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1.
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 33(3): 309-311, 2021 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20232271

ABSTRACT

On 12 March 2020, the WHO declared that the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) constitutes a pandemic. Cases of liver damage or dysfunction (mainly characterized by moderately elevated serum aspartate aminotransferase levels) have been reported among patients with COVID-19. However, it is currently uncertain whether the COVID-19 related liver damage/dysfunction is due mainly to the viral infection by itself or other coexisting conditions, such as the use of potentially hepatotoxic medications and the coexistence of systemic inflammatory response, respiratory distress syndrome-induced hypoxia, and multiple organ dysfunction. Individuals at high risk for severe COVID-19 are typical of older age and/or present with comorbid conditions such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and hypertension. This is also the same profile for those at increased risk for unrecognized underlying liver disease, especially nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. This could make them more susceptible to liver injury from the virus, medications used in supportive management, or hypoxia. So the aim of this review was to illustrate the clinical implications of COVID-19 on the liver in healthy and diseased states as well as the implications of common liver disorders on the outcome of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Liver Diseases/virology , Liver/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Liver/pathology , Liver Diseases/diagnosis , Liver Diseases/epidemiology , Prognosis , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors
2.
Health Care Manage Rev ; 48(1): 70-79, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2135669

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In 2019, the COVID-19 pandemic emerged. Variation in COVID-19 patient outcomes between hospitals was later reported. PURPOSE: This study aims to determine whether sustainers-hospitals with sustained high performance on Hospital Value-Based Purchasing Total Performance Score (HVBP-TPS)-more effectively responded to the pandemic and therefore had better patient outcomes. METHODOLOGY: We calculated hospital-specific risk-standardized event rates using deidentified patient-level data from the UnitedHealth Group Clinical Discovery Database. HVBP-TPS from 2016 to 2019 were obtained from Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. Hospital characteristics were obtained from the American Hospital Association Annual Survey Database (2019), and county-level predictors were obtained from the Area Health Resource File. We use a repeated-measures regression model assuming an AR(1) type correlation structure to test whether sustainers had lower mortality rates than nonsustainers during the first wave (spring 2020) and the second wave (October to December 2020) of the pandemic. RESULTS: Sustainers did not have significantly lower COVID-19 mortality rates during the first wave of the pandemic, but they had lower COVID-19 mortality rates during the second wave compared to nonsustainers. Larger hospitals, teaching hospitals, and hospitals with higher occupancy rates had higher mortality rates. CONCLUSION: During the first wave of the pandemic, mortality rates did not differ between sustainers and nonsustainers. However, sustainers had lower mortality rates than nonsustainers in the second wave, most likely because of their knowledge management capabilities and existing structures and resources that enable them to develop new processes and routines to care for patients in times of crisis. Therefore, a consistently high level of performance over the years on HVBP-TPS is associated with high levels of performance on COVID-19 patient outcomes. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Investing in identifying the knowledge, processes, and resources that foster the dynamic capabilities needed to achieve superior performance in HVBP might enable hospitals to utilize these capabilities to adapt more effectively to future changes and uncertainty.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Aged , United States/epidemiology , Humans , Medicare , Hospitals , Value-Based Purchasing
3.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0275500, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2079745

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate the relationship between RNs and hospital-based medical specialties staffing levels with inpatient COVID-19 mortality rates. METHODS: We relied on data from AHA Annual Survey Database, Area Health Resource File, and UnitedHealth Group Clinical Discovery Database. In phase 1 of the analysis, we estimated the risk-standardized event rates (RSERs) based on 95,915 patients in the UnitedHealth Group Database 1,398 hospitals. We then used beta regression to analyze the association between hospital- and county- level factors with risk-standardized inpatient COVID-19 mortality rates from March 1, 2020, through December 31, 2020. RESULTS: Higher staffing levels of RNs and emergency medicine physicians were associated with lower COVID-19 mortality rates. Moreover, larger teaching hospitals located in urban settings had higher COVID-19 mortality rates. Finally, counties with greater social vulnerability, specifically in terms of housing type and transportation, and those with high infection rates had the worst patient mortality rates. CONCLUSION: Higher staffing levels are associated with lower inpatient mortality rates for COVID-19 patients. More research is needed to determine appropriate staffing levels and how staffing levels interact with other factors such as teams, leadership, and culture to impact patient care during pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emergency Medicine , Humans , Inpatients , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitals, Teaching , Workforce
4.
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 20200616.
Article in English | WHO COVID, ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-607816

ABSTRACT

On 12 March 2020, the WHO declared that the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) constitutes a pandemic. Cases of liver damage or dysfunction (mainly characterized by moderately elevated serum aspartate aminotransferase levels) have been reported among patients with COVID-19. However, it is currently uncertain whether the COVID-19 related liver damage/dysfunction is due mainly to the viral infection by itself or other coexisting conditions, such as the use of potentially hepatotoxic medications and the coexistence of systemic inflammatory response, respiratory distress syndrome-induced hypoxia, and multiple organ dysfunction. Individuals at high risk for severe COVID-19 are typical of older age and/or present with comorbid conditions such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and hypertension. This is also the same profile for those at increased risk for unrecognized underlying liver disease, especially nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. This could make them more susceptible to liver injury from the virus, medications used in supportive management, or hypoxia. So the aim of this review was to illustrate the clinical implications of COVID-19 on the liver in healthy and diseased states as well as the implications of common liver disorders on the outcome of COVID-19.

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