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Hum Antibodies ; 29(3): 179-191, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1226968


The harmful COVID-19 pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus imposes the scientific community to develop or find conventional curative drugs, protective vaccines, or passive immune strategies rapidly and efficiently. Passive immunity is based on recovering hyper-immune plasma from convalescent patients, or monoclonal antibodies with elevated titer of neutralizing antibodies with high antiviral activity, that have potential for both treatment and prevention. In this review, we focused on researching the potentiality of monoclonal antibodies for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19 infection. Our research review includes antibody-based immunotherapy, using human monoclonal antibodies targeting SARS-CoV-2 viral protein regions, specifically the spike protein regions, and using hyper-immune plasma from convalescent COVID-19 patients, in which monoclonal antibodies act as immunotherapy for the cytokine storm syndrome associated with the COVID-19 infection. In addition, we will demonstrate the role of the monoclonal antibodies in the development of candidate vaccines for SARS-CoV-2. Moreover, the recent progress of the diagnostic mouse monoclonal antibodies' role will be highlighted, as an accurate and rapid diagnostic assay, in the antigen detection of SARS-CoV-2. In brief, the monoclonal antibodies are the potential counter measures that may control SARS-CoV-2, which causes COVID-19 disease, through immunotherapy and vaccine development, as well as viral detection.

Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Immunization, Passive , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis ; 1867(8): 166154, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1209165


BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome-2 (SARS-CoV-2) exhibits a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations. Despite the fact that SARS-CoV-2 has slower evolutionary rate than other coronaviruses, different mutational hotspots have been identified along the SARS-CoV-2 genome. METHODS: We performed whole-genome high throughput sequencing on isolates from 50 Egyptian patients to see if the variation in clinical symptoms was related to mutations in the SARS-CoV-2 genome. Then, we investigated the relationship between the observed mutations and the clinical characteristics of the patients. RESULTS: Among the 36 most common mutations, we found two frameshift deletions linked to an increased risk of shortness of breath, a V6 deletion in the spike glycoprotein's signal peptide region linked to an increased risk of fever, longer fever duration and nasal congestion, and L3606-nsp6 deletion linked to a higher prevalence of cough and conjunctival congestion. S5398L nsp13-helicase was linked to an increased risk of fever duration and progression. The most common mutations (241, 3037, 14,408, and 23,403) were not linked to clinical variability. However, the E3909G-nsp7 variant was more common in children (2-13 years old) and was associated with a shorter duration of symptoms. The duration of fever was significantly reduced with E1363D-nsp3 and E3073A-nsp4. CONCLUSIONS: The most common mutations, D614G/spike-glycoprotein and P4715L/RNA-dependent-RNA-polymerase, were linked to transmissibility regardless of symptom variability. E3909G-nsp7 could explain why children recover so quickly. Nsp6-L3606fs, spike-glycoprotein-V6fs, and nsp13-S5398L variants may be linked to clinical symptom worsening. These variations related to host-virus interactions might open new therapeutic avenues for symptom relief and disease containment.

COVID-19/virology , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , Child , Child, Preschool , Egypt/epidemiology , Female , Frameshift Mutation , Genome, Viral , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Sequence Deletion , Severity of Illness Index , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Young Adult