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SSRN; 2022.
Preprint in English | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-329046


Objectives: To date, the world has experienced three waves of the Coronavirus disease- 19 (COVID-19) pandemic, and the fourth wave is going on. Patients infected during the third wave were the subject of this study. Objectives were to describe their clinical manifestations, to explain their laboratory and radiological findings, to conclude factors contributing to clinical outcomes, and to evaluate treatment protocols used. Methods: Relevant data were collected from patients admitted to six referral centers in four countries. Results: Data analysis identified symptomatology and variables related to acquisition and infection outcome. The commonest symptoms were cough (81.5%), body aches (74.1%), and fever (71.6%). Binary regression model revealed those to be independent risk factors for mortality;age, vomiting and epigastric pain, diabetes, obesity, oxygen saturation less than 90%, leukocytosis, neutrophilia, lymphopenia, thrombocytopenia, elevated creatinine, high glucose level, lung ground glass opacities with consolidation, affection of four lobes and bilateralism. Neither d-dimer nor lactate dehydrogenase nor ferritin foretells death possibility. The efficacy of medications used was convenient. Conclusions: Assessing the clinical features of different COVID-19 waves, identifying predictors of outcomes, and conclude the efficacy of treatment protocols provides insight into patients’ response and viral behaviors, which help in proper diagnosis and treatment of subsequent surges.