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1.
Respir Care ; 67(6): 657-666, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1810897

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) is useful in survivors of COVID-19-associated acute respiratory failure (ARF). The aim of this retrospective study on in-patient PR was to report rehabilitative trajectories and effects of cycle training. METHODS: According to the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) score at admission (T0), participants were allocated to stage 1 (SPPB < 6), stage 2 (SPPB ≥ 6 and < 10), or stage 3 (SPPB ≥ 10) and performed increasing level of activities from passive exercises to free walking, balance exercises, strength exercises, and tailored cycle-ergometer endurance training. The primary outcome was SPPB. 6-min walk distance (6MWD), Medical Research Council score, Barthel dyspnea index, and rate of subjects able to cycling were also assessed. RESULTS: Data of 123 participants were analyzed. At T0, 44 (35.8%), 50 (40.6%), and 29 (23.6%) participants were allocated to stages 1-3, respectively. At discharge, participants showed significant improvements in SPPB, independent of the initial stage, 81 (65.8%) improving more than its minimal clinically important difference. At T1, the proportion of participants in stages 1 and 2 decreased, whereas significantly increased in stage 3 (P = .003), (being 9.8%, 33.3%, and 56.9% for stages 1-3, respectively; P <.001). Sixty-nine of 123 participants (56.1%) underwent cycle exercise training. In participants able to perform it, 6MWD improved by 115 (65-240) m and 60 (40-118) m in participants with and without exercise-induced desaturation, respectively, with significant difference between groups (P = .044). CONCLUSIONS: In-patient PR could be tailored and progressively increased to survivors of COVID-19-associated ARF; cycle training was feasible in half of the participants. Benefits were independent of initial stage of physical performance and allowed participants to move from lower to higher levels of activities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Insufficiency , COVID-19/complications , Dyspnea/rehabilitation , Dyspnea/therapy , Humans , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Survivors
2.
Arch Bronconeumol ; 2022 Jan 24.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1699061
3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(22)2021 11 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512349

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 survivors are associated with acute respiratory failure (ARF) and show a high prevalence of impairment in physical performance. The present studied aimed to assess whether we may cluster these individuals according to an exercise test. The presented study is a retrospective analysis of 154 survivors who were admitted to two hospitals of Istituti Clinici Scientifici Maugeri network, Italy. Clinical characteristics, walked distance, heart rate (HR), pulse oximetry (SpO2), dyspnoea, and leg fatigue (Borg scale: Borg-D and Borg-F, respectively) while performing the six-minute walking test (6MWT) were entered into unsupervised clustering analysis. Multivariate linear regression identified variables that were informative for the set of variables used for cluster definition. Cluster 1 (C1: 86.4% of participants) and Cluster 2 (C2: 13.6%) were identified. Compared to C1, the individuals in C2 were significantly older, showed significantly higher increase in fatigue and in dyspnoea, greater reduction in SpO2, and a lower HRpeak during the test. The need of walking aids, time from admission to acute care hospitals, age, body mass index, endotracheal intubation, baseline HR and baseline Borg-D, and exercise-induced SpO2 change were significantly associated with the variables that were used for cluster definition. Different characteristics and physiological parameters during the 6MWT characterise survivors of COVID-19-associated ARF. These results may help in the management of the long-term effects of the disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Insufficiency , Exercise Test , Humans , Respiratory Insufficiency/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Survivors , Walking
5.
Respir Care ; 66(11): 1657-1664, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1372107

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Survivors of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) associated pneumonia may show exercise-induced desaturation. We wondered whether these individuals show physiologic and symptom characteristics similar to individuals with chronic respiratory diseases with exercise-induced desaturation, namely COPD or interstitial lung diseases (ILD). We evaluated lung function, exercise capacity, and symptoms in these individuals compared with individuals with COPD or ILD and exercise-induced desaturation. METHODS: Survivors of COVID-19 associated pneumonia (study individuals), normoxemic at rest with exercise-induced desaturation, underwent assessment of dyspnea, dynamic lung volumes, carbon monoxide diffusion capacity, and the 6-min walk test. Data of individuals with COPD or with ILD and exercise-induced desaturation were also retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: FVC was lower in individuals with COVID-19 or ILD than in those with COPD. Individuals who had COVID-19 walked < 70% of predicted and, as a whole, had a 6-min walk test performance similar to individuals with ILD but walked significantly less, showed more severe leg fatigue and dyspnea during exercise, and more exercise-induced desaturation than individuals with COPD. CONCLUSIONS: Survivors of COVID-19 associated pneumonia, who were normoxemic at rest with exercise-induced desaturation, had alterations in lung function, exercise capacity, and symptoms similar to individuals with ILD but more severe than individuals with COPD and exercise-induced desaturation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia , Exercise Test , Humans , Pneumonia/etiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Survivors
6.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 626321, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1348498

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to new approaches to manage patients outside the ICU, including prone positioning in non-intubated patients. Objectives: To report the use of prolonged active prone positioning in spontaneously breathing patients with COVID-19-associated acute respiratory failure. Spontaneously breathing vs non-invasive respiratory support for COVID19 associated acute respiratory failure. Methods: Patients with PaO2/FiO2 > 150, with lung posterior consolidations as assessed by means of lung ultrasound, and chest x-ray were studied. Under continuous pulse oximetry (SpO2) monitoring, patients maintained active prone position. A PaO2/FiO2 < 150 was considered as treatment failure and patients had to be switched to non-invasive respiratory support. Retrospectively, data of 16 patients undergoing who refused proning and underwent non-invasive respiratory support were used as controls. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients maintaining prolonged prone position and discharged home. Secondary outcomes included improvement in oxygenation, hospital length of stay, and 6-month survival. Results: Three out of 16 (18.7%) patients did not tolerate the procedure. Three more patients showed a worsening in PaO2/FiO2 to <150 and required non-invasive support, two of whom finally needing endotracheal intubation. After 72 h, 10 out of 16 (62.5%) patients improved oxygenation [PaO2/FiO2: from 194.6 (42.1) to 304.7 (79.3.2) (p < 0.001)] and were discharged home. In the control group, three out of 16 failed, required invasive ventilatory support, and died within 1 month in ICU. Thirteen were successful and discharged home. Conclusion: In non-intubated spontaneously breathing COVID-19 patients with PaO2/FiO2 >150, active prolonged prone positioning was feasible and tolerated with significant improvement in oxygenation.

8.
J Bras Pneumol ; 47(4): e20210076, 2021.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1319975

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: High prevalences of muscle weakness and impaired physical performance in hospitalized patients recovering from COVID-19-associated pneumonia have been reported. Our objective was to determine whether the level of exercise capacity after discharge would affect long-term functional outcomes in these patients. METHODS: From three to five weeks after discharge from acute care hospitals (T0), patients underwent a six-minute walk test (6MWT) and were divided into two groups according to the distance walked in percentage of predicted values: <75% group and ≥75% group. At T0 and three months later (T1), patients completed the Short Physical Performance Battery and the Euro Quality of Life Visual Analogue Scale, and pulmonary function and respiratory muscle function were assessed. In addition, a repeat 6MWT was also performed at T1. RESULTS: At T0, 6MWD values and Short Physical Performance Battery scores were lower in the <75% group than in the ≥75% group. No differences were found in the Euro Quality of Life Visual Analogue Scale scores, pulmonary function variables, respiratory muscle function variables, length of hospital stay, or previous treatment. At T1, both groups improved their exercise capacity, but only the subjects in the <75% group showed significant improvements in dyspnea and lower extremity function. Exercise capacity and functional status values returned to predicted values in all of the patients in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: Four weeks after discharge, COVID-19 survivors with exercise limitation showed no significant differences in physiological or clinical characteristics or in perceived health status when compared with patients without exercise limitation. Three months later, those patients recovered their exercise capacity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Exercise Tolerance , Exercise Test , Humans , Quality of Life , Respiration , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Pulmonology ; 27(6): 518-528, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1284488

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: There is evidence of short- and long-term impairment of physical performance in patients with COVID-19 infection, but a verification of measures of physical impairment in this condition is lacking. We reviewed the measures used to assess physical performance in these patients. Secondary targets were measures of exercise or daily life activities induced symptoms. METHODS: Medline, CINAHL, and Pedro databases were searched from January 2020 to February 2021 for articles in the English language. Two investigators independently conducted the search, screened all titles and/or abstracts based on the inclusion criteria and independently scored the studies. The quality of the studies was evaluated by two reviewers according to the NIH quality assessment tool for observational cohort and cross-sectional studies. Discrepancies were resolved through consensus. RESULTS: Out of 156 potentially relevant articles, 31 observational studies (8 cross-sectional), 1 randomized controlled trial, and 1 protocol were included. The quality of most of the 31 evaluable studies was judged as low (11 studies) or fair (14 studies). Sample sizes of the studies ranged from 14 to 20,889 patients. among the 28 reported measures, Barthel Index (42.4% of studies), Six-Minute Walking Distance Test (36.4%), Short Physical Performance Battery (21.2%) and 1-Minute Sit-to-Stand (12.1%) were the most used. Fifteen% and 36% of studies reported exercise induced desaturation and dyspnoea when performing the assessments, respectively. Other exercise induced symptoms were fatigue and pain. Studies reported wide ranges of impairment in physical performance as compared to "reference" values (range of mean or median reported values vs "reference values": 11-77 vs 100 points for Barthel Index; 11-22 vs 22-37 repetitions/min for 1m-STS; 0.5-7.9 vs 11.4 ± 1.3 points for SPPB; and 45-223 vs 380-782 m for 6MWT respectively). CONCLUSION: This review found that a wide variety of functional status tests have been used, making comparisons difficult between studies. These measures show impairment in physical performance in COVID-19 patients. However, the quality of most of the studies was judged as low or fair.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Physical Functional Performance , Activities of Daily Living , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Exercise , Humans , Observational Studies as Topic , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
10.
Breathe (Sheff) ; 17(1): 210006, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282236

ABSTRACT

The management of respiratory diseases requires various levels of care: multidisciplinary teams, educational and behavioural interventions, self-management and home-based technical support are vital to ensure adequate care management. However, it is often difficult to access these networks due to fragmentation of patient care and treatment burden. Care coordination aims to ensure patients have a central role and that there is continuity of care among various levels and professionals involved. Moreover, the coronavirus disease pandemic has caused strain on the global healthcare system, with care coordination becoming increasingly important in increasing the resilience of health systems, supporting healthcare professionals and ensuring the right treatment and adequate level of care for these patients.

11.
Respiration ; 100(10): 1027-1037, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1261221

ABSTRACT

The imbalance between the prevalence of patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF) and acute-on-chronic respiratory failure and the number of intensive care unit (ICU) beds requires new solutions. The increasing use of non-invasive respiratory tools to support patients at earlier stages of ARF and the increased expertise of non-ICU clinicians in other types of supportive care have led to the development of adult pulmonary intensive care units (PICUs) and pulmonary intermediate care units (PIMCUs). As in other European countries, Italian PICUs and PIMCUs provide an intermediate level of care as the setting designed for managing ARF patients without severe non-pulmonary dysfunction. The PICUs and PIMCUs may also act as step-down units for weaning patients from prolonged mechanical ventilation and for discharging patients still requiring ventilatory support at home. These units may play an important role in the on-going coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. This position paper promoted by the Italian Thoracic Society (ITS-AIPO) describes the models, facilities, staff, equipment, and operating methods of PICUs and PIMCUs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Critical Care/organization & administration , Intensive Care Units/organization & administration , Intermediate Care Facilities/organization & administration , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Respiratory Therapy , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Hospitalization , Humans , Italy , Patient Selection , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Societies, Medical
12.
Pulmonology ; 27(4): 281-282, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1249115
13.
Respiration ; 100(5): 416-422, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1158147

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In hospitalized patients recovering from the SARS-coronavirus-2 disease 19 (COVID-19), high prevalence of muscle weakness and physical performance impairment has been observed. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of pulmonary rehabilitation in these subjects in a real-life setting. METHODS: Retrospective data analysis of patients recovering from COVID-19, including those requiring assisted ventilation or oxygen therapy, consecutively admitted to an in-patient pulmonary rehabilitation program between April 1 and August 15, 2020. Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB: primary outcome), Barthel Index (BI), and six-min walking distance were assessed as outcome measures. RESULTS: Data of 140 patients were analyzed. After rehabilitation, patients showed improvements in SPPB {from: (median [IQR]) 0.5 (0-7) to 7 (4-10), p < 0.001} and BI (from 55 [30-90] to 95 [65-100], p < 0.001), as well as in other assessed outcome measures. The proportion of patients unable at admission to stand, rise from a chair and walk was significantly reduced (p < 0.00). CONCLUSIONS: Pulmonary rehabilitation is possible and effective in patients recovering from COVID-19. Our findings may be useful to guide clinicians taking care of patients surviving COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/rehabilitation , Dyspnea/rehabilitation , Respiratory Therapy , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Disabled Persons/rehabilitation , Dyspnea/etiology , Exercise Test , Exercise Therapy , Female , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
15.
Am J Phys Med Rehabil ; 100(2): 105-109, 2021 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1029651

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: In this cross-sectional study, we evaluated skeletal muscle strength and physical performance (1-min sit-to-stand and short physical performance battery tests), dyspnea, fatigue, and single-breath counting at discharge from a postacute COVID department, in patients recovering from COVID-19 pneumonia who had no locomotor disability before the infection.Quadriceps and biceps were weak in 86% and 73% of the patients, respectively. Maximal voluntary contraction for quadriceps was 18.9 (6.8) kg and for biceps 15.0 (5.5) kg (i.e., 54% and 69% of the predicted normal value, respectively). The number of chair rises in the 1-min sit-to-stand test was 22.1 (7.3 corresponding to 63% of the predicted normal value), whereas the short physical performance battery score was 7.9 (3.3 corresponding to 74% of the predicted normal value). At the end of the 1-min sit-to-stand test, 24% of the patients showed exercise-induced desaturation. The single-breath counting count was 35.4 (12.3) corresponding to 72% that of healthy controls. Mild-to-moderate dyspnea and fatigue were found during activities of daily living (Borg scale score, median value = 0.5 [0-2] and 1 [0-2]) and after the 1-min sit-to-stand (Borg scale score, median value = 3 [2-5] and 1 [0-3]). Significant correlations were observed between muscle strength and physical performance indices (R = 0.31-0.69).The high prevalence of impairment in skeletal muscle strength and physical performance in hospitalized patients recovering from COVID-19 pneumonia without previous locomotor disabilities suggests the need for rehabilitation programs after discharge.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Muscle Strength/physiology , Physical Functional Performance , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Activities of Daily Living , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dyspnea/physiopathology , Fatigue/physiopathology , Female , Humans , Inpatients , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Minerva Anestesiol ; 86(11): 1190-1204, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-695494

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Noninvasive respiratory support (NRS) such as noninvasive ventilation (NIV) and high flow nasal therapy (HFNT) have been used in the treatment of acute hypoxemic respiratory failure (AHRF) related to the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and other viral infections. However, there is a lack of consensus in favor of or against NRS use due to the risks of worsening hypoxemia, intubation delay, and aerosols environmental contamination associated with the use of these tools. We aimed to summarize the evidence on the use of NRS in adult patients with COVID-19 and other viral pneumonia (i.e. H1N1, SARS, MERS) and AHRF. We also searched for studies evaluating the risk of aerosolization/contamination with these tools. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: We searched MEDLINE, PubMed EMBASE and two major preprint servers (biorXiv and medRxiv) from inception to April 14, 2020, for studies on the use of respiratory support in AHRF and viral pneumonia. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: The search identified 4086 records and we found only one randomized controlled trial out of 58 studies included, with great variabilities in support utilization and failure rates. Fifteen studies explored the issue of aerosolization/contamination showing a high risk of airborne transmission via droplets generation during the use of these modalities. CONCLUSIONS: Use of NRS and treatment failure in the context of COVID-19 and viral infection associated-AHRF, varied widely. Dispersion of exhaled air is different depending on the type of respiratory therapies and interfaces. Data from randomized controlled trials are lacking.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Noninvasive Ventilation , Respiratory Insufficiency , Adult , Humans , Pandemics , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Monaldi Arch Chest Dis ; 90(2)2020 Jun 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-688266

ABSTRACT

There is a need of consensus about the pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) in patients with COVID-19 after discharge from acute care. To facilitate the knowledge of the evidence and its translation into practice, we developed suggestions based on experts' opinion. A steering committee identified areas and questions sent to experts. Other international experts participated to a RAND Delphi method in reaching consensus and proposing further suggestions. Strong agreement in suggestions was defined when the mean agreement was >7 (1 = no agreement and 9 = maximal agreement). Panelists response rate was >95%. Twenty-three questions from 4 areas: Personnel protection equipment, phenotypes, assessments, interventions, were identified and experts answered with 121 suggestions, 119 of which received high level of concordance. The evidence-based suggestions provide the clinicians with current evidence and clinical experts opinion. This framework can be used to facilitate clinical decision making within the context of the individual patient. Further studies will evaluate the clinical usefulness of these suggestions.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/rehabilitation , Physical Therapy Modalities , Pneumonia, Viral/rehabilitation , Respiratory Insufficiency/rehabilitation , Respiratory Therapy/methods , Ambulatory Care , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Delphi Technique , Exercise Test , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Italy , Nutritional Status , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Quality of Life , Respiratory Function Tests , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic
19.
Respiration ; 99(6): 493-499, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-324614

ABSTRACT

Due to the exponential growth of the number of subjects affected by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the entire Italian health care system had to respond promptly and in a very short time with the need of semi-intensive and intensive care units. Moreover, trained dedicated COVID-19 teams consisting of physicians were coming from different specialties (intensivists or pneumologists and infectiologists), while respiratory therapists and nurses have been recruited to work on and on without rest. However, due to still limited and evolving knowledge of COVID-19, there are few recommendations concerning the need in respiratory rehabilitation and physiotherapy interventions. The presentation of this paper is the result of a consensus promoted by the Italian societies of respiratory health care professionals who contacted pulmonologists directly involved in the treatment and rehabilitation of COVID-19. The aim was to formulate the more proper and common suggestions to be applied in different hospital settings in offering rehabilitative programs and physiotherapy workforce planning for COVID-19 patients. Two main areas of intervention were identified: organization and treatment, which are described in this paper to face the emergency.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Physical Therapy Modalities , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Respiratory Insufficiency/rehabilitation , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Italy , Pandemics , Patient Acuity , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/rehabilitation , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , SARS-CoV-2
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