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1.
Nat Immunol ; 23(5): 768-780, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1751739

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and vaccination elicit CD4+ T cell responses to the spike protein, including circulating follicular helper T (cTFH) cells that correlate with neutralizing antibodies. Using a novel HLA-DRB1*15:01/S751 tetramer to track spike-specific CD4+ T cells, we show that primary infection or vaccination induces robust S751-specific CXCR5- and cTFH cell memory responses. Secondary exposure induced recall of CD4+ T cells with a transitory CXCR3+ phenotype, and drove expansion of cTFH cells transiently expressing ICOS, CD38 and PD-1. In both contexts, cells exhibited a restricted T cell antigen receptor repertoire, including a highly public clonotype and considerable clonotypic overlap between CXCR5- and cTFH populations. Following a third vaccine dose, the rapid re-expansion of spike-specific CD4+ T cells contrasted with the comparatively delayed increase in antibody titers. Overall, we demonstrate that stable pools of cTFH and memory CD4+ T cells established by infection and/or vaccination are efficiently recalled upon antigen reexposure and may contribute to long-term protection against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Epitopes/metabolism , Humans , Receptors, CXCR5/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer
2.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-291856

ABSTRACT

CD4+ T cells play a critical role in the immune response to viral infection. SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccination elicit strong CD4+ T cell responses to the viral spike protein, including circulating T follicular helper (cTFH) cells that correlate with the development of neutralising antibodies. Here we use a novel HLA-DRB1*15:01/S751 tetramer to precisely track spike-specific CD4+ T cells following recovery from mild/moderate COVID-19, or after vaccination with spike-encoding vaccines. SARS-CoV-2 infection induces robust S751-specific responses with both CXCR5- and cTFH phenotypes that are maintained for at least 12 months in a stable, CXCR3-biased, central memory pool. Vaccination of immunologically naïve subjects similarly drives expansion of S751-specific T cells with a highly restricted TCR repertoire comprised of both public and private clonotypes. Vaccination of convalescent individuals drives recall of CD4+ T cell clones established during infection, which are shared between the CXCR5- and cTFH compartments. This recall response is evident 5 days after antigen exposure and includes a population of spike-specific cTFH that persist in the periphery after losing expression of PD-1. Overall this study demonstrates the generation of a stable pool of cTFH and memory CD4+ T cells that can be recalled upon spike antigen re-exposure, which may play an important role in long-term protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection.

3.
Cell Rep ; 37(2): 109822, 2021 10 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1433046

ABSTRACT

Potent neutralizing monoclonal antibodies are one of the few agents currently available to treat COVID-19. SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) that carry multiple mutations in the viral spike protein can exhibit neutralization resistance, potentially affecting the effectiveness of some antibody-based therapeutics. Here, the generation of a diverse panel of 91 human, neutralizing monoclonal antibodies provides an in-depth structural and phenotypic definition of receptor binding domain (RBD) antigenic sites on the viral spike. These RBD antibodies ameliorate SARS-CoV-2 infection in mice and hamster models in a dose-dependent manner and in proportion to in vitro, neutralizing potency. Assessing the effect of mutations in the spike protein on antibody recognition and neutralization highlights both potent single antibodies and stereotypic classes of antibodies that are unaffected by currently circulating VOCs, such as B.1.351 and P.1. These neutralizing monoclonal antibodies and others that bind analogous epitopes represent potentially useful future anti-SARS-CoV-2 therapeutics.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/ultrastructure , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing/ultrastructure , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Cricetinae , Cryoelectron Microscopy/methods , Epitopes/immunology , Female , Humans , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Middle Aged , Neutralization Tests , Protein Binding/physiology , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
4.
Clin Transl Immunology ; 10(3): e1264, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1144232

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Endemic human coronaviruses (hCoVs) circulate worldwide but cause minimal mortality. Although seroconversion to hCoV is near ubiquitous during childhood, little is known about hCoV-specific T-cell memory in adults. METHODS: We quantified CD4 T-cell and antibody responses to hCoV spike antigens in 42 SARS-CoV-2-uninfected individuals. Antigen-specific memory T cells and circulating T follicular helper (cTFH) cells were identified using an activation-induced marker assay and characterised for memory phenotype and chemokine receptor expression. RESULTS: T-cell responses were widespread within conventional memory and cTFH compartments but did not correlate with IgG titres. SARS-CoV-2 cross-reactive T cells were observed in 48% of participants and correlated with HKU1 memory. hCoV-specific T cells exhibited a CCR6+ central memory phenotype in the blood, but were enriched for frequency and CXCR3 expression in human lung-draining lymph nodes. CONCLUSION: Overall, hCoV-specific humoral and cellular memory are independently maintained, with a shared phenotype existing among coronavirus-specific CD4 T cells. This understanding of endemic coronavirus immunity provides insight into the homeostatic maintenance of immune responses that are likely to be critical components of protection against SARS-CoV-2.

5.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1403, 2021 03 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1117351

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 vaccines are advancing into human clinical trials, with emphasis on eliciting high titres of neutralising antibodies against the viral spike (S). However, the merits of broadly targeting S versus focusing antibody onto the smaller receptor binding domain (RBD) are unclear. Here we assess prototypic S and RBD subunit vaccines in homologous or heterologous prime-boost regimens in mice and non-human primates. We find S is highly immunogenic in mice, while the comparatively poor immunogenicity of RBD is associated with limiting germinal centre and T follicular helper cell activity. Boosting S-primed mice with either S or RBD significantly augments neutralising titres, with RBD-focussing driving moderate improvement in serum neutralisation. In contrast, both S and RBD vaccines are comparably immunogenic in macaques, eliciting serological neutralising activity that generally exceed levels in convalescent humans. These studies confirm recombinant S proteins as promising vaccine candidates and highlight multiple pathways to achieving potent serological neutralisation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibody Formation/physiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Flow Cytometry , Humans , Macaca , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred C57BL , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/metabolism , Viral Vaccines/therapeutic use
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