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eNeurologicalSci ; 24: 100355, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1324115


IMPORTANCE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a severe acute respiratory syndrome that is caused by a novel coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). It originated in China late December 2019 and was declared a global pandemic on March 12, 2020. Most reports of COVID-19 cases either presented with neurological manifestations or complications involve adults. Only few cases were reported in pediatric patients. OBJECTIVE: To report COVID-19 pediatric cases with neurological manifestations and identify the wide spectrum of its manifestations. DESIGN SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: This was a retrospective, observational case series. Data of pediatric patients infected by SARS-CoV-2 presenting with neurological manifestations at King Abdullah Specialized Children Hospital in King Abdulaziz Medical City in Riyadh were collected from May 23 to June 30, 2020. RESULTS: We encountered 5 COVID-19 cases with neurological manifestations. Three patients who were previously healthy had new-onset neurological symptoms. Symptoms and signs included encephalopathy, ataxia, headache, seizure, papilledema, ophthalmoplegia, hyporeflexia, and different clinical spectra, such as Miller Fisher syndrome, meningoencephalitis, and idiopathic intracranial hypertension. Other patients attending our center were incidentally found to be SARS-CoV-2-positive, which caused a delay in the investigations required to reach diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Our cases highlight the wide clinical spectrum of neurological manifestations in COVID-19 patients. Given the paucity of information about pediatric COVID-19 cases with neurological symptoms, we here reported these cases to shed light on the association between SARS-CoV-2 and neurological presentation. Moreover, our study indicates that many investigations are being delayed and could affect diagnosis and treatment.

Front Pediatr ; 9: 629549, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1120412


Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused overwhelming challenges in healthcare worldwide. During such an outbreak, some needs of high-risk groups who require regular follow-ups and long-term management are not met. The vulnerable populations include patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Duchenne muscular dystrophy is characterized by respiratory complications caused by muscle weakness. Hence, patients with this condition are at high risk of severe diseases including COVID-19. Methods: To standardize care and provide optimal treatment to DMD patients in Saudi Arabia during the COVID-19 pandemic, a panel of experts including neurologists and pediatricians consolidated recommendations for healthcare professionals and caregivers. Results: During this pandemic, substituting unnecessary clinic visits with virtual clinic services was highly recommended, if possible, without compromising clinical outcomes. Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients with respiratory complications should be closely monitored, and those with cardiovascular complications must continue taking angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers. Moreover, individualized home-based rehabilitation management was preferred. Glucocorticoid and new gene correction therapies should be continued. However, new gene correction therapy must be post-poned in newly diagnosed patients. A multidisciplinary decision was required before the initiation of hydroxychloroquine based on the COVID-19 treatment protocol. Conclusion: COVID-19 has caused challenges and transformed access to health care. However, these limitations have provided opportunities for the health care system to adapt. Further, telemedicine has become a reliable platform for follow-up appointments that should be conducted by a multidisciplinary team including physicians, dieticians, and physical therapists.