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1.
Expert Rev Vaccines ; : 1-16, 2022 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097134

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 vaccines have been highly effective in reducing morbidity and mortality during the pandemic. However, the emergence of the Omicron variant and subvariants as the globally dominant strains have raised doubts about the effectiveness of currently available vaccines and prompted debate about potential future vaccination strategies. AREAS COVERED: Using the publicly available IVAC VIEW-hub platform, we reviewed 52 studies on vaccine effectiveness (VE) after booster vaccinations. VE were reported for SARS-CoV-2 symptomatic infection, severe disease and death and stratified by vaccine schedule and age. In addition, a non-systematic literature review of safety was performed to identify single or multi-country studies investigating adverse event rates for at least two of the currently available COVID-19 vaccines. EXPERT OPINION: Booster shots of the current COVID-19 vaccines provide consistently high protection against Omicron-related severe disease and death. Additionally, this protection appears to be conserved for at least 3 months, with a small but significant waning after that. The positive risk-benefit ratio of these vaccines is well established, giving us confidence to administer additional doses as required. Future vaccination strategies will likely include a combination of schedules based on risk profile, as overly frequent boosting may be neither beneficial nor sustainable for the general population.

2.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Sep 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2017763

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The public health impact of the COVID-19 pandemic has motivated a rapid search for potential therapeutics, with some key successes. However, the potential impact of different treatments, and consequently research and procurement priorities, have not been clear. METHODS: Using a mathematical model of SARS-CoV-2 transmission, COVID-19 disease and clinical care, we explore the public-health impact of different potential therapeutics, under a range of scenarios varying healthcare capacity, epidemic trajectories; and drug efficacy in the absence of supportive care. RESULTS: The impact of drugs like dexamethasone (delivered to the most critically-ill in hospital and whose therapeutic benefit is expected to depend on the availability of supportive care such as oxygen and mechanical ventilation) is likely to be limited in settings where healthcare capacity is lowest or where uncontrolled epidemics result in hospitals being overwhelmed. As such, it may avert 22% of deaths in high-income countries but only 8% in low-income countries (assuming R=1.35). Therapeutics for different patient populations (those not in hospital, early in the course of infection) and types of benefit (reducing disease severity or infectiousness, preventing hospitalisation) could have much greater benefits, particularly in resource-poor settings facing large epidemics. CONCLUSIONS: Advances in the treatment of COVID-19 to date have been focussed on hospitalised-patients and predicated on an assumption of adequate access to supportive care. Therapeutics delivered earlier in the course of infection that reduce the need for healthcare or reduce infectiousness could have significant impact, and research into their efficacy and means of delivery should be a priority.

4.
IJID Reg ; 3: 275-277, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1899840

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Healthcare workers (HCWs) have been severely affected in terms of both morbidity and mortality since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic. During the first few months of 2021, Colombia experienced a surge in positive cases. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of vaccination on the incidence of new positive cases in HCWs. Design: This was a retrospective cohort study of frontline employees in a network of clinics in Colombia, who were prioritized for COVID-19 vaccination from February to March 2021. Results: Our findings were consistent with recent reports. During early 2020, the incidence of HCWs positively diagnosed with COVID-19 in Colombia was higher than that for the general population. With the start of the national vaccination program, the incidence among HCWs decreased from April 2021, while that for the general population remained relatively unchanged. Our study identified lower infection rates among HCWs during April (odds ratio [OR], 0.72 [95% CI 0.58-0.90]; p < 0.01) and May (odds ratio [OR], 0.25 [95% CI 0.18-0.36]; p < 0.01). Conclusions: COVID-19 vaccination rollout in Colombia during early 2021 led to a decrease in the incidence of new positive cases among HCWs, in contrast to a continuing surge in the general population. Our findings suggested that COVID-19 vaccination provided adequate immunity, which guaranteed protection to HCWs.

5.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323962

ABSTRACT

Background: The unprecedented public health impact of the COVID-19 pandemic has motivated a rapid search for potential therapeutics, with some key successes. However, the potential impact of current and proposed treatments, and consequently research and procurement priorities, have not been clear. Methods: First, we used a model of SARS-CoV-2 transmission, COVID-19 disease and clinical care pathways to explore the potential impact of dexamethasone - the main treatment currently for hospitalised COVID-19 patients - under scenarios varying: i) healthcare capacity, ii) epidemic trajectories;and iii) the efficacy of dexamethasone in the absence of supportive care. We then fit the model to the observed epidemic trajectory to-date in 165 countries and analysed the potential future impact of dexamethasone in different countries, regions, and country-income strata. Finally, we constructed hypothetical profiles of novel therapeutics based on current trials, and compared the potential impact of each under different circumstances. In each case, the outcome of interest was the number of COVID-19 deaths averted in scenarios with the therapeutic compared to scenarios without. Findings: We find the potential benefit dexamethasone is severely limited in settings where healthcare capacity is lowest or where uncontrolled epidemics result in hospitals being overwhelmed. As such, it may avert 22% of deaths in high-income countries but only 8% in low-income countries (assuming R=1.35). However, therapeutics for different patient populations (in particular, those not in hospital and early in the course of infection) and types of benefit (in particular, reducing disease severity or infectiousness) could have much greater benefits. Such therapeutics would have particular value in resource-poor settings facing large epidemics, even if the efficacy or achievable coverage of such therapeutics is lower in comparison to other types. Interpretation: People in low-income countries will benefit the least from advances in the treatment of COVID-19 to date, which have focussed on hospitalised-patients with adequate access to supportive care. Therapeutics that can feasibly be delivered to those earlier in the course of infection that reduce the need for healthcare or reduce infectiousness could have much greater impact. Such therapeutics may be feasible and research into their efficacy and means of delivery should be a priority. Funding: None to declare. Declaration of Interest: None to declare.

6.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-310312

ABSTRACT

Latin America accounts for roughly one-quarter of global COVID-19 cases and one-third of deaths. Health inequalities in the region lead to barriers regarding the best use of diagnostic tests during the pandemic. There is a need for a simplified guideline in the region that takes into consideration the available health resources, international guidelines, medical literature, and local expertise. Nine experts from different Latin American countries developed a simplified algorithm for COVID-19 diagnosis in the region, using a modified Delphi method. Twenty-four questions related to diverse diagnostic settings were initially proposed, followed by an extensive discussion of the literature and experts’ experience. According to time from close contact or symptom onset, the algorithm considers three different timeframes (≤7 days, 8–13 days, and ≥14 days) and discusses diagnostic options for each one. SARS-CoV-2 real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) continues to be the diagnostic test of choice from Day 1 to Day 14 after symptom onset or close contact, although antigen testing may be used in high-prevalence settings or in particular situations (such as from Day 0 to Days 5–7 of symptom onset). Antibody assays may be used for diagnostic confirmation, mainly after Day 14, if there is an epidemiological or individual need. If the clinical suspicion is very high, but other tests are negative, these assays may be used as an adjunct to decision-making from Days 8–13. The proposed algorithm is intended to be used as a support for COVID-19 diagnosis decision-making in Latin America.

10.
Int J Infect Dis ; 117: 130-136, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1237715

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Latin America accounts for one-quarter of global COVID-19 cases and one-third of deaths. Inequalities in the region lead to barriers to the best use of diagnostic tests during the pandemic. There is a need for simplified guidelines that consider the region's limited health resources, international guidelines, medical literature, and local expertise. METHODS: Using a modified Delphi method, 9 experts from Latin American countries developed a simplified algorithm for COVID-19 diagnosis on the basis of their answers to 24 questions related to diagnostic settings, and discussion of the literature and their experiences. RESULTS: The algorithm considers 3 timeframes (≤7 days, 8-13 days, and ≥14 days) and presents diagnostic options for each. SARS-CoV-2 real- time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction is the test of choice from day 1 to 14 after symptom onset or close contact, although antigen testing may be used in specific circumstances, from day 5 to 7. Antibody assays may be used for confirmation, usually after day 14; however, if clinical suspicion is very high, but other tests are negative, these assays may be used as an adjunct to decision-making from day 8 to 13. CONCLUSION: The proposed algorithm aims to support COVID-19 diagnosis decision-making in Latin America.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Algorithms , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Consensus , Humans , Latin America/epidemiology
11.
Infectio ; 25(4): 262-269, oct.-dic. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1208629

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To analyse the clinic characteristics, risk factors and evolution of the first cohort of hospitalised patients with confirmed infection by COVID-19 in 5 Colombian institutions. Materials and methods: Is a retrospective observational study of consecutive hospitalized patients with a diagnosis of COVID-19 confirmed from March 01 to May 30, 2020 in Colombia. Results: A total of 44 patients were included. The median age was 62 years. 43.2% had a history of smoking, while 69.8% were overweight or obese. 88.6% had at least one comorbidity and 52.3% had three or more comorbidities. Hypertension and dyslipidaemia were the most frequent comorbidities (40.9% and 34.1%, respectively). The 30-day mortality rate was 47.7% with a median of 11 days. The composite outcome occurred in the 36.4%. The biomarkers associated with mor tality risk included troponin higher than 14 ng/L (RR: 5.25; 95% CI 1.37-20.1, p = 0.004) and D-dimer higher than 1000 ng/ml (RR: 3.0; 95% CI 1.4-6.3, p = 0.008). Conclusions: The clinical course of SARS-CoV-2 infection in hospitalized Colombian was characterised by a more advanced stage of the infection.


Resumen Objetivo: Analizar las características, clínicas, factores de riesgo, y la evolución de pacientes hospitalizados con infección confirmada por COVID-19 en 5 Institu ciones de Colombia. Material y método: Es un estudio observacional retrospectivo de pacientes consecutivos hospitalizados con diagnóstico de COVID-19 confirmado entre 01 de Febrero de 2020 y 30 de Mayo de 2020 en Colombia. Resultados: Un total de 44 pacientes fueron incluidos. La mediana de edad fue de 62 años y la mayoría del sexo masculino. El 43.2% tenían historia de tabaquismo, mientras que el 69.8% tenían sobrepeso u obesidad. El 88.6% tenían al menos una comorbilidad y el 52.3% tenían tres o más comorbilidades. La hipertensión arterial fue la comorbilidad más frecuente (40.9%), seguido de la dislipidemia (34.1%). La tasa de letalidad a 30 días fue de 47.7% y ocurrió con una mediana de 11 días. El 36.4% presentó el desenlace compuesto. Los biomarcadores asociados con el riesgo de muerte fue troponina > 14 ng/mL (RR:5.25, IC95% 1.37-20.1, p=0.004) y dímero D mayor a 1000 mg/dL (RR: 3.0, IC95% 1.4-6.3, p=0.008). Conclusiones: El curso clínico de la infección por SARS-CoV-2 en colombianos hospitalizados fue un estadio más avanzado de la infección.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Biomarkers , COVID-19 , Patients , Tobacco Use Disorder , Comorbidity , Risk , Risk Factors , Mortality , Colombia , Overweight , Courses , Infections , Obesity
12.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 10(3)2021 Mar 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1143447

ABSTRACT

Antimicrobials are essential for infection management [...].

13.
J Epidemiol Community Health ; 2021 Mar 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1122217

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: After 8 months of the COVID-19 pandemic, Latin American countries have some of the highest rates in COVID-19 mortality. Despite being one of the most unequal regions of the world, there is a scarce report of the effect of socioeconomic conditions on COVID-19 mortality in their countries. We aimed to identify the effect of some socioeconomic inequality-related factors on COVID-19 mortality in Colombia. METHODS: We conducted a survival analysis in a nation-wide retrospective cohort study of confirmed cases of COVID-19 in Colombia from 2 March 2020 to 26 October 2020. We calculated the time to death or recovery for each confirmed case in the cohort. We used an extended multivariable time-dependent Cox regression model to estimate the HR by age groups, sex, ethnicity, type of health insurance, area of residence and socioeconomic strata. RESULTS: There were 1 033 218 confirmed cases and 30 565 deaths for COVID-19 in Colombia between 2 March and 26 October. The risk of dying for COVID-19 among confirmed cases was higher in males (HR 1.68 95% CI 1.64 to 1.72), in people older than 60 years (HR 296.58 95% CI 199.22 to 441.51), in indigenous people (HR 1.20 95% CI 1.08 to 1.33), in people with subsidised health insurance regime (HR 1.89 95% CI 1.83 to 1.96) and in people living in the very low socioeconomic strata (HR 1.44 95% CI 1.24 to 1.68). CONCLUSION: Our study provides evidence of socioeconomic inequalities in COVID-19 mortality in terms of age groups, sex, ethnicity, type of health insurance regimen and socioeconomic status.

14.
Infectio ; 25(2): 94-100, abr.-jun. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-963229

ABSTRACT

Resumen La infección por SARS-CoV-2 es hoy el principal problema de salud pública en el mundo. No es claro el papel de las citoquinas en la fisiopatología del COVID-19,que en algunos individuos presenta una progresión rápida, severa y mortal asociada con proinflamación sistémicos relacionada con coagulopatías y fallas multiorgánicas. En este estudio, evaluamos los niveles séricos de citoquinas y su correlación con IgM, IgG e IgA, en 24 muestras de individuos positivos y 8 muestras de individuos negativos, para SARS-CoV-2. Hallamos concentraciones significativamente menores de IFN-g, TNF, IL-2 e IL-4 y un aumento significativo de IL-6 en el grupo de infectados hospitalizados respecto a los no infectados, así como una tendencia significativa al aumento, para IgG e IgA en el mismo grupo de individuos, respecto a infectados asintomáticos. Nuestros datos soportan el papel de la IL-6 en la severidad de la enfermedad destacando su potencial papel como biomarcador en la prognosis de esta patología. También, soportan la hipótesis sobre la función de los anticuerpos en el control efectivo del patógeno; se observa una respuesta inmune humoral más débil, frente a la proteína de la nucleocápside viral, en individuos con un mejor curso de la enfermedad.


Abstract The emergency caused by the infection in humans of SARS-COV-2 and the clinical syndrome resulting from the infection (COVID-19) is a major public health crisis with global repercussions. Currently, the role of different cytokine profiles in the infection pathophysiology and its outcome remains unclear despite the coordina ted efforts of the scientific community. COVID-19 shows a rapid progression where the disease severity and mortality are linked to systemic pro-inflammatory pro cesses associated to a dysregulation in the cytokine production balance, resulting in blood clothing disorders and multiorgan failure. Here we evaluate the serum concentration for a cytokine panel as well as the antibody titers of IgM, IgG and IgA from 24 individuals who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 by RT-PCR (divided into three separate groups according to disease severity) and eight RT-PCR-negative controls. Significantly lower concentrations of IFN-g, TNF, IL-2 and IL-4, and a higher production of IL-6 were observed in hospitalized COVID-19 patients when compared to SARS-CoV-2-negative individuals. Furthermore, a significant and sustained increase in the levels of IgG and IgA was found for the group of hospitalized patients compared to asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2-positive individuals. Our data support previous findings on the role of cytokines like IL-6 in the severity of the disease and highlight their potential use as biomarkers for the prognosis of COVID-19. Finally, we provide evidence supporting the potential function of the antibody response in the effective control of the virus, showing that a somehow weaker humoral immune response can be associated to milder forms of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Cytokines , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Biomarkers , Colombia , Immunity , Anti-Inflammatory Agents
15.
N Engl J Med ; 384(6): 497-511, 2021 02 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-953632

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: World Health Organization expert groups recommended mortality trials of four repurposed antiviral drugs - remdesivir, hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir, and interferon beta-1a - in patients hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19). METHODS: We randomly assigned inpatients with Covid-19 equally between one of the trial drug regimens that was locally available and open control (up to five options, four active and the local standard of care). The intention-to-treat primary analyses examined in-hospital mortality in the four pairwise comparisons of each trial drug and its control (drug available but patient assigned to the same care without that drug). Rate ratios for death were calculated with stratification according to age and status regarding mechanical ventilation at trial entry. RESULTS: At 405 hospitals in 30 countries, 11,330 adults underwent randomization; 2750 were assigned to receive remdesivir, 954 to hydroxychloroquine, 1411 to lopinavir (without interferon), 2063 to interferon (including 651 to interferon plus lopinavir), and 4088 to no trial drug. Adherence was 94 to 96% midway through treatment, with 2 to 6% crossover. In total, 1253 deaths were reported (median day of death, day 8; interquartile range, 4 to 14). The Kaplan-Meier 28-day mortality was 11.8% (39.0% if the patient was already receiving ventilation at randomization and 9.5% otherwise). Death occurred in 301 of 2743 patients receiving remdesivir and in 303 of 2708 receiving its control (rate ratio, 0.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.81 to 1.11; P = 0.50), in 104 of 947 patients receiving hydroxychloroquine and in 84 of 906 receiving its control (rate ratio, 1.19; 95% CI, 0.89 to 1.59; P = 0.23), in 148 of 1399 patients receiving lopinavir and in 146 of 1372 receiving its control (rate ratio, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.79 to 1.25; P = 0.97), and in 243 of 2050 patients receiving interferon and in 216 of 2050 receiving its control (rate ratio, 1.16; 95% CI, 0.96 to 1.39; P = 0.11). No drug definitely reduced mortality, overall or in any subgroup, or reduced initiation of ventilation or hospitalization duration. CONCLUSIONS: These remdesivir, hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir, and interferon regimens had little or no effect on hospitalized patients with Covid-19, as indicated by overall mortality, initiation of ventilation, and duration of hospital stay. (Funded by the World Health Organization; ISRCTN Registry number, ISRCTN83971151; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04315948.).


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Interferon beta-1a/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Aged , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/mortality , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Intention to Treat Analysis , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial , Treatment Failure
16.
Infectio ; 24(3): 187-192, jul.-set. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-664738

ABSTRACT

Abstract We review here the origin, outbreak characteristics and main epidemiological features of the novel Coronavirus (2019nCoV) responsible of a new coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Rapid global health authorities' responses are now in course and international scientific collaboration is urgently need. Previous outbreaks experiences with similar viral agents have increased the capacity to containment and control of these recurrent health menaces.


Resumen Revisamos aquí el origen, características del brote y la epidemiología del nuevo Coronavirus (2019nCoV) responsable de una nueva enfermedad por coronavirus (COVID-19). Una rápida respuesta de las autoridades de salud mundiales está en marcha y se ha hecho un llamado urgente para colaboración científica internacional. Las lecciones aprendidas de brotes previos con agentes virales similares han aumentado las capacidades para contener y controlar estas amenazas recurrentes a la salud global.


Subject(s)
Humans , Viruses , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , COVID-19 , Epidemiology , Coronavirus , Health Authorities , SARS-CoV-2
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