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1.
Geriatrics ; 7(6):138, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-2154949

ABSTRACT

Ukraine imposed a COVID-19 lockdown in March 2020. From April to June 2020, we surveyed 123 older people with HIV (OPWH) by phone to assess their mental health, engagement in HIV and other healthcare, and substance use using standardised scales. Variables of key interest were symptoms of depression and symptoms of anxiety. Univariate and multivariable Firth logistic regression models were built to assess factors associated with: (1) symptoms of depression, and (2) symptoms of anxiety. Findings indicated high suicidal ideation (10.6%);45.5% met the screening criteria for moderate to severe depression;and 35.0% met the criteria for generalised anxiety disorder (GAD). Independent correlates of having moderate to severe depression included being female (AOR: 2.83, 95%CI = 1.19-7.05), having concerns about potential barriers to HIV treatment (AOR: 8.90, 95%CI = 1.31-104.94), and active drug use (AOR: 34.53, 95%CI = 3.02-4885.85). Being female (AOR: 5.30, 95%CI = 2.16-14.30) and having concerns about potential barriers to HIV treatment (AOR: 5.33, 95%CI = 1.22-28.45) were independently correlated with GAD, and over half (58.5%) were willing to provide peer support to other OPWH. These results highlight the impact of the COVID-19 restrictions in Ukraine on mental health for OPWH and support the need to screen for psychiatric and substance use disorders, potentially using telehealth strategies.

2.
J Int Assoc Provid AIDS Care ; 21: 23259582221128512, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053825

ABSTRACT

Objective: In Malaysia, HIV is concentrated among key populations who experience barriers to care due to stigma and healthcare discrimination. The COVID-19 pandemic has increased barriers to healthcare. Project ECHO (Extension for Community Healthcare Outcomes) is a transformative tele-education strategy that could improve HIV prevention and treatment. Methods: Practicing physicians who were aged 18 years or older and had internet access participated in asynchronous online focus groups. Results: Barriers to Project ECHO were conflicting priorities, time constraints, and technology. Facilitators included content and format, dedicated time, asynchronized flexible programming, incentives, and ensuring technology was available. Conclusion: Project ECHO is a promising intervention that can increase physicians' knowledge and skill set in specialty medicine during the COVID-19 pandemic. Interventionists in Malaysia in particular, but also in general, should consider these barriers and facilitators when developing Project ECHO as they may aid in developing a more robust program and increase participation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Humans , Malaysia/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Social Stigma
3.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 886936, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2005880

ABSTRACT

Background: Approximately 215 million Americans have been fully vaccinated for COVID-19, representing over 65% of the total population. People with HIV (PWH) may be more susceptible to COVID-19 infection or severe disease, elevating the importance of COVID-19 vaccination uptake in the population. We report results from a national survey of PWH to evaluate the likelihood of receiving a COVID-19 vaccine. Methods: We conducted an online survey of 1,030 PWH living in the United States between December 6, 2020 and January 8, 2021 to evaluate likelihood of receiving a COVID-19 vaccine. Results: Overall, participants were highly willing to be vaccinated, with 83.8% stating they "strongly agree" (65.7%) or "somewhat agree" (18.1%). Participants' top vaccine-related concerns were side-effects (39.3%), safety (14.7%), and fair/equitable distribution of the vaccine to affected communities (13.6%). Participants were more willing to be vaccinated if they reported receiving an annual influenza vaccination (p < 0.001), had previously tested positive for (p = 0.043) COVID-19, had been hospitalized for (p = 0.027) COVID-19 infection, or had an undetectable HIV viral load (p = 0.002). Black (p < 0.001), politically conservative (p < 0.001), and participants with an annual income of ≤ $19,999 (p = 0.005) were significantly less willing to be vaccinated for COVID-19. Conclusions: The vast majority of PWH were willing to be vaccinated, though predominantly those who were already engaged in HIV care or directly affected by COVID-19. Findings from this large survey of PWH suggest intensive outreach efforts are needed to support engagement in vaccination programs, particularly among Black and politically conservative PWH.

5.
Matern Child Health J ; 26(9): 1762-1778, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1959050

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To describe demographic characteristics and health-related social needs of families who accessed maternal-infant care through a mobile medical clinic (MMC) during the COVID-19 pandemic and to explore feasibility, acceptability, perceived benefits, and barriers to care. METHODS: In this mixed-methods observational study, chart reviews, telephone surveys, and qualitative interviews in English and Spanish were conducted with caregivers who accessed the MMC between April and November 2020. Qualitative interviews were analyzed with the constant comparative method alongside descriptive chart and survey data analyses. RESULTS: Of 139 caregiver-infant dyads contacted, 68 (48.9%) completed the survey; 27 also completed the qualitative interview. The survey participants did not differ from the larger sample; most (86.7%) were people of color (52.9% identified as Latino and 33.8% as Black). Health-related social needs were high, including food insecurity (52.9%), diaper insecurity (44.1%), and anxiety (32%). Four women (6.1%) were diagnosed with hypertension requiring urgent evaluation. Nearly all (98.5%) reported being very satisfied with the services. Major themes from qualitative interviews included (1) perceived patient- and family-centered care, (2) perceived safety, and (3) perceived benefits of dyadic mother-infant care. CONCLUSIONS FOR PRACTICE: In this assessment of caregivers who accessed the MMC-a rapidly-developed COVID-19 pandemic response-insights from caregivers, predominantly people of color, provided considerations for future postpartum/postnatal service delivery. Perceptions that the MMC addressed health-related social needs and barriers to traditional office-based visits and the identification of maternal hypertension requiring urgent intervention suggest that innovative models for postpartum mother-infant care may have long-lasting benefits.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Maternal Health Services , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child Care , Female , Humans , Infant , Pandemics , Pregnancy
7.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(3)2022 Mar 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742745

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Scaling up vaccination against COVID-19 is central to controlling the COVID-19 epidemic in the United States. Several vaccines are now approved for the prevention of COVID-19, but public concerns over safety and efficacy have heightened distrust and vaccine hesitancy. This is particularly concerning among people with HIV (PWH) who may be vulnerable to more severe COVID-19 disease. Here, we aimed to identify and understand COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy in a sample of PWH in the U.S. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional online survey among PWH in the U.S. between 6 December 2020 and 8 January 2021. Measures included demographics, participants' HIV and health-related attributes, COVID-19 history and experiences, COVID-19 vaccine-related concerns, and standardized measures of attitudes towards COVID-19 vaccines. Multivariate linear regression was used to identify factors associated with vaccine hesitancy in this sample. RESULTS: Among the 1030 respondents, most were male (89.7%), White (66.0%), and identified as gay or lesbian (84.5%). Participants' mean time living with HIV was 17.0 years (standard deviation (SD) = 11.1). The mean score for vaccine hesitancy was 1.5 (SD = 0.5; range: 1-5); 935 participants (90.8%) had a score greater than 1.0, indicating most participants had some degree of vaccine hesitancy. The final multivariate linear regression showed that greater vaccine hesitancy was associated with being Black (b = 0.149, p = 0.005), single (b = 0.070, p = 0.018), politically conservative (b = 0.157, p = 0.010), "anti-vaxxer" (b = 1.791, p < 0.001), concern about side effects (b = 0.226, p < 0.001), concern about safety (b = 0.260, p < 0.001), and being worried that the vaccine will not be effective (b = 0.169, p = 0.008) and they were being experimented on (b = 0.287, p < 0.001). Participants who were male White (b = -0.093, p = 0.008) and university graduates (b = -0.093, p < 0.001) and had a CD4 count of 200 cells/mm3 (b = -0.082, p = 0.048) and a liberal political orientation (b = -0.131, p < 0.001) were associated with lower vaccine hesitancy. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide important insights regarding COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among PWH. Further efforts are required to understand how various social, political, and psychological factors contribute to COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among key populations.

8.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 446, 2022 03 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731526

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Open online forums like Reddit provide an opportunity to quantitatively examine COVID-19 vaccine perceptions early in the vaccine timeline. We examine COVID-19 misinformation on Reddit following vaccine scientific announcements, in the initial phases of the vaccine timeline. METHODS: We collected all posts on Reddit (reddit.com) from January 1 2020 - December 14 2020 (n=266,840) that contained both COVID-19 and vaccine-related keywords. We used topic modeling to understand changes in word prevalence within topics after the release of vaccine trial data. Social network analysis was also conducted to determine the relationship between Reddit communities (subreddits) that shared COVID-19 vaccine posts, and the movement of posts between subreddits. RESULTS: There was an association between a Pfizer press release reporting 90% efficacy and increased discussion on vaccine misinformation. We observed an association between Johnson and Johnson temporarily halting its vaccine trials and reduced misinformation. We found that information skeptical of vaccination was first posted in a subreddit (r/Coronavirus) which favored accurate information and then reposted in subreddits associated with antivaccine beliefs and conspiracy theories (e.g. conspiracy, NoNewNormal). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings can inform the development of interventions where individuals determine the accuracy of vaccine information, and communications campaigns to improve COVID-19 vaccine perceptions, early in the vaccine timeline. Such efforts can increase individual- and population-level awareness of accurate and scientifically sound information regarding vaccines and thereby improve attitudes about vaccines, especially in the early phases of vaccine roll-out. Further research is needed to understand how social media can contribute to COVID-19 vaccination services.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Media , Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
9.
J Health Commun ; 26(12): 846-857, 2021 12 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1612315

ABSTRACT

The duration and impact of the COVID-19 pandemic depends largely on individual and societal actions which are influenced by the quality and salience of the information to which they are exposed. Unfortunately, COVID-19 misinformation has proliferated. Despite growing attempts to mitigate COVID-19 misinformation, there is still uncertainty regarding the best way to ameliorate the impact of COVID-19 misinformation. To address this gap, the current study uses a meta-analysis to evaluate the relative impact of interventions designed to mitigate COVID-19-related misinformation. We searched multiple databases and gray literature from January 2020 to September 2021. The primary outcome was COVID-19 misinformation belief. We examined study quality and meta-analysis was used to pool data with similar interventions and outcomes. 16 studies were analyzed in the meta-analysis, including data from 33378 individuals. The mean effect size of interventions to mitigate COVID-19 misinformation was positive, but not statistically significant [d = 2.018, 95% CI (-0.14, 4.18), p = .065, k = 16]. We found evidence of publication bias. Interventions were more effective in cases where participants were involved with the topic, and where text-only mitigation was used. The limited focus on non-U.S. studies and marginalized populations is concerning given the greater COVID-19 mortality burden on vulnerable communities globally. The findings of this meta-analysis describe the current state of the literature and prescribe specific recommendations to better address the proliferation of COVID-19 misinformation, providing insights helpful to mitigating pandemic outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communication , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Int J Drug Policy ; 101: 103570, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587942

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Healthcare delivery was disrupted during the COVID-19 pandemic, requiring minimized in-person contact between patients and clinicians. During the pandemic, people with opioid use disorder (OUD) were not only at elevated risk for COVID-19, but had markedly reduced access to treatment for OUD, Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HIV due to recommended decreased in-person visits. METHODS: From March 15-June 15, 2020 at the syringe services program (SSP) in New Haven, Connecticut, USA, a differentiated care model evolved with reduced clinical demands on people who inject drugs (PWID) to ensure screening and treatment for HCV, HIV and OUD, with a focus on HCV treatment. This model involved a single, bundled screening, evaluation, testing (SET) and monitoring strategy for all three conditions, minimal in-person visits, followed by tele-health communication between patients, outreach workers and clinicians. In-person visits occurred only during induction onto methadone and phlebotomy at baseline and phlebotomy 12 weeks post-treatment for HCV to measure sustained virological response (SVR). Patients received supportive texts/calls from outreach workers and clinicians. RESULTS: Overall, 66 actively injecting PWID, all with OUD, underwent bundled laboratory screening; 35 had chronic HCV infection. Participants were 40 years (mean), mostly white (N = 18) men (N = 28) and 12 were unstably housed. Two were lost to-follow-up and 2 were incarcerated, leaving 31 who started pan-genotypic direct-acting antivirals (DAAs). The mean time from referral to initial phlebotomy and initiation of DAAs was 6.9 and 9.9 days, respectively. Fourteen additional patients were newly started on buprenorphine and 6 started on methadone; three and four, respectively, were on treatment at baseline. Overall, 29 (93.5%) PWID who initiated DAAs achieved SVR; among unstably housed persons the SVR was 83.3%. CONCLUSIONS: In response to COVID-19, an innovative differentiated care model for PWID at an SSP evolved that included successful co-treatment for HCV, HIV and OUD using a client-centered approach that reduces treatment demands on patients yet supports ongoing access to evidence-based treatments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drug Users , Hepatitis C, Chronic , Hepatitis C , Opioid-Related Disorders , Substance Abuse, Intravenous , Telemedicine , Antiviral Agents , Hepacivirus , Hepatitis C/drug therapy , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Humans , Male , Opioid-Related Disorders/drug therapy , Opioid-Related Disorders/therapy , Pandemics , Pharmaceutical Preparations , SARS-CoV-2 , Substance Abuse, Intravenous/epidemiology , Syringes
11.
Chest ; 158(4): 1397-1408, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-996748

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Tocilizumab, an IL-6 receptor antagonist, can be used to treat cytokine release syndrome (CRS), with observed improvements in a coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) case series. RESEARCH QUESTION: The goal of this study was to determine if tocilizumab benefits patients hospitalized with COVID-19. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: This observational study of consecutive COVID-19 patients hospitalized between March 10, 2020, and March 31, 2020, and followed up through April 21, 2020, was conducted by chart review. Patients were treated with tocilizumab using an algorithm that targeted CRS. Survival and mechanical ventilation (MV) outcomes were reported for 14 days and stratified according to disease severity designated at admission (severe, ≥ 3 L supplemental oxygen to maintain oxygen saturation > 93%). For tocilizumab-treated patients, pre/post analyses of clinical response, biomarkers, and safety outcomes were assessed. Post hoc survival analyses were conducted for race/ethnicity. RESULTS: Among the 239 patients, median age was 64 years; 36% and 19% were black and Hispanic, respectively. Hospital census increased exponentially, yet MV census did not. Severe disease was associated with lower survival (78% vs 93%; P < .001), greater proportion requiring MV (44% vs 5%; P < .001), and longer median MV days (5.5 vs 1.0; P = .003). Tocilizumab-treated patients (n = 153 [64%]) comprised 90% of those with severe disease; 44% of patients with nonsevere disease received tocilizumab for evolving CRS. Tocilizumab-treated patients with severe disease had higher admission levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (120 vs 71 mg/L; P < .001) and received tocilizumab sooner (2 vs 3 days; P < .001), but their survival was similar to that of patients with nonsevere disease (83% vs 91%; P = .11). For tocilizumab-treated patients requiring MV, survival was 75% (95% CI, 64-89). Following tocilizumab treatment, few adverse events occurred, and oxygenation and inflammatory biomarkers (eg, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, IL-6) improved; however, D-dimer and soluble IL-2 receptor (also termed CD25) levels increased significantly. Survival in black and Hispanic patients, after controlling for age, was significantly higher than in white patients (log-rank test, P = .002). INTERPRETATION: A treatment algorithm that included tocilizumab to target CRS may influence MV and survival outcomes. In tocilizumab-treated patients, oxygenation and inflammatory biomarkers improved, with higher than expected survival. Randomized trials must confirm these findings.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Algorithms , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Cytokine Release Syndrome/mortality , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2 , Survival Rate , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
12.
J Subst Abuse Treat ; 121: 108164, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-952287

ABSTRACT

On March 16, 2020, Ukraine's Ministry of Health issued nonspecific interim guidance to continue enrolling patients in opioid agonist therapies (OAT) and transition existing patients to take-home dosing to reduce community COVID-19 transmission. Though the number of OAT patients increased modestly, the proportion receiving take-home dosing increased from 57.5% to 82.2%, which translates on average to 963,952 fewer clinic interactions annually (range: 728,652-1,016,895) and potentially 80,329 (range: 60,721-84,741) fewer hours of in-person clinical encounters. During the transition, narcologists (addiction specialists) expressed concerns about overdoses, the guidance contradicting existing legislation, and patient dropout, either from incarceration or inadequate public transportation. Though clinicians did observe some overdoses, short-term overall mortality remained similar to the previous year. As the country relaxes the interim guidance, we do not know to what extent governmental guidance or clinical practice will change to adopt the new guidance permanently or revert to pre-guidance regulations. Some future considerations that have come from COVID-19 are should dosing schedules continue to be flexible, should clinicians adopt telehealth, and should there be more overdose education and naloxone distribution? OAT delivery has improved and become more efficient, but clinicians should plan long-term should COVID-19 return in the near future. If the new efficiencies are maintained, it will free the workforce to further scale up OAT.


Subject(s)
Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Buprenorphine/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Methadone/therapeutic use , Opiate Substitution Treatment , Opioid-Related Disorders/rehabilitation , Drug Overdose , Humans , Patient Dropouts , Telemedicine , Ukraine
13.
Res Sq ; 2020 Sep 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-771141

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 outbreak in China was devastating, and spread throughout the country before being contained. Stringent physical distancing recommendations and shelter-in-place were first introduced in the hardest-hit provinces, and by March, these recommendations were uniform throughout the country. In the presence of an evolving and deadly pandemic, we sought to investigate the impact of this pandemic on individual well-being and prevention practices among Chinese urban residents. From March 2-11, 2020, 4,607 individuals were recruited from 11 provinces with varying numbers of COVID-19 casers using the social networking app WeChat to complete a brief, anonymous, online survey. The analytical sample was restricted to 2,551 urban residents. Standardized scales measured generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), the primary outcome. Multiple logistic regression was conducted to identify correlates of GAD alongside assessment of community practices in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. We found that during the COVID-19 pandemic, recommended public health practices significantly (p <0.001) increased, including wearing facial mask, practicing physical distancing, handwashing, decreased public spitting, and going outside in urban communities. Overall, 40.3% of participants met screening criteria for GAD and 49.3%, 62.6%, and 55.4% reported that their work, social life, and family life were interrupted by anxious feelings, respectively. Independent correlates of having anxiety symptoms included being a healthcare provider (aOR=1.58, p <0.01), living in regions with a higher density of COVID-19 cases (aOR=2.13, p <0.01), having completed college (aOR=1.38, p =0.03), meeting screening criteria for depression (aOR=6.03, p <0.01) and poorer perceived health status (aOR=1.54, p <0.01). COVID-19 had a profound impact on the health of urban dwellers throughout China. Not only did they markedly increase their self- and community-protective behaviors, but they also experienced high levels of anxiety associated with a heightened vulnerability like depression, having poor perceived health, and the potential of increased exposure to COVID-19 such as living closer to the epicenter of the pandemic.

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