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1.
EClinicalMedicine ; 45: 101323, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1828408

ABSTRACT

Background: Production of affordable coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines in low- and middle-income countries is needed. NDV-HXP-S is an inactivated egg-based recombinant Newcastle disease virus vaccine expressing the spike (S) protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). It's being developed by public sector manufacturers in Thailand, Vietnam, and Brazil; herein are initial results from Thailand. Methods: This phase 1 stage of a randomised, dose-escalation, observer-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 1/2 trial was conducted at the Vaccine Trial Centre, Mahidol University (Bangkok). Healthy males and non-pregnant females, aged 18-59 years and negative for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, were eligible. Participants were randomised to receive one of six treatments by intramuscular injection twice, 28 days apart: 1 µg, 1 µg+CpG1018 (a toll-like receptor 9 agonist), 3 µg, 3 µg+CpG1018, 10 µg, or placebo. Participants and personnel assessing outcomes were masked to treatment. The primary outcomes were solicited and spontaneously reported adverse events (AEs) during 7 and 28 days after each vaccination, respectively. Secondary outcomes were immunogenicity measures (anti-S IgG and pseudotyped virus neutralisation). An interim analysis assessed safety at day 57 in treatment-exposed individuals and immunogenicity through day 43 per protocol. ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04764422). Findings: Between March 20 and April 23, 2021, 377 individuals were screened and 210 were enroled (35 per group); all received dose one; five missed dose two. The most common solicited AEs among vaccinees, all predominantly mild, were injection site pain (<63%), fatigue (<35%), headache (<32%), and myalgia (<32%). The proportion reporting a vaccine-related AE ranged from 5·7% to 17·1% among vaccine groups and was 2·9% in controls; there was no vaccine-related serious adverse event. The 10 µg formulation's immunogenicity ranked best, followed by 3 µg+CpG1018, 3 µg, 1 µg+CpG1018, and 1 µg formulations. On day 43, the geometric mean concentrations of 50% neutralising antibody ranged from 122·23 international units per mL (IU/mL; 1 µg, 95% confidence interval (CI) 86·40-172·91) to 474·35 IU/mL (10 µg, 95% CI 320·90-701·19), with 93·9% to 100% of vaccine groups attaining a ≥ 4-fold increase over baseline. Interpretation: NDV-HXP-S had an acceptable safety profile and potent immunogenicity. The 3 µg and 3 µg+CpG1018 formulations advanced to phase 2. Funding: National Vaccine Institute (Thailand), National Research Council (Thailand), Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, National Institutes of Health (USA).

2.
mBio ; : e0358021, 2022 Apr 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1807332

ABSTRACT

Structural characterization of infection- and vaccination-elicited antibodies in complex with antigen provides insight into the evolutionary arms race between the host and the pathogen and informs rational vaccine immunogen design. We isolated a germ line-encoded monoclonal antibody (mAb) from plasmablasts activated upon mRNA vaccination against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and determined its structure in complex with the spike glycoprotein by electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM). We show that the mAb engages a previously uncharacterized neutralizing epitope on the spike N-terminal domain (NTD). The high-resolution structure reveals details of the intermolecular interactions and shows that the mAb inserts its heavy complementarity-determining region 3 (HCDR3) loop into a hydrophobic NTD cavity previously shown to bind a heme metabolite, biliverdin. We demonstrate direct competition with biliverdin and that, because of the conserved nature of the epitope, the mAb maintains binding to viral variants B.1.1.7 (alpha), B.1.351 (beta), B.1.617.2 (delta), and B.1.1.529 (omicron). Our study describes a novel conserved epitope on the NTD that is readily targeted by vaccine-induced antibody responses. IMPORTANCE We report the first structure of a vaccine-induced antibody to SARS-CoV-2 spike isolated from plasmablasts 7 days after vaccination. The genetic sequence of the antibody PVI.V6-14 suggests that it is completely unmutated, meaning that this type of B cell did not undergo somatic hypermutation or affinity maturation; this cell was likely already present in the donor and was activated by the vaccine. This is, to our knowledge, also the first structure of an unmutated antibody in complex with its cognate antigen. PVI.V6-14 binds a novel, conserved epitope on the N-terminal domain (NTD) and neutralizes the original viral strain. PVI.V6-14 also binds the newly emerged variants B.1.1.7 (alpha), B.1.351 (beta), B.1.617.2 (delta), and B.1.1.529 (omicron). Given that this antibody was likely already present in the donor prior to vaccination, we believe that this antibody class could potentially "keep up" with the new variants, should they continue to emerge, by undergoing somatic hypermutation and affinity maturation.

3.
Front Immunol ; 13: 796481, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765667

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID19) pandemic has left researchers scrambling to identify the humoral immune correlates of protection from COVID-19. To date, the antibody mediated correlates of virus neutralization have been extensively studied. However, the extent that non-neutralizing functions contribute to anti-viral responses are ill defined. In this study, we profiled the anti-spike antibody subtype/subclass responses, along with neutralization and antibody-dependent natural killer cell functions in 83 blood samples collected between 4 and 201 days post-symptoms onset from a cohort of COVID-19 outpatients. We observed heterogeneous humoral responses against the acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike protein. Overall, anti-spike profiles were characterized by a rapid rise of IgA and sustained IgG titers. In addition, strong antibody-mediated natural killer effector responses correlated with milder disease and being female. While higher neutralization profiles were observed in males along with increased severity. These results give an insight into the underlying function of antibodies beyond neutralization and suggest that antibody-mediated natural killer cell activity is a key function of the humoral response against the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Convalescence , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Outpatients , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/blood , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism
4.
Sci Transl Med ; 14(645): eabm2311, 2022 May 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765074

ABSTRACT

The successful development of several coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines has substantially reduced morbidity and mortality in regions of the world where the vaccines have been deployed. However, in the wake of the emergence of viral variants that are able to evade vaccine-induced neutralizing antibodies, real-world vaccine efficacy has begun to show differences across the two approved mRNA platforms, BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273; these findings suggest that subtle variation in immune responses induced by the BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273 vaccines may confer differential protection. Given our emerging appreciation for the importance of additional antibody functions beyond neutralization, we profiled the postboost binding and functional capacity of humoral immune responses induced by the BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273 vaccines in a cohort of hospital staff. Both vaccines induced robust humoral immune responses to wild-type severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and to variants of concern. However, differences emerged across epitope-specific responses, with higher concentrations of receptor binding domain (RBD)- and N-terminal domain-specific IgA observed in recipients of mRNA-1273. Antibodies eliciting neutrophil phagocytosis and natural killer cell activation were also increased in mRNA-1273 vaccine recipients as compared to BNT162b2 recipients. RBD-specific antibody depletion highlighted the different roles of non-RBD-specific antibody effector functions induced across the mRNA vaccines. These data provide insights into potential differences in protective immunity conferred by these vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Vaccination , Vaccines, Synthetic
5.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0249723, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736492

ABSTRACT

Approximately 10% of infants infected with SARS-CoV-2 will experience COVID-19 illness requiring advanced care. A potential mechanism to protect this population is passive immunization via the milk of a previously infected person. We and others have reported on the presence of SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies in human milk. We now report the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 IgA in the milk of 74 COVID-19-recovered participants, and find that 89% of samples are positive for Spike-specific IgA. In a subset of these samples, 95% exhibited robust IgA activity as determined by endpoint binding titer, with 50% considered high-titer. These IgA-positive samples were also positive for Spike-specific secretory antibody. Levels of IgA antibodies and secretory antibodies were shown to be strongly positively correlated. The secretory IgA response was dominant among the milk samples tested compared to the IgG response, which was present in 75% of samples and found to be of high-titer in only 13% of cases. Our IgA durability analysis using 28 paired samples, obtained 4-6 weeks and 4-10 months after infection, found that all samples exhibited persistently significant Spike-specific IgA, with 43% of donors exhibiting increasing IgA titers over time. Finally, COVID-19 and pre-pandemic control milk samples were tested for the presence of neutralizing antibodies; 6 of 8 COVID-19 samples exhibited neutralization of Spike-pseudotyped VSV (IC50 range, 2.39-89.4ug/mL) compared to 1 of 8 controls. IgA binding and neutralization capacities were found to be strongly positively correlated. These data are highly relevant to public health, not only in terms of the protective capacity of these antibodies for breastfed infants, but also for the potential use of such antibodies as a COVID-19 therapeutic, given that secretory IgA is highly in all mucosal compartments.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Immunoglobulin A/immunology , Milk, Human/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/metabolism , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/metabolism , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Young Adult
6.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324876

ABSTRACT

A novel clinical assay for the detection and quantitation of antibodies against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was adapted from an in-house, research-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Development and validation were performed under regulatory guidelines, and the test obtained emergency use authorization (EUA) from the New York State Department of Health (NYSDOH) and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The Mount Sinai COVID-19 antibody assay is an orthogonal, quantitative direct ELISA test which detects antibodies reactive to the receptor binding domain (RBD) and the spike protein of the novel SARS-CoV-2. The assay is performed on 96-well plates coated with either SARS-CoV-2 recombinant RBD or spike proteins. The test is divided into two stages, a qualitative screening assay against RBD and a quantitative assay against the full-length spike protein. The test uses pooled high titer serum as a reference standard. Negative pre-COVID-19 and positive post-COVID-19, PCR-confirmed specimens were incorporated in each ELISA test run, and the assays were performed independently at two different locations. The Mount Sinai COVID-19 serology performed with high sensitivity and specificity, 92.5% (95% CI: 0.785 – 0.980) and 100% (CI: 0.939 – 1.000) respectively. Between-run precision was assessed with a single run repeated over 22 days;and within-run precision was assessed with 10 replicates per day over 22 days. Both were within reported acceptance criteria (CV ≤20%). This population-based study reveals the applicability and reliability of this novel orthogonal COVID-19 serology test for the detection and quantitation of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2, allowing a broad set of clinical applications, including the broad evaluation of SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence and antibody profiling in different population subsets.Funding: This work was partially supported by the JPB foundation, the Open Philanthropy Project (#2020-215611) and other philanthropic donations.Declaration of Interests: Mount Sinai has licensed serological assays to commercial entities and has filed for patent protection for serological assays. The Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai has filed patent applications relating to the COVID-19 serological assay (“Serology Assay”) and NDV-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccines which list Florian Krammer (“Serology Assay”, vaccines), Daniel Stadlbauer (“Serology Assay”), Damodara Rao Mendu (“Serology Assay”), and Carlos Cordon-Cardo (“Serology Assay”) as co-inventors. The foundational “Serology Assay” intellectual property (IP) was licensed by the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai to commercial entities including Kantaro Biosciences, a company in which Mount Sinai has a financial interest. Florian Krammer consulted for Merck, Curevac, and Pfizer in the past (before 2020) and is currently consulting for Pfizer, Seqirus, and Avimex. The Krammer laboratory is collaborating with Pfizer on animal models of SARS-CoV-2.Patient Informed Consent Statement: Informed consent was obtained from all individuals included in this study.

7.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-317943

ABSTRACT

T-cell responses to SARS-CoV-2-derived peptide pools have been documented, however it remains largely unclear whether prominent SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell populations originate from naïve or pre-existing memory sets. As HLA-B*07:02-restricted N105-113 epitope (B7/N105) is the most dominant SARS-CoV-2 CD8+ T-cell specificity to date, we dissected CD8+ T-cell responses directed at this epitope by direct ex vivo analyses in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from acute and convalescent COVID-19 patients, and pre-pandemic PBMCs, tonsils, lungs and spleens. Using peptide-HLA tetramers, immunodominant B7/N105+CD8+ T-cells were detected at a high frequency (∼2.18x10-4) in COVID-19 patients, comparable to the well-established influenza-specific A2/M158+CD8+ T-cell population. Remarkably, frequencies of B7/N105+CD8+ T-cells were also readily detectable in pre-pandemic PBMCs and tonsils (at 6.55x10-5 and 2.76x10-4, respectively), although they mainly displayed a naïve phenotype, indicating a lack of previous cross-reactive exposures. Ex vivo TCRαβ analyses revealed that a diverse TCRαβ repertoire and promiscuity in αβ TCR pairing underlie such high naïve precursor frequencies of B7/N105+CD8+ T-cells. Overall, our study demonstrates that high precursor frequency and plasticity of TCRα-TCRβ pairing underpin immunodominance of SARS-CoV-2-specific B7/N105+CD8+ T-cell responses and advocates for vaccine strategies which include the nucleocapsid protein to elicit immunodominant CD8+ T-cell responses in HLA-B*07:02 individuals.Funding: This work was supported by theClifford Craig Foundation to KLF and KK, NHMRC Leadership Investigator Grant to KK (1173871), NHMRC Program Grant to DLD (#1132975), Research Grants Council of theHong Kong Special Administrative Region, China (#T11-712/19-N) to KK, the Victorian Government (SJK, AKW), MRFF award (#2002073) to SJK and AKW, MRFFAward (#1202445) to KK, NHMRC program grant 1149990 (SJK) and NHMRC project grant 1162760 (AKW). AKW is supported by Emerging Leadership 1 Investigator Grant (#1173433), JAJ by an NHMRC Early Career Fellowship (ECF) (#1123673), KK by NHMRC SeniorResearch Fellowship (1102792), DLD by a NHMRC Principal Research Fellowship(#1137285) and SJK by NHMRC Senior Principal Research Fellowship (#1136322). CES has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under the Marie Skłodowska-Curie grant agreement (#792532). JR is supported by an ARC Laureate fellowship. JRH and WZ are supported by the Melbourne Research Scholarship from The University of Melbourne. LH is supported by the Melbourne International Research Scholarship (MIRS) and the Melbourne International Fee Remission Scholarship (MIFRS) from The University of Melbourne.Ethical Approval: Experiments conformed to the Declaration of Helsinki Principles and theAustralian National Health and Medical Research Council Code of Practice. Written informed consents were obtained from all blood donors prior to the study. Lung and spleen tissues were obtained from deceased organ donors after written informed consents from the next of kin.Written informed consents were obtained from participants’ parental or guardians for underage tonsil tissue donors. The study was approved by the Alfred Hospital (#280/14), Austin Health (HREC/63201/Austin-2020);the University of Melbourne (#2057366.1, #2056901.1,#2056689, #2056761, #1442952, #1955465, and #1443389), the Australian Red CrossLifeblood (ID 2015#8), the Tasmanian Health and Medical (ID H0017479) and the James Cook University (H7886) Human Research Ethics Committees.

8.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-313938

ABSTRACT

Although pregnancy poses a greater risk for severe COVID-19, the underlying immunological changes associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy are poorly understood. We defined immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 in pregnant and non-pregnant women during acute and convalescent COVID-19 up to 258 days post symptom onset, quantifying 217 immunological parameters. Additionally, matched maternal and cord blood were collected from COVID-19 convalescent pregnancies. Although serological responses to SARS-CoV-2 were similar in pregnant and non-pregnant women, cellular immune analyses revealed marked differences in key NK cell and unconventional T cell responses during COVID-19 in pregnant women. While NK, γδ T cells and MAIT cells displayed pre-activated phenotypes in healthy pregnant women when compared to non-pregnant age-matched women, activation profiles of these pre-activated NK and unconventional T cells remained unchanged at acute and convalescent COVID-19 in pregnancy. Conversely, activation dynamics of NK and unconventional T cells were prototypical in non-pregnant women in COVID-19. In contrast, activation of αβ CD4 + and CD8 + T cells, T follicular helper cells and antibody-secreting cells was similar in pregnant and non-pregnant women with COVID-19. Elevated levels of IL-1β, IFN-γ, IL-8, IL-18 and IL-33 were also found in pregnant women in their healthy state, and these cytokine levels remained elevated during acute and convalescent COVID-19. Collectively, our study provides the first comprehensive map of longitudinal immunological responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnant women, providing insights into patient management and education during COVID-19 pregnancy.

9.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-313773

ABSTRACT

The robust protection conferred by SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines represents a critical milestone in the COVID-19 vaccine development. However, the emergence of variants has inspired renewed concern related to the protective efficacy of currently approved vaccines, which lose neutralizing potency against some variants. However, emerging data suggest that antibody functions, beyond neutralization, may contribute to protection from disease. Thus, here we profiled the binding and functional capacity of convalescent antibodies and Moderna mRNA-1273 COVID-19 vaccine-induced antibodies across SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOC). While neutralizing antibody responses are affected by VOCs, antibodies generated after infection exhibited robust binding to VOCs but compromised interactions with Fc-receptors. Conversely, vaccine-induced antibodies bound robustly to VOCs and continued interacting with Fc-receptors and mediated antibody effector functions. These data point to a previously unappreciated resilience in the mRNA vaccine-induced humoral immune response that may continue to provide protection from SARS-CoV-2 VOCs independent of neutralization.Trial Registration: This work used samples from the phase 1, dose-escalation, open-labelclinical trial designed to determine the safety, reactogenicity, and immunogenicity of mRNA-1273 (mRNA-1273 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04283461 mRNA-1273 study;DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa2022483).Funding: We acknowledge support from the Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT, and Harvard, the Massachusetts Consortium on Pathogen Readiness (MassCPR), the NIH (3R37AI080289-11S1, R01AI146785, U19AI42790-01, U19AI135995-02, U19AI42790-01, 1U01CA260476 – 01, CIVIC75N93019C00052), the Gates Foundation Global Health Vaccine Accelerator Platform funding (OPP1146996 and INV-001650), Translational Research Institute for Space Health through NASA Cooperative Agreement (NNX16AO69A), and the Musk Foundation. This work used samples from the phase 1 mRNA-1273 study (NCT04283461;DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa2022483). The mRNA-1273 phase 1 study was sponsored and primarily funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, MD. This trial has been funded in part with federal funds from the NIAID under grant awards UM1AI148373, to Kaiser Washington;UM1AI148576, UM1AI148684, and NIH P51 OD011132, to Emory University;NIH AID AI149644, and contract award HHSN272201500002C, to Emmes. Funding for the manufacture of mRNA-1273 phase 1 material was provided by the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovation.Declaration of Interest: G.A. is a founder of Seromyx Systems Inc. A.C. is employee of Moderna Inc. D.D., P.M., A.S.M, and E.R.M. are employees of Space Exploration Technologies Corp. All other authors have declared that no conflict of interest exists.Ethical Approval: The MGH IRB reviewed the ethics protocol for secondary use under record 2020P004042 and the project was deemed Not Human Research.

10.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-309974

ABSTRACT

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) messenger RNA (mRNA)-based vaccines are ~95% effective in preventing coronavirus disease 2019. However, the dynamics of antibody secreting plasmablasts (PBs) and germinal centre (GC) B cells induced by these vaccines in SARS-CoV-2 naïve and antigen-experienced humans remains unclear. Here we examined peripheral blood and/or lymph node (LN) antigen-specific B cell responses in 32 individuals who received two doses of BNT162b2, an mRNA-based vaccine encoding the full-length SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) gene. Circulating IgG- and IgA-secreting PBs targeting the S protein peaked one week after the second immunization then declined and were undetectable three weeks later. PB responses coincided with maximal levels of serum anti-S binding and neutralizing antibodies to a historical strain as well as emerging variants, especially in individuals previously infected with SARS-CoV-2, who produced the most robust serological responses. Fine needle aspirates of draining axillary LNs identified GC B cells that bind S protein in all participants sampled after primary immunization. GC responses increased after boosting and were detectable in two distinct LNs in several participants. Remarkably, high frequencies of S-binding GC B cells and PBs were maintained in draining LNs for up to seven weeks after first immunization, with a substantial fraction of the PB pool class-switched to IgA. GC B cell-derived monoclonal antibodies predominantly targeted the RBD, with fewer clones binding to the N-terminal domain or shared epitopes within the S proteins of human betacoronaviruses OC43 and HKU1. Our studies demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2 mRNA-based vaccination of humans induces a robust and persistent GC B cell response that engages pre-existing as well as new B cell clones, which enables generation of high-affinity, broad, and durable humoral immunity.

11.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-309780

ABSTRACT

Dissecting the evolution of memory B cells (MBCs) against SARS-CoV-2 is critical for understanding antibody recall upon secondary exposure. Here, we utilized single-cell sequencing to profile SARS-CoV-2-reactive B cell subsets in 42 COVID-19 patients. We isolated thousands of B cells in multiple distinct subsets specific to the SARS-CoV-2 spike, endemic coronavirus (HCoV) spikes, nucleoprotein (NP), and open reading frame 8 (ORF8). Spike-specific cells were enriched in the memory compartment of acutely infected and convalescent patients 1.5–5 months post-infection. With severe acute infection, we identified substantial populations of endemic HCoV-reactive antibody-secreting cells with highly mutated variable genes, indicative of preexisting immunity. Finally, MBCs exhibited maturation to NP and ORF8 over time relative to spike, especially in older patients. Monoclonal antibodies against these targets were non-neutralizing and non-protective in vivo. These findings reveal considerable antibody adaptation to non-neutralizing antigens during infection, emphasizing the importance of vaccination for inducing neutralizing spike-specific MBCs.Trial Registration Number: This clinical trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov with identifier NCT04340050, and clinical information for patients included in the study is detailed in Table S1–S3.Funding: This project was funded in part by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease (NIAID);National Institutes of Health (NIH) grant numbers U19AI082724 (P.C.W.), U19AI109946 (P.C.W.), U19AI057266 (P.C.W.), the NIAID Centers of Excellence for Influenza Research and Surveillance (CEIRS) grant numbers HHSN272201400005C(P.C.W.). N.W.A. was supported by the Multi-disciplinary Training program in Cancer Research (MTCR) - NIH T32 CA009594. A.J. and R.P.J were supported by federal funds from the NIAID, NIH, and Department of Health and Human Services under Contract HHSN272201700060C. F.K and F.A. were funded by the NIAID CEIRS contractHHSN272201400008C, Collaborative Influenza Vaccine Innovation Centers (CIVIC) contract 75N93019C00051 and the generous support of the JPB foundation, the Open Philanthropy Project (#2020-215611) and other philanthropic donations. Y.K. and P.H.were funded by the Research Program on Emerging and Re-emerging Infectious Disease grant (JP19fk0108113) and the Japan Program for Infectious Diseases Research and Infrastructure (JP20fk0108272) from the Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development (AMED), NIAID CEIRS contract HHSN272201400008C, and CIVIC contract 75N93019C00051. D.F., C.N, Y.D., and P.D.H, were supported by NIAID contracts HHSN272201700060C and 75N93019C00062. M.S.D. and E.S.W. were supported by NIH grants R01 AI157155 and F30 AI152327, respectively.Conflict of Interest: Several antibodies generated from this work are being used by Now Diagnostics in Springdale, AR for the development of a diagnostic test. M.S.D. is a consultant for Inbios, Vir Biotechnology, NGM Biopharmaceuticals, and Carnival Corporation, and on the Scientific Advisory Boards of Moderna and Immunome. The Diamond laboratory has received funding support in sponsored research agreements from Moderna, Vir Biotechnology, and Emergent BioSolutions.Ethical Approval: All studies were performed with the approval of the University of Chicago institutional review board IRB20-0523 and University of Chicago, University of Wisconsin-Madison, and Washington University in St. Louis institutional biosafety committees. Informed consent was obtained after the research applications and possible consequences of the studies were disclosed to study subjects.

12.
Immunity ; 55(2): 355-365.e4, 2022 02 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1611777

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines confer robust protection against COVID-19, but the emergence of variants has generated concerns regarding the protective efficacy of the currently approved vaccines, which lose neutralizing potency against some variants. Emerging data suggest that antibody functions beyond neutralization may contribute to protection from the disease, but little is known about SARS-CoV-2 antibody effector functions. Here, we profiled the binding and functional capacity of convalescent antibodies and Moderna mRNA-1273 COVID-19 vaccine-induced antibodies across SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs). Although the neutralizing responses to VOCs decreased in both groups, the Fc-mediated responses were distinct. In convalescent individuals, although antibodies exhibited robust binding to VOCs, they showed compromised interactions with Fc-receptors. Conversely, vaccine-induced antibodies also bound robustly to VOCs but continued to interact with Fc-receptors and mediate antibody effector functions. These data point to a resilience in the mRNA-vaccine-induced humoral immune response that may continue to offer protection from SARS-CoV-2 VOCs independent of neutralization.


Subject(s)
/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/prevention & control , Receptors, Fc/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , /administration & dosage , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Cross Reactions/immunology , Female , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neutralization Tests , Protein Binding , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccination , Young Adult
13.
Front Immunol ; 12: 759688, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1605844

ABSTRACT

Antibodies (Abs) are essential for the host immune response against SARS-CoV-2, and all the vaccines developed so far have been designed to induce Abs targeting the SARS-CoV-2 spike. Many studies have examined Ab responses in the blood from vaccinated and infected individuals. However, since SARS-CoV-2 is a respiratory virus, it is also critical to understand the mucosal Ab responses at the sites of initial virus exposure. Here, we examined plasma versus saliva Ab responses in vaccinated and convalescent patients. Although saliva levels were significantly lower, a strong correlation was observed between plasma and saliva total Ig levels against all SARS-CoV-2 antigens tested. Virus-specific IgG1 responses predominated in both saliva and plasma, while a lower prevalence of IgM and IgA1 Abs was observed in saliva. Antiviral activities of plasma Abs were also studied. Neutralization titers against the initial WA1 (D614G), B.1.1.7 (alpha) and B.1.617.2 (delta) strains were similar but lower against the B.1.351 (beta) strain. Spike-specific antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP) activities were also detected and the levels correlated with spike-binding Ig titers. Interestingly, while neutralization and ADCP potencies of vaccinated and convalescent groups were comparable, enhanced complement deposition to spike-specific Abs was noted in vaccinated versus convalescent groups and corresponded with higher levels of IgG1 plus IgG3 among the vaccinated individuals. Altogether, this study demonstrates the detection of Ab responses after vaccination or infection in plasma and saliva that correlate significantly, although Ig isotypic differences were noted. The induced plasma Abs displayed Fab-mediated and Fc-dependent functions with comparable neutralization and ADCP potencies, but a greater capacity to activate complement was elicited upon vaccination.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Saliva/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibody Formation/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Saliva/virology , Vaccination
14.
PLoS Biol ; 19(12): e3001384, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1573706

ABSTRACT

Vaccines against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have been highly efficient in protecting against Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, the emergence of viral variants that are more transmissible and, in some cases, escape from neutralizing antibody responses has raised concerns. Here, we evaluated recombinant protein spike antigens derived from wild-type SARS-CoV-2 and from variants B.1.1.7, B.1.351, and P.1 for their immunogenicity and protective effect in vivo against challenge with wild-type SARS-CoV-2 in the mouse model. All proteins induced high neutralizing antibodies against the respective viruses but also induced high cross-neutralizing antibody responses. The decline in neutralizing titers between variants was moderate, with B.1.1.7-vaccinated animals having a maximum fold reduction of 4.8 against B.1.351 virus. P.1 induced the most cross-reactive antibody responses but was also the least immunogenic in terms of homologous neutralization titers. However, all antigens protected from challenge with wild-type SARS-CoV-2 in a mouse model.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cross Reactions , Female , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Vero Cells
15.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-295859

ABSTRACT

Children are at lower risk of developing severe COVID-19, yet the underlying immune mechanisms are understudied. While children’s innate immunity can drive rapid resolution of SARS-CoV-2 infection, the establishment of SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell and B-cell memory in COVID-19 children remains unexplored. We recruited a household cohort to understand SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell immune responses at one month after mild or asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection in PCR-positive children in comparison to those found in their mothers. We analysed SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell responses, together with B-cells, directly ex vivo using six HLA class-I tetramers and one class-II tetramer presenting SARS57 CoV-2 T-cell epitopes (A1/ORF1a1637, A2/S269, A3/N361, A24/S1208, B7/N105, B40/N322 and DPB4/S167), and Spike- and Receptor Binding Domain (RBD)-specific B-cell probes. Our in depth profiling of epitope-specific T-cell responses at quantitative, phenotypic and clonal levels found that only children who seroconverted had prominent memory T-cell and B-cell profiles. These children had a high magnitude of SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cells displaying memory phenotypes and prevalent T-cell receptor motifs, which were not observed in PCR+ RBD but IgG-negative children. This suggests that seroconversion but not PCR-positivity defines establishment of adaptive SARS-CoV-2-specific immunological memory in children. Our study suggests that COVID-19 vaccination of children could be a major advantage in terms of establishing T-cell and B-cell immunological memory, especially in children who did not seroconvert after SARS-CoV-2 infection.

16.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-294083

ABSTRACT

Summary In this study we profiled vaccine-induced polyclonal antibodies as well as plasmablast derived mAbs from individuals who received SARS-CoV-2 spike mRNA vaccine. Polyclonal antibody responses in vaccinees were robust and comparable to or exceeded those seen after natural infection. However, the ratio of binding to neutralizing antibodies after vaccination was greater than that after natural infection and, at the monoclonal level, we found that the majority of vaccine-induced antibodies did not have neutralizing activity. We also found a co-dominance of mAbs targeting the NTD and RBD of SARS-CoV-2 spike and an original antigenic-sin like backboost to seasonal human coronaviruses OC43 and HKU1. Neutralizing activity of NTD mAbs but not RBD mAbs against a clinical viral isolate carrying E484K as well as extensive changes in the NTD was abolished, suggesting that a proportion of vaccine induced RBD binding antibodies may provide substantial protection against viral variants carrying single E484K RBD mutations.

17.
Heliyon ; 7(12): e08444, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1521002

ABSTRACT

A novel clinical assay for the detection and quantitation of antibodies against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was adapted from an in-house, research-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Development and validation were performed under regulatory guidelines, and the test obtained emergency use authorization (EUA) from the New York State Department of Health (NYSDOH) and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The Mount Sinai coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) antibody assay is an orthogonal, quantitative direct ELISA test which detects antibodies reactive to the receptor binding domain (RBD) and the spike protein of the novel SARS-CoV-2. The assay is performed on 96-well plates coated with either SARS-CoV-2 recombinant RBD or spike proteins. The test is divided into two stages, a qualitative screening assay against RBD and a quantitative assay against the full-length spike protein. The test uses pooled high titer serum as a reference standard. Negative pre-COVID-19 and positive post-COVID-19, PCR-confirmed specimens were incorporated in each ELISA test run, and the assays were performed independently at two different locations. The Mount Sinai COVID-19 serology performed with high sensitivity and specificity, 92.5% (95% CI: 0.785-0.980) and 100% (CI: 0.939-1.000) respectively. Between-run precision was assessed with a single run repeated over 22 days; and within-run precision was assessed with 10 replicates per day over 22 days. Both were within reported acceptance criteria (CV ≤ 20%). This population-based study reveals the applicability and reliability of this novel orthogonal COVID-19 serology test for the detection and quantitation of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2, allowing a broad set of clinical applications, including the broad evaluation of SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence and antibody profiling in different population subsets.

18.
mBio ; 12(6): e0297521, 2021 12 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518123

ABSTRACT

Several severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants have arisen that exhibit increased viral transmissibility and partial evasion of immunity induced by natural infection and vaccination. To address the specific antibody targets that were affected by recent viral variants, we generated 43 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) from 10 convalescent donors that bound three distinct domains of the SARS-CoV-2 spike. Viral variants harboring mutations at K417, E484, and N501 could escape most of the highly potent antibodies against the receptor binding domain (RBD). Despite this, we identified 12 neutralizing mAbs against three distinct regions of the spike protein that neutralize SARS-CoV-2 and variants of concern (VOCs), including B.1.1.7 (alpha), P.1 (gamma), and B.1.617.2 (delta). Notably, antibodies targeting distinct epitopes could neutralize discrete variants, suggesting that different variants may have evolved to disrupt the binding of particular neutralizing antibody classes. These results underscore that humans exposed to the first pandemic wave of prototype SARS-CoV-2 possess neutralizing antibodies against current variants and that it is critical to induce antibodies targeting multiple distinct epitopes of the spike that can neutralize emerging variants of concern. IMPORTANCE We describe the binding and neutralization properties of a new set of human monoclonal antibodies derived from memory B cells of 10 coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) convalescent donors in the first pandemic wave of prototype SARS-CoV-2. There were 12 antibodies targeting distinct epitopes on spike, including two sites on the RBD and one on the N-terminal domain (NTD), that displayed cross-neutralization of VOCs, for which distinct antibody targets could neutralize discrete variants. This work underlines that natural infection by SARS-CoV-2 induces effective cross-neutralization against only some VOCs and supports the need for COVID-19 vaccination for robust induction of neutralizing antibodies targeting multiple epitopes of the spike protein to combat the current SARS-CoV-2 VOCs and any others that might emerge in the future.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/blood , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/immunology , Convalescence , Epitopes/immunology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neutralization Tests , Pandemics , Plasma/immunology , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
19.
Non-conventional in English | [Unspecified Source], Grey literature | ID: grc-750493

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is currently causing a worldwide pandemic with high morbidity and mortality. Development of animal models that recapitulate important aspects of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is critical for the evaluation of vaccines and antivirals, and understanding disease pathogenesis. SARS-CoV-2 has been shown to use the same entry receptor as SARS-CoV-1, human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2)(1-3). Due to amino acid differences between murine and hACE2, inbred mouse strains fail to support high titer viral replication of SARS-CoV-2 virus. Therefore, a number of transgenic and knock-in mouse models, as well as viral vector-mediated hACE2 delivery systems have been developed. Here we compared the K18-hACE2 transgenic model to adenovirus-mediated delivery of hACE2 to the mouse lung. We show that K18-hACE2 mice replicate virus to high titers in both the lung and brain leading to lethality. In contrast, adenovirus-mediated delivery results in viral replication to lower titers limited to the lung, and no clinical signs of infection with a challenge dose of 10 (4) plaque forming units. The K18-hACE2 model provides a stringent model for testing the ability of vaccines and antivirals to protect against disease, whereas the adenovirus delivery system has the flexibility to be used across multiple genetic backgrounds and modified mouse strains.

20.
Non-conventional in English | [Unspecified Source], Grey literature | ID: grc-750490

ABSTRACT

Initially, the global outbreak of COVID-19 caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spared children from severe disease. However, after the initial wave of infections, clusters of a novel hyperinflammatory disease have been reported in regions with ongoing SARS-CoV-2 epidemics. While the characteristic clinical features are becoming clear, the pathophysiology remains unknown. Herein, we report on the immune profiles of eight Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) cases. We document that all MIS-C patients had evidence of prior SARS-CoV-2 exposure, mounting an antibody response with normal isotype-switching and neutralization capability. We further profiled the secreted immune response by high-dimensional cytokine assays, which identified elevated signatures of inflammation (IL-18 and IL-6), lymphocytic and myeloid chemotaxis and activation (CCL3, CCL4, and CDCP1) and mucosal immune dysregulation (IL-17A, CCL20, CCL28). Mass cytometry immunophenotyping of peripheral blood revealed reductions of mDC1 and non-classical monocytes, as well as both NK- and T- lymphocytes, suggesting extravasation to affected tissues. Markers of activated myeloid function were also evident, including upregulation of ICAM1 and FcR1 in neutrophil and non-classical monocytes, well-documented markers in autoinflammation and autoimmunity that indicate enhanced antigen presentation and Fc-mediated responses. Finally, to assess the role for autoimmunity secondary to infection, we profiled the auto-antigen reactivity of MIS-C plasma, which revealed both known disease-associated autoantibodies (anti-La) and novel candidates that recognize endothelial, gastrointestinal and immune-cell antigens. All patients were treated with anti- IL6R antibody or IVIG, which led to rapid disease resolution tracking with normalization of inflammatory markers.

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