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Topics in Antiviral Medicine ; 30(1 SUPPL):65, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1880976


Background: Interaction between HIV and SARS-CoV-2 infection has not yet been fully characterized. To this purpose, an in-vitro HIV/SARS-CoV-2 coinfection assay was set up. Furthermore, the results obtained in the in-vitro model were verified in a cohort of HIV/SARS-CoV-2 coinfected young individuals. Methods: We designed an in-vitro SARS-CoV-2/HIV coinfection. We challenged PBMCs derived from 10 healthy volunteers with 1 ng/1×106 cells of HIV-1BaL and subsequently co-cultured them with a human lung epithelial cell line (CaLu3) infected with SARS-CoV-2 at 0.015 MOI. At 96 hours post HIV-1 infection, both PBMCs and CaLu3 cells were harvested for mRNA expression and proteomic analysis. Furthermore, we enrolled 85 ART-treated HIV-vertically transmitted patients (mean age 22.4 years) followed at the Unit of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Sacco Hospital in Milan, Italy. Real-time PCR was performed to detect SARS-CoV-2 and plasma samples were tested for anti-SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG (Euroimmun Kit). The subjects who contracted SARS-CoV-2 infection (H+/S+) were compared to the HIV-positive, SARS-CoV-2 negative ones (H+/S-) and to a cohort of SARS-CoV-2 positive, HIV-negative age-matched patients (H-/S+, mean age 22.8 years). We evaluated mRNA expression of factors involved in the anti-viral immune response on PBMCs upon stimulation with SARS-CoV-2 antigens (Quantigene Plex assay) and secreted cytokines/chemokines on plasma (Multiplex Cytokine Array). Results: We observed a significant reduction of SARS-CoV-2 replication on CaLu3 cells when exposed to HIV-pre-infected PBMCs in-vitro. IL-10 expression and production were significantly higher in the coinfected condition, in both CaLu3 cells and PBMCs. The upregulation of IL-10 was associated to higher expression levels of STAT3. In the HIV-vertically transmitted cohort, 4 out of 85 subjects contracted SARS-CoV-2 infection (H+/S+). All H+/S+ patients were asymptomatic. Similarly to the data obtained in-vitro, a significant increase in both expression and production of IL-10 emerged in comparison to H+/S-and H-/S+. Conclusion: In-vitro, a dampening in SARS-CoV-2 replication, along with a higher IL-10 mRNA expression and production, have been observed in the HIV/SARS-CoV-2 coinfected condition. Presumably, IL-10 exerted its activity through the STAT3 pathway. These results were confirmed in HIV/SARS-CoV-2 coinfected subjects in which an upregulation of IL-10 was observed. Our data might be useful defining HIV/SARS-CoV-2 coinfected young individuals pathogenesis.

Annali Italiani di Chirurgia ; 92:317-322, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1326262


INTRODUCTION: Several articles have been published on impact COVID-19 infection about reduction of surgical activity. We have focused on the differences between our surgical activity in an Emergency General Surgery department in "Cardarelli" Hospital in Naples. METHODS: This retrospective study compared the patients treated from March 9, 2020 to April 27, 2020 (Italian lockdown time) and the patients treated in the same period of 2019. We recruited 75 patients in Group A (2020) and 165 patients in Group B (2019). RESULTS: There was a reduction in hospitalizations for non-trauma disease (69 in group A and 122 in group B with p: 0.001), a reduction in transfers from other hospitals (2 patients in group A and 17 in group B with p. 0.04) and a reduction in hospitalizations for trauma disease (6 in group A and 43 in group B with p: 0.001). The severity of the disease in 2020 was greater than in the same period in 2019 and there was a higher rate of high-grade complications CONCLUSION: From data analysis, we conclude that there has been a reduction in hospitalizations and surgical interventions in our emergency surgery department. The patients, however, had a much more severe disease that resulted in a greater number of complications in the peri and post-operative time. KEY WORDS: COVID-19, Lockdown, Emergency Surgery, Severity of disease.

Int J Infect Dis ; 101: 38-41, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-773643


We report two cases of HIV positive patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection and a recent diagnosis of opportunistic infections of central nervous system (CNS). We investigated the potential impact of coinfection with SARS-CoV-2 on HIV replication in CNS.

COVID-19/virology , Central Nervous System/virology , Coinfection/virology , HIV Infections/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Load , Adult , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Male , Middle Aged