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2.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5474-5480, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219314

ABSTRACT

In this study, laboratorial parameters of hospitalized novel coronavirus (COVID-19) patients, who were complicated with severe pneumonia, were compared with the findings of cytokine storm developing in macrophage activation syndrome (MAS)/secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (sHLH). Severe pneumonia occurred as a result of cytokine storm in some patients who needed intensive care unit (ICU), and it is aimed to determine the precursive parameters in this situation. Also in this study, the aim is to identify laboratory criteria that predict worsening disease and ICU intensification, as well as the development of cytokine storm. This article comprises a retrospective cohort study of patients admitted to a single institution with COVID-19 pneumonia. This study includes 150 confirmed COVID-19 patients with severe pneumonia. When they were considered as severe pneumonia patients, the clinic and laboratory parameters of this group are compared with H-score criteria. Patients are divided into two subgroups; patients with worsened symptoms who were transferred into tertiary ICU, and patients with stable symptoms followed in the clinic. For the patients with confirmed COVID-19 infection, after they become complicated with severe pneumonia, lymphocytopenia (55.3%), anemia (12.0%), thrombocytopenia (19.3%), hyperferritinemia (72.5%), hyperfibrinogenemia (63.7%) and elevated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (90.8%), aspartate aminotransaminase (AST) (31.3%), alanine aminotransaminase (ALT) (20.7%) are detected. There were no significant changes in other parameters. Blood parameters between the pre-ICU period and the ICU period (in which their situation had been worsened and acute respiratory distress syndrome [ARDS] was developed) were also compared. In the latter group lymphocyte levels were found significantly reduced (p = 0.01), and LDH, highly sensitive troponin (hs-troponin), procalcitonin, and triglyceride levels were significantly increased (p < 0.05). In addition, there was no change in hemoglobin, leukocyte, platelet, ferritin, and liver function test levels, including patients who developed ARDS, similar to the cytokine storm developed in MAS/sHLH. COVID-19 pneumonia has similar findings as hyperinflammatory syndromes but does not seem to have typical features as in cytokine storm developed in MAS/sHLH. In the severe patient group who has started to develop ARDS signs, a decrease in lymphocyte level in addition to the elevated LDH, hs-troponin, procalcitonin, and triglyceride levels can be a predictor in progression to ICU admission and could help in the planning of anti-cytokine therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/pathology , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Aged , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Anemia/blood , Anemia/diagnosis , Anemia/immunology , Anemia/pathology , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/blood , Cytokine Release Syndrome/diagnosis , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Diagnosis, Differential , Disease Progression , Female , Fibrinogen/metabolism , Humans , Hyperferritinemia/blood , Hyperferritinemia/diagnosis , Hyperferritinemia/immunology , Hyperferritinemia/pathology , Intensive Care Units , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/blood , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/diagnosis , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/immunology , Lymphopenia/blood , Lymphopenia/diagnosis , Lymphopenia/immunology , Lymphopenia/pathology , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/blood , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/diagnosis , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Procalcitonin/blood , Retrospective Studies , Thrombocytopenia/blood , Thrombocytopenia/diagnosis , Thrombocytopenia/immunology , Thrombocytopenia/pathology , Triglycerides/blood , Troponin/blood
3.
Clin Imaging ; 75: 119-124, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1062295

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: There is scarce data on the impact of the presence of mediastinal lymphadenopathy on the prognosis of coronavirus-disease 2019 (COVID-19). We aimed to investigate whether its presence is associated with increased risk for 30-day mortality in a large group of patients with COVID-19. METHOD: In this retrospective cross-sectional study, 650 adult laboratory-confirmed hospitalized COVID-19 patients were included. Patients with comorbidities that may cause enlarged mediastinal lymphadenopathy were excluded. Demographics, clinical characteristics, vital and laboratory findings, and outcome were obtained from electronic medical records. Computed tomography scans were evaluated by two blinded radiologists. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to determine independent predictive factors of 30-day mortality. RESULTS: Patients with enlarged mediastinal lymphadenopathy (n = 60, 9.2%) were older and more likely to have at least one comorbidity than patients without enlarged mediastinal lymphadenopathy (p = 0.03, p = 0.003). There were more deaths in patients with enlarged mediastinal lymphadenopathy than in those without (11/60 vs 45/590, p = 0.01). Older age (OR:3.74, 95% CI: 2.06-6.79; p < 0.001), presence of consolidation pattern (OR:1.93, 95% CI: 1.09-3.40; p = 0.02) and enlarged mediastinal lymphadenopathy (OR:2.38, 95% CI:1.13-4.98; p = 0.02) were independently associated with 30-day mortality. CONCLUSION: In this large group of hospitalized patients with COVID-19, we found that in addition to older age and consolidation pattern on CT scan, enlarged mediastinal lymphadenopathy were independently associated with increased mortality. Mediastinal evaluation should be performed in all patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lymphadenopathy , Adult , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Lymphadenopathy/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
4.
J Infect Chemother ; 27(2): 306-311, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-943338

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The clinical spectrum of COVID-19 has a great variation from asymptomatic infection to acute respiratory distress syndrome and eventually death. The mortality rates vary across the countries probably due to the heterogeneity in study characteristics and patient cohorts as well as treatment strategies. Therefore, we aimed to summarize the clinical characteristics and outcomes of adult patients hospitalized with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia in Istanbul, Turkey. METHODS: A total of 722 adult patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia were analyzed in this single-center retrospective study between March 15 and May 1, 2020. RESULTS: A total of 722 laboratory-confirmed patients with COVID-19 pneumonia were included in the study. There were 235 (32.5%) elderly patients and 487 (67.5%) non-elderly patients. The most common comorbidities were hypertension (251 [34.8%]), diabetes mellitus (198 [27.4%]), and ischemic heart disease (66 [9.1%]). The most common symptoms were cough (512 [70.9%]), followed by fever (226 [31.3%]), and shortness of breath (201 [27.8%]). Lymphocytopenia was present in 29.7% of the patients, leukopenia in 12.2%, and elevated CRP in 48.8%. By the end of May 20, 648 (89.7%) patients had been discharged and 60 (8.5%) patients had died. According to our study, while our overall mortality rate was 8.5%, this rate was 14.5% in elderly patients, and the difference was significant. CONCLUSIONS: This case series provides characteristics and outcomes of sequentially adult patients hospitalized with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia in Turkey.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Laboratories , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardial Ischemia/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Turkey/epidemiology , Young Adult
5.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 30(6): 43-45, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-690541

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19), first reported in December 2019 in Wuhan, China, has spread all over the world in a short time and was declared as a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO). During COVID-19 pandemic, chest computed tomography (CT) imaging has become an important tool with high sensitivity for diagnosis due to the low positive rate of the real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Furthermore, the chest CT has played an important role in the diagnosis of underlying pulmonary lesions. In this case report, we present a patient who was admitted to the emergency department with fever, cough and left shoulder pain, and was subsequently diagnosed with both COVID-19 and pneumothorax following chest CT and RT-PCR test. Key Words: COVID-19, Coronavirus, Pneumothorax, Tomography.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumothorax/diagnostic imaging , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Cough/etiology , Enoxaparin/therapeutic use , Female , Fever/etiology , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Male , Oseltamivir/therapeutic use , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumothorax/etiology , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
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