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J Integr Neurosci ; 21(3): 77, 2022 Apr 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1876488


BACKGROUND: Though primarily a pulmonary disease, Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus can generate devastating disease states that affect multiple organ systems including the central nervous system (CNS). The various neurological disorders associated with COVID-19 range in severity from mild symptoms such as headache, or myalgias to more severe symptoms such as stroke, psychosis, and anosmia. While some of the COVID-19 associated neurological complications are mild and reversible, a significant number of patients suffer from stroke. Studies have shown that COVID-19 infection triggers a wave of inflammatory cytokines that induce endothelial cell dysfunction and generate coagulopathy that increases the risk of stroke or thromboses. Inflammation of the endothelium following infection may also destabilize atherosclerotic plaque and induce thrombotic stroke. Although uncommon, there have also been reports of hemorrhagic stroke associated with COVID-19. The proposed mechanisms include a blood pressure increase caused by infection leading to a reduction in angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE-2) levels that results in an imbalance of the renin-angiotensin system ultimately manifesting inflammation and vasoconstriction. Coagulopathy, as demonstrated by elevated prothrombin time (PT), has also been posited as a factor contributing to hemorrhagics stroke in patients with COVID-19. Other neurological conditions associated with COVID-19 include encephalopathy, anosmia, encephalitis, psychosis, brain fog, headache, depression, and anxiety. Though there are several hypotheses reported in the literature, a unifying pathophysiological mechanism of many of these disorders remains unclear. Pulmonary dysfunction leading to poor oxygenation of the brain may explain encephalopathy and other disorders in COVID-19 patients. Alternatively, a direct invasion of the CNS by the virus or breach of the blood-brain barrier by the systemic cytokines released during infection may be responsible for these conditions. Notwithstanding, the relationship between the inflammatory cytokine levels and conditions such as depression and anxiety is contradictory and perhaps the social isolation during the pandemic may in part be a contributing factor to some of the reported CNS disorders. OBJECTIVE: In this article, we review the current literature pertaining to some of the most significant and common neurological disorders such as ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, encephalopathy, encephalitis, brain fog, Long COVID, headache, Guillain-Barre syndrome, depression, anxiety, and sleep disorders in the setting of COVID-19. We summarize some of the most relevant literature to provide a better understanding of the mechanistic details regarding these disorders in order to help physicians monitor and treat patients for significant COVID-19 associated neurologic impairments. METHODS: A literature review was carried out by the authors using PubMed with the search terms "COVID-19" and "Neurology", "Neurological Manifestations", "Neuropsychiatric Manifestations", "Stroke", "Encephalopathy", "Headache", "Guillain-Barre syndrome", "Depression", "Anxiety", "Encephalitis", "Seizure", "Spasm", and "ICUAW". Another search was carried out for "Long-COVID" and "Post-Acute COVID-19" and "Neurological Manifestations" or "Neuropsychiatric Manifestations". Articles such as case reports, case series, and cohort studies were included as references. No language restrictions were enforced. In the case of anxiety and depression, attempts were made to focus mainly on articles describing these conditions in infected patients. RESULTS: A total of 112 articles were reviewed. The incidence, clinical outcomes, and pathophysiology of selected neurological disorders are discussed below. Given the recent advent of this disease, the incidence of certain neurologic sequelae was not always available. Putative mechanisms for each condition in the setting of COVID-19 are outlined.

COVID-19 , Nervous System Diseases , Anosmia/virology , COVID-19/complications , Cytokines , Disease Progression , Encephalitis/virology , Headache/virology , Hemorrhagic Stroke/virology , Humans , Inflammation , Nervous System Diseases/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/virology , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome
Interv Neuroradiol ; 27(1_suppl): 4-5, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477218

COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
Neurosurgery ; 67, 2020.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1142687
Neurology ; 96(11): e1527-e1538, 2021 03 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1028513


OBJECTIVE: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is protean in its manifestations, affecting nearly every organ system. However, nervous system involvement and its effect on disease outcome are poorly characterized. The objective of this study was to determine whether neurologic syndromes are associated with increased risk of inpatient mortality. METHODS: A total of 581 hospitalized patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, neurologic involvement, and brain imaging were compared to hospitalized non-neurologic patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Four patterns of neurologic manifestations were identified: acute stroke, new or recrudescent seizures, altered mentation with normal imaging, and neuro-COVID-19 complex. Factors present on admission were analyzed as potential predictors of in-hospital mortality, including sociodemographic variables, preexisting comorbidities, vital signs, laboratory values, and pattern of neurologic manifestations. Significant predictors were incorporated into a disease severity score. Patients with neurologic manifestations were matched with patients of the same age and disease severity to assess the risk of death. RESULTS: A total of 4,711 patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection were admitted to one medical system in New York City during a 6-week period. Of these, 581 (12%) had neurologic issues of sufficient concern to warrant neuroimaging. These patients were compared to 1,743 non-neurologic patients with COVID-19 matched for age and disease severity admitted during the same period. Patients with altered mentation (n = 258, p = 0.04, odds ratio [OR] 1.39, confidence interval [CI] 1.04-1.86) or radiologically confirmed stroke (n = 55, p = 0.001, OR 3.1, CI 1.65-5.92) had a higher risk of mortality than age- and severity-matched controls. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of altered mentation or stroke on admission predicts a modest but significantly higher risk of in-hospital mortality independent of disease severity. While other biomarker factors also predict mortality, measures to identify and treat such patients may be important in reducing overall mortality of COVID-19.

COVID-19/mortality , Confusion/physiopathology , Consciousness Disorders/physiopathology , Hospital Mortality , Stroke/physiopathology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Ageusia/epidemiology , Ageusia/physiopathology , Anosmia/epidemiology , Anosmia/physiopathology , Ataxia/epidemiology , Ataxia/physiopathology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Confusion/epidemiology , Consciousness Disorders/epidemiology , Cranial Nerve Diseases/epidemiology , Cranial Nerve Diseases/physiopathology , Delirium/epidemiology , Delirium/physiopathology , Female , Headache/epidemiology , Headache/physiopathology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Paresthesia/epidemiology , Paresthesia/physiopathology , Primary Dysautonomias/epidemiology , Primary Dysautonomias/physiopathology , Recurrence , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures/epidemiology , Seizures/physiopathology , Stroke/epidemiology , Vertigo/epidemiology , Vertigo/physiopathology
Thromb Res ; 199: 10-13, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1003095


COVID-19 associated coagulopathy and mortality related to thrombotic complications have been suggested as biological mediators in racial disparities related to COVID-19. We studied the adjusted prevalence of acute ischemic stroke, pulmonary embolism, myocardial infarction, and deep venous thrombosis stratified by race in hospitalized patients in one New York City borough during the local COVID-19 surge. The multi-racial cohort included 4299 patients hospitalized with COVID-19, 9% of whom were white, 40% black, 41% Hispanic and 10% Asian or other. We found a 6.1% prevalence of composite thrombotic events. There were no significant race-specific differences in thrombotic events when adjusting for basic demographics, socioeconomic factors, medical comorbidities or biomarkers using a stepwise regression model. We therefore found no evidence that the racial disparities related to COVID-19, and specifically thrombotic complications, are caused by biological differences in race.

COVID-19/complications , Thrombosis/etiology , Aged , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardial Infarction/etiology , New York/epidemiology , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Racial Groups , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Socioeconomic Factors , Stroke/etiology
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 16726, 2020 10 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-841180


COVID-19 is commonly mild and self-limiting, but in a considerable portion of patients the disease is severe and fatal. Determining which patients are at high risk of severe illness or mortality is essential for appropriate clinical decision making. We propose a novel severity score specifically for COVID-19 to help predict disease severity and mortality. 4711 patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection were included. We derived a risk model using the first half of the cohort (n = 2355 patients) by logistic regression and bootstrapping methods. The discriminative power of the risk model was assessed by calculating the area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC). The severity score was validated in a second half of 2356 patients. Mortality incidence was 26.4% in the derivation cohort and 22.4% in the validation cohort. A COVID-19 severity score ranging from 0 to 10, consisting of age, oxygen saturation, mean arterial pressure, blood urea nitrogen, C-Reactive protein, and the international normalized ratio was developed. A ROC curve analysis was performed in the derivation cohort achieved an AUC of 0.824 (95% CI 0.814-0.851) and an AUC of 0.798 (95% CI 0.789-0.818) in the validation cohort. Furthermore, based on the risk categorization the probability of mortality was 11.8%, 39% and 78% for patient with low (0-3), moderate (4-6) and high (7-10) COVID-19 severity score. This developed and validated novel COVID-19 severity score will aid physicians in predicting mortality during surge periods.

Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Hospital Mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Research Design , Severity of Illness Index , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Arterial Pressure , Blood Urea Nitrogen , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
Interv Neuroradiol ; 26(5): 623-628, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-736342


BACKGROUND: This study evaluates the mortality risk of patients with emergent large vessel occlusion (ELVO) and COVID-19 during the pandemic. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of two cohorts of consecutive patients with ELVO admitted to a quaternary hospital from March 1 to April 17, 2020. We abstracted data from electronic health records on baseline, biomarker profiles, key time points, quality measures and radiographic data. RESULTS: Of 179 patients admitted with ischemic stroke, 36 had ELVO. Patients with COVID-19 and ELVO had a higher risk of mortality during the pandemic versus patients without COVID-19 (OR 16.63, p = 0.004). An age-based sub-analysis showed in-hospital mortality in 60% of COVID-19 positive patients between 61-70 years-old, 66.7% in between 51-60 years-old, 50% in between 41-50 years-old and 33.3% in between 31-40 years old. Patients that presented with pulmonary symptoms at time of stroke presentation had 71.4% mortality rate. 27.3% of COVID-19 patients presenting with ELVO had a good outcome at discharge (mRS 0-2). Patients with a history of cigarette smoking (p = 0.003), elevated d-dimer (p = 0.007), failure to recanalize (p = 0.007), and elevated ferritin levels (p = 0.006) had an increased risk of mortality. CONCLUSION: Patients with COVID-19 and ELVO had a significantly higher risk for mortality compared to COVID-19 negative patients with ELVO. A small percentage of COVID-19 ELVO patients had good outcomes. Age greater than 60 and pulmonary symptoms at presentation have higher risk for mortality. Other risk factors for mortality were a history of cigarette smoking, elevated, failure to recanalize, elevated d-dimer and ferritin levels.

Arterial Occlusive Diseases/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Female , Ferritins/blood , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Lung Diseases/etiology , Lung Diseases/mortality , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Smoking/mortality , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/mortality , Treatment Outcome
Clin Neurol Neurosurg ; 198: 106112, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-669659


OBJECTIVE: We aim to characterize the incidence, risk for mortality, and identify risk factors for mortality in patients presenting with hemorrhage and COVID-19. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included a cohort of patients admitted to one of three major hospitals of our healthcare network including, an academic medical center and comprehensive stroke center, which accepts transfers for complex cases from eight community hospitals, during March 1 to May 1, 2020. All patients that received imaging of the neuroaxis and had positive PCR testing for COVID-19 were identified and reviewed by an attending neuroradiologist. Demographics and comorbidities were recorded. Biomarkers were recorded from the day of the hemorrhagic event. Vital signs from the day of the hemorrhagic event mechanical ventilation orders at admission were recorded. Imaging findings were divided into 5 subtypes; acute subdural hematoma (SDH), subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), multi-compartmental hemorrhage (MCH), multi-focal intracerebral hemorrhage (MFH), and focal intracerebral hemorrhage (fICH). Outcomes were recorded as non-routine discharge and mortality. RESULTS: We found a total of 35 out of 5227 patients with COVID-19 that had hemorrhage of some kind. Mortality for the entire cohort was 45.7 % (n = 16). SDH patients had a mortality rate of 35.3 % (n = 6), SAH had a mortality of 50 % (n = 1), MCH patients had a mortality of 71.4 % (n = 5), MFH patients had a mortality of 50 % (n = 2), fICH patients had a mortality of 40 % (n = 2). Patients with severe pulmonary COVID requiring mechanical ventilation (OR 10.24 [.43-243.12] p = 0.015), with INR > 1.2 on the day of the hemorrhagic event (OR 14.36 [1.69-122.14] p = 0.015], and patients presenting with spontaneous vs. traumatic hemorrhage (OR 6.11 [.31-118.89] p = 0.023) had significantly higher risk for mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Hemorrhagic presentations with COVID-19 are a rare but serious way in which the illness can manifest. It is important for neurosurgeons to realize that patients can present with these findings without primary pulmonary symptoms, and that severe pulmonary symptoms, elevated INR, and spontaneous hemorrhagic presentations is associated with increased risk for mortality.

Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Intracranial Hemorrhages/epidemiology , Intracranial Hemorrhages/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Incidence , Intracranial Hemorrhages/diagnosis , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Survival Rate