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1.
Medicines (Basel) ; 9(5)2022 Apr 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875703

ABSTRACT

This study provides epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of 492 consecutive patients diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre in Saudi Arabia between March and September 2020. Data were collected from electronic case reports. The cohort was 54% male, with 20.4% aged >60 years, 19.9% aged 31-40 years, and 17% aged 41-50 years. The median incubation period was 16 days, with upper and lower 95% quartiles of 27 and 10 days, respectively. Most patients (79.2%) were symptomatic. Variables significantly different between symptomatic and asymptomatic patients were age, blood oxygen saturation percentage, hemoglobin level, lymphocyte count, neutrophil to lymphocyte (NTL) ratio, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) level. Asymptomatic patients were mostly younger, with lower body mass index and ALT and AST levels but higher lymphocyte counts, NTL ratio, and CD4, CD8, natural killer cell, IgG, and IgM levels. Factors associated with increased risk of mortality were age (>42 years) and comorbidities, particularly diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Patients who were not given an antiviral regimen were associated with better prognosis than patients who received an antiviral regimen (HR, 0.07; 95% CI, 0.011-0.25). These findings will help clinicians and policymakers adopt best management and treatment options for SARS-CoV-2 infection.

2.
IJID Reg ; 2: 51-54, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1540713

ABSTRACT

Background: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has led to a strain on medical resources. The development of countermeasures to prevent its spread is evolving. Healthcare workers (HCWs) are at high risk for contracting and transmitting the disease. Methods: Serology testing of volunteer HCWs was performed at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center in Riyadh (the Center) in order to determine the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, as well as the associated risk factors, in the hope of implementing adequate prevention and control measures. Results: 1076 subjects participated in this study, of whom 24.3% were seropositive. The majority were nurses (379, 35%) or physicians (245, 22.2%). 392 (36.4%) of the 1076 subjects were caregivers for COVID-19 patients, and 463 (43.0%) reported contact with infected employees. There was a statistically significant association between taking care of COVID-19 patients and being diagnosed with COVID-19 (chi-square test, p = 0.046). There was a significant association between being in contact with infected employees and having a positive IgG result (chi-square test, p < 0.001). Conclusions: A baseline analysis of SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity in HCWs at a large tertiary care hospital in Riyadh was performed as the first part of a prospective study of HCWs. The reported seropositivity was 24.3% - higher than that of other hospitals in Riyadh. IgG testing was very useful in the detection of previous SARS-CoV-2 infection, as it has high negative predictive value.

3.
Int J Infect Dis ; 108: 112-115, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1351691

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Immunocompromised patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have prolonged infectious viral shedding for more than 20 days. A test-based approach is suggested for de-isolation of these patients. METHODS: The strategy was evaluated by comparing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) viral load (cycle threshold (Ct) values) and viral culture at the time of hospital discharge in a series of 13 COVID-19 patients: six immunocompetent and seven immunocompromised (five solid organ transplant patients, one lymphoma patient, and one hepatocellular carcinoma patient). RESULTS: Three of the 13 (23%) patients had positive viral cultures: one patient with lymphoma (on day 16) and two immunocompetent patients (on day 7 and day 11). Eighty percent of the patients had negative viral cultures and had a mean Ct value of 20.5. None of the solid organ transplant recipients had positive viral cultures. CONCLUSIONS: The mean Ct value for negative viral cultures was 20.5 in this case series of immunocompromised patients. Unlike those with hematological malignancies, none of the solid organ transplant patients had positive viral cultures. Adopting the test-based approach for all immunocompromised patients may lead to prolonged quarantine. Large-scale studies in disease-specific populations are needed to determine whether a test-based approach versus a symptom-based approach or a combination is applicable for the de-isolation of various immunocompromised patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Quarantine , Virus Shedding
4.
J Infect Public Health ; 14(9): 1139-1143, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1338435

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: One major challenge for detecting the virus that causes COVID-19 is commercial SARS-CoV-2 testing kit or reagent availability. To allow every laboratory or hospital access to an in-house assay, we developed a low-cost SARS-CoV-2 detection assay protocol using in-house primers and reagents/equipment on hand in most biology or diagnostic laboratories: a SYBR Green-based RT-PCR. RNA extraction has also become a major bottleneck due to limited supplies and the required labor. Thus, we validated an alternative RNA extraction protocol. METHODS: We designed and synthesized in-house primers according to SARS-CoV-2 genome sequences retrieved from GISAID database. One hundred and ninety patient samples were collected by nasopharyngeal swab, coded, and used to develop and validate the assay protocol. RNA extraction was performed using TRI reagent-based RNA protocol to inactivate the virus; thus, testing was conducted in a conventional biosafety level 2 laboratory. RESULTS: The sensitivity and specificity of the primers were evaluated using 190 patient samples previously tested for SARS-CoV-2. The positive amplicons were sequenced to confirm the results. The assay protocol was developed, and the specificity of each RT-PCR product was confirmed using melting curve analyses. Of 190 samples, the SYBR Green-based RT-PCR assay detected SARS-CoV-2 target genes in 88 samples, with no false-positive results. These findings indicate that the sensitivity of our assay was 97.7% and specificity of 100% with those of the diagnostic laboratory that tested the same samples using a Rotor-Gene PCR cycler with an Altona Diagnostics SARS-CoV-2 kit (R2 = 0.89). CONCLUSIONS: These approaches are reliable, repeatable, specific, sensitive, simple, and low-cost tools for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 in a conventional biosafety level 2 laboratory, offering alternative approaches when commercial kits are unavailable or not affordable.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Laboratories , RNA, Viral/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity
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