial studies of the neutralizing response towards BA1 in convalescent and vaccinated individuals showed a substantial reduction. METHODS: We assessed antibody (IgG) binding, ACE2 (Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2) binding inhibition, and IgG binding dynamics for the omicron BA1 and BA2 variants compared to a panel of VOC/VOIs, in a large cohort (n = 352) of convalescent, vaccinated, and infected and subsequently vaccinated individuals. RESULTS: While omicron was capable efficiently binding to ACE2, antibodies elicited by infection or immunization showed reduced binding capacities and ACE2 binding inhibition compared to WT. Whereas BA1 exhibited less IgG binding compared to BA2, BA2 showed reduced inhibition of ACE2 binding. Among vaccinated samples, antibody binding to omicron only improved after administration of a third dose. CONCLUSION: omicron BA1 and BA2 can still efficiently bind to ACE2, while vaccine/infection-derived antibodies can bind omicron. The extent of the mutations within both variants prevent a strong inhibitory binding response. As a result, both omicron variants are able to evade control by pre-existing antibodies.

4.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 7168, 2022 05 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1890242

ABSTRACT

As global vaccination campaigns against SARS-CoV-2 proceed, there is particular interest in the longevity of immune protection, especially with regard to increasingly infectious virus variants. Neutralizing antibodies (Nabs) targeting the receptor binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 are promising correlates of protective immunity and have been successfully used for prevention and therapy. As SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) are known to affect binding to the ACE2 receptor and by extension neutralizing activity, we developed a bead-based multiplex ACE2-RBD inhibition assay (RBDCoV-ACE2) as a highly scalable, time-, cost-, and material-saving alternative to infectious live-virus neutralization tests. By mimicking the interaction between ACE2 and the RBD, this serological multiplex assay allows the simultaneous analysis of ACE2 binding inhibition to the RBDs of all SARS-CoV-2 VOCs and variants of interest (VOIs) in a single well. Following validation against a classical virus neutralization test and comparison of performance against a commercially available assay, we analyzed 266 serum samples from 168 COVID-19 patients of varying severity. ACE2 binding inhibition was reduced for ten out of eleven variants examined compared to wild-type, especially for those displaying the E484K mutation such as VOCs beta and gamma. ACE2 binding inhibition, while highly individualistic, positively correlated with IgG levels. ACE2 binding inhibition also correlated with disease severity up to WHO grade 7, after which it reduced.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
5.
Hamostaseologie ; 2022 Apr 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1815657

ABSTRACT

Coagulation abnormalities are common in patients with COVID-19 and associated with high morbidity and mortality. It became a daily challenge to navigate through these abnormal laboratory findings and deliver the best possible treatment to the patients. The unique character of COVID-19-induced coagulopathy necessitates not only a dynamic follow-up of the patients in terms of hemostatic findings but also the introduction of new diagnostic methods to determine the overall function of the coagulation system in real time. After the recognition of the high risk of thromboembolism in COVID-19, several professional societies published their recommendations regarding anticoagulation in patients with COVID-19. This review summarizes common hemostatic findings in COVID-19 patients and presents the societal recommendations regarding the use of coagulation laboratory findings in clinical decision-making. Although several studies have investigated coagulation parameters in patients with COVID-19, the methodological shortcomings of published studies as well as the differences in employed anticoagulation regimens that have changed over time, depending on national and international guidelines, limit the applicability of these findings in other clinical settings. Accordingly, evidence-based recommendations for diagnostics during acute COVID-19 infection are still lacking. Future studies should verify the role of coagulation parameters as well as viscoelastic methods in the management of patients with COVID-19.

6.
Blood ; 139(23): 3430-3438, 2022 06 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1759684

ABSTRACT

Life-threatening thrombotic events at unusual sites have been reported after vector-based vaccinations against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. This phenomenon is now termed vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT). The pathophysiology of VITT is similar to that of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) and is associated with platelet-activating antibodies (Abs) against platelet factor 4 (PF4). Therefore, current guidelines suggest nonheparin anticoagulants to treat VITT patients. In this study, we investigated the interactions of heparin, danaparoid, fondaparinux, and argatroban with VITT-Ab/PF4 complexes using an ex vivo model for thrombus formation as well as in vitro assays to analyze Ab binding and platelet activation. We found that immunoglobulin Gs (IgGs) from VITT patients induce increased adherent platelets/thrombus formation in comparison with IgGs from healthy controls. In this ex vivo flow-based model, the procoagulant activity of VITT IgGs was effectively inhibited with danaparoid and argatroban but also by heparin. Interestingly, heparin and danaparoid not only inhibited IgG binding to PF4 but were also able to effectively dissociate the preformed PF4/IgG complexes. Fondaparinux reduced the in vitro generation of procoagulant platelets and thrombus formation; however, it did not affect platelet aggregation. In contrast, argatroban showed no effect on procoagulant platelets and aggregation but significantly inhibited VITT-mediated thrombus formation. Taken together, our data indicate that negatively charged anticoagulants can disrupt VITT-Ab/PF4 interactions, which might serve as an approach to reduce Ab-mediated complications in VITT. Our results should be confirmed, however, in a clinical setting before a recommendation regarding the selection of anticoagulants in VITT patients could be made.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants , COVID-19 Vaccines , Thrombocytopenia , Thrombosis , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Fondaparinux/therapeutic use , Heparin/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Platelet Factor 4 , Thrombocytopenia/chemically induced , Thrombocytopenia/drug therapy , Thrombosis/chemically induced , Thrombosis/drug therapy
9.
Blood Adv ; 6(1): 248-258, 2022 01 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1507130

ABSTRACT

Thromboembolic events are frequently reported in patients infected with the SARS-CoV-2 virus. The exact mechanisms of COVID-19-associated hypercoagulopathy, however, remain elusive. Recently, we observed that platelets (PLTs) from patients with severe COVID-19 infection express high levels of procoagulant markers, which were found to be associated with increased risk for thrombosis. In the current study, we investigated the time course as well as the mechanisms leading to procoagulant PLTs in COVID-19. Our study demonstrates the presence of PLT-reactive IgG antibodies that induce marked changes in PLTs in terms of increased inner-mitochondrial transmembrane potential (Δψ) depolarization, phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization, and P-selectin expression. The IgG-induced procoagulant PLTs and increased thrombus formation were mediated by ligation of PLT Fc-γ RIIA (FcγRIIA). In addition, contents of calcium and cyclic-adenosine-monophosphate (cAMP) in PLTs were identified to play a central role in antibody-induced procoagulant PLT formation. Most importantly, antibody-induced procoagulant events, as well as increased thrombus formation in severe COVID-19, were inhibited by Iloprost, a clinically approved therapeutic agent that increases the intracellular cAMP levels in PLTs. Our data indicate that upregulation of cAMP could be a potential therapeutic target to prevent antibody-mediated coagulopathy in COVID-19 disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Calcium , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/etiology , Up-Regulation
10.
J Thromb Haemost ; 20(2): 387-398, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506601

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Thromboembolic events are frequently reported in patients infected with the SARS-CoV-2. Recently, we observed that platelets from patients with severe COVID-19 infection express procoagulant phenotype. The molecular mechanisms that induce the generation of procoagulant platelets in COVID-19 patients are not completely understood. OBJECTIVES: In this study, we investigated the role of AKT (also known as Protein Kinase B), which is the major downstream effector of PI3K (phosphoinositid-3-kinase) (PI3K/AKT) signaling pathway in platelets from patients with COVID-19. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Platelets, Sera and IgG from COVID-19 patients who were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) were analyzed by flow cytometry as well as western blot and adhesion assays. RESULTS: Platelets from COVID-19 patients showed significantly higher levels of phosphorylated AKT, which was correlated with CD62p expression and phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization. In addition, healthy platelets incubated with sera or IgGs from ICU COVID-19 patients induced phosphorylation of PI3K and AKT and were dependent on Fc-gamma-RIIA (FcγRIIA). In contrast, ICU COVID-19 sera mediated generation of procoagulant platelets was not dependent on GPIIb/IIIa. Interestingly, the inhibition of phosphorylation of both proteins AKT and PI3K prevented the generation of procoagulant platelets. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that pAKT/AKT signaling pathway is associated with the formation of procoagulant platelets in severe COVID-19 patients without integrin GPIIb/IIIa engagement. The inhibition of PI3K/AKT phosphorylation might represent a promising strategy to reduce the risk for thrombosis in patients with severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt , Blood Platelets , Humans , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , Platelet Activation , Platelet Aggregation , Platelet Glycoprotein GPIIb-IIIa Complex , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Thromb Haemost ; 121(12): 1622-1627, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1334018

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 vaccine ChAdOx1 nCov-19 may rarely lead to vaccine-induced thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT). Antibody-mediated, platelet factor 4 (PF4)-dependent platelet activation appears to resemble a key mechanism in VITT, partially comparable to heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. The use of PF4/heparin immunoassays has been proposed as part of a diagnostic approach, but their sensitivity has not been established. METHODS: Sera from 12 well-defined VITT patients were first studied by two different laboratories in functional assays. Sera where then used for an interlaboratory comparison, in which five different PF4/heparin immunoassays were used by four laboratories. RESULTS: Results for functional testing were highly concordant. VITT antibodies were also reliably detected by PF4/heparin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) (92-100%). In contrast, only 25% of VITT antibodies were reactive in a particle gel immunoassay (PaGIA), and 8% in a lateral flow assay (LFA). An automated chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA) was negative for all sera tested (0%). CONCLUSION: It seems feasible to establish functional antibody testing for the confirmation of VITT. For the initial screening of suspected VITT cases, PaGIA, LFA, and CLIA are useless when applied as single tests. Only ELISA-based PF4/heparin immunoassays are sensitive enough to be incorporated in the diagnostic workup. However, a combination of a positive ELISA and a negative CLIA may be useful to identify VITT antibodies in the absence of confirmatory functional assays.


Subject(s)
Antibodies/blood , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19/adverse effects , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Platelet Factor 4/immunology , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/diagnosis , Vaccination/adverse effects , Biomarkers/blood , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19/administration & dosage , Humans , Luminescent Measurements , Predictive Value of Tests , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/blood , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/chemically induced , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/immunology , Reproducibility of Results
14.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3109, 2021 05 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1243298

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is evolving with mutations in the receptor binding domain (RBD) being of particular concern. It is important to know how much cross-protection is offered between strains following vaccination or infection. Here, we obtain serum and saliva samples from groups of vaccinated (Pfizer BNT-162b2), infected and uninfected individuals and characterize the antibody response to RBD mutant strains. Vaccinated individuals have a robust humoral response after the second dose and have high IgG antibody titers in the saliva. Antibody responses however show considerable differences in binding to RBD mutants of emerging variants of concern and substantial reduction in RBD binding and neutralization is observed against a patient-isolated South African variant. Taken together our data reinforce the importance of the second dose of Pfizer BNT-162b2 to acquire high levels of neutralizing antibodies and high antibody titers in saliva suggest that vaccinated individuals may have reduced transmission potential. Substantially reduced neutralization for the South African variant further highlights the importance of surveillance strategies to detect new variants and targeting these in future vaccines.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccination , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibody Formation , COVID-19/blood , Female , Gene Expression , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Mutation , Neutralization Tests , Protein Binding , Protein Domains/genetics , Receptors, Coronavirus/metabolism , Recombinant Proteins , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Saliva/immunology , Saliva/virology
15.
Haematologica ; 106(8): 2170-2179, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1236658

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. To prevent severe infection, mass COVID-19 vaccination campaigns with several vaccine types are currently underway. We report pathological and immunological findings in 8 patients who developed vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) after administration of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine ChAdOx1 nCoV-19. We analyzed patient material using enzyme immune assays, flow cytometry and heparin-induced platelet aggregation assay and performed autopsies on two fatal cases. Eight patients (5 female, 3 male) with a median age of 41.5 years (range, 24 to 53) were referred to us with suspected thrombotic complications 6 to 20 days after ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccination. All patients had thrombocytopenia at admission. Patients had a median platelet count of 46.5 x109/L (range, 8 to 92). Three had a fatal outcome and 5 were successfully treated. Autopsies showed arterial and venous thromboses in various organs and the occlusion of glomerular capillaries by hyaline thrombi. Sera from VITT patients contain high titer antibodies against platelet factor 4 (PF4) (OD 2.59±0.64). PF4 antibodies in VITT patients induced significant increase in procoagulant markers (P-selectin and phosphatidylserine externalization) compared to healthy volunteers and healthy vaccinated volunteers. The generation of procoagulant platelets was PF4 and heparin dependent. We demonstrate the contribution of antibody-mediated platelet activation in the pathogenesis of VITT.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombocytopenia , Adult , Autoantibodies , Blood Platelets , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombocytopenia/chemically induced , Vaccination/adverse effects , Young Adult
16.
J Thromb Haemost ; 19(6): 1585-1588, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1202119

ABSTRACT

Vaccine administration is under way worldwide to combat the current COVID-19 pandemic. The newly developed vaccines are highly effective with minimal adverse effects. Recently, the AstraZeneca ChadOx1 nCov-19 vaccine has raised public alarm with concerns regarding the rare, but serious, development of thrombotic events, now known as vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT). These thrombotic events appear similar to heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, both clinically and pathologically. In this manuscript, the ISTH SSC Subcommittee on Platelet Immunology outlines guidelines on how to recognize, diagnose and manage patients with VITT.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , COVID-19 Vaccines , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Communication , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Thromb Haemost ; 121(11): 1417-1426, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1104586

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence indicates toward an association between severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and procoagulatory state in blood. Thromboelastographic investigations are useful point-of-care devices to assess coagulation and fibrinolysis. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the hypothesis that the procoagulatory state in COVID-19 patients is associated with impaired fibrinolysis system. METHODS: Altogether, 29 COVID-19 patients admitted to normal wards or to the intensive care unit (ICU) were included in this descriptive study. Whole blood samples were investigated by thromboelastography to assess coagulation and fibrinolysis. Additionally, standard routine coagulation testing and immunoassays for factors of fibrinolysis as plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), plasminogen activity and α2-antiplasmin (A2AP) were performed. RESULTS: A significantly increased lysis resistance and a significantly longer time of lysis after adding tissue plasminogen activator were observed in blood samples from ICU COVID-19 patients compared with healthy controls (maximal lysis: 3.25 ± 0.56 vs. 6.20 ± 0.89%, p = 0.0127; lysis time: 365.7 ± 44.6 vs. 193.2 ± 16.3 seconds, p = 0.0014). PAI-1 activity was significantly higher in plasma samples of ICU COVID-19 patients (PAI-1: 4.92 ± 0.91 vs. 1.28 ± 0.33 U/mL, p = 0.001). A positive correlation between the activity of PAI-1 and lysis time of the formed clot (r = 0.70, p = 0.0006) was observed. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that severe SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with impaired fibrinolytic activity in blood, where fibrinolytic inhibitors are elevated leading to an increased resistance to clot lysis. Thromboelastography could offer a tool to investigate the contribution of the fibrinolytic status to the procoagulatory condition in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Fibrinolysis , Thrombelastography , Thrombosis/etiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Thrombosis/blood , Thrombosis/diagnosis , Time Factors , Young Adult
19.
mSphere ; 6(1)2021 02 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1102156

ABSTRACT

The majority of infections with SARS-CoV-2 are asymptomatic or mild without the necessity of hospitalization. It is of importance to reveal if these patients develop an antibody response against SARS-CoV-2 and to define which antibodies confer virus neutralization. We conducted a comprehensive serological survey of 49 patients with a mild course of disease and quantified neutralizing antibody responses against a clinical SARS-CoV-2 isolate employing human cells as targets. Four patients (8%), even though symptomatic, did not develop antibodies against SARS-CoV-2, and two other patients (4%) were positive in only one of the six serological assays employed. For the remaining 88%, antibody response against the S protein correlated with serum neutralization whereas antibodies against the nucleocapsid were poor predictors of virus neutralization. None of the sera enhanced infection of human cells with SARS-CoV-2 at any dilution, arguing against antibody-dependent enhancement of infection in our system. Regarding neutralization, only six patients (12%) could be classified as high neutralizers. Furthermore, sera from several individuals with fairly high antibody levels had only poor neutralizing activity. In addition, employing a novel serological Western blot system to characterize antibody responses against seasonal coronaviruses, we found that antibodies against the seasonal coronavirus 229E might contribute to SARS-CoV-2 neutralization. Altogether, we show that there is a wide breadth of antibody responses against SARS-CoV-2 in patients that differentially correlate with virus neutralization. This highlights the difficulty to define reliable surrogate markers for immunity against SARS-CoV-2.IMPORTANCE There is strong interest in the nature of the neutralizing antibody response against SARS-CoV-2 in infected individuals. For vaccine development, it is especially important which antibodies confer protection against SARS-CoV-2, if there is a phenomenon called antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of infection, and if there is cross-protection by antibodies directed against seasonal coronaviruses. We addressed these questions and found in accordance with other studies that neutralization is mediated mainly by antibodies directed against the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 in general and the receptor binding site in particular. In our test system, utilizing human cells for infection experiments, we did not detect ADE. However, using a novel diagnostic test we found that antibodies against the coronavirus 229E might be involved in cross-protection to SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody Formation/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibody-Dependent Enhancement/immunology , Binding Sites/immunology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Neutralization Tests/methods , Nucleocapsid/immunology , Seasons , Serologic Tests/methods , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vaccines/immunology
20.
Blood ; 137(8): 1061-1071, 2021 02 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1013145

ABSTRACT

The pathophysiology of COVID-19-associated thrombosis seems to be multifactorial. We hypothesized that COVID-19 is accompanied by procoagulant platelets with subsequent alteration of the coagulation system. We investigated depolarization of mitochondrial inner transmembrane potential (ΔΨm), cytosolic calcium (Ca2+) concentration, and phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization. Platelets from COVID-19 patients in the intensive care unit (ICU; n = 21) showed higher ΔΨm depolarization, cytosolic Ca2+, and PS externalization compared with healthy controls (n = 18) and non-ICU COVID-19 patients (n = 4). Moreover, significant higher cytosolic Ca2+ and PS were observed compared with a septic ICU control group (ICU control; n = 5). In the ICU control group, cytosolic Ca2+ and PS externalization were comparable with healthy controls, with an increase in ΔΨm depolarization. Sera from COVID-19 patients in the ICU induced a significant increase in apoptosis markers (ΔΨm depolarization, cytosolic Ca2+, and PS externalization) compared with healthy volunteers and septic ICU controls. Interestingly, immunoglobulin G fractions from COVID-19 patients induced an Fcγ receptor IIA-dependent platelet apoptosis (ΔΨm depolarization, cytosolic Ca2+, and PS externalization). Enhanced PS externalization in platelets from COVID-19 patients in the ICU was associated with increased sequential organ failure assessment score (r = 0.5635) and D-dimer (r = 0.4473). Most importantly, patients with thrombosis had significantly higher PS externalization compared with those without. The strong correlations between markers for apoptosic and procoagulant platelets and D-dimer levels, as well as the incidence of thrombosis, may indicate that antibody-mediated procoagulant platelets potentially contributes to sustained increased thromboembolic risk in ICU COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Blood Platelets/pathology , COVID-19/pathology , Immunoglobulin G/metabolism , Adult , Aged , Blood Coagulation , Blood Platelets/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/metabolism , Calcium/metabolism , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial , Middle Aged , Phosphatidylserines/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Thrombosis/blood , Thrombosis/etiology , Thrombosis/metabolism , Thrombosis/pathology
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