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1.
Immunogenetics: a Molecular and Clinical Overview: Clinical Applications of Immunogenetics, Volume II ; 2:309-319, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2175657

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 also called corona virus emerged in China in December 2019. This turned into a global pandemic in a short period of time. Covid-19 is a novel strain of corona virus that was not seen earlier in human beings. It is important to study the molecular structure of Covid-19 so as to aid in the development of therapeutic measures. Existing Covid-19 pandemic poses an extraordinary risk to health and healthcare systems worldwide. Corona viruses are made of single stranded RNA present within the coat proteins. The virus has a diameter of nearly 80–120nm. Usually, Covid-19 presents with the signs and symptoms of respiratory illness. Cough commonly dry cough, fever, associated with myalgias and sometimes breathing difficulties due to decrease in oxygen saturation rates are also present in these patients. Some people show fever with body aches, while some are relatively asymptomatic. Corona virus is primarily transmitted in humans through respiratory route and is highly contagious. Mostly old people and those having comorbid illnesses suffer most. After invading into the human body, the virus may lead to a sequence of processes such as viral invasion, replication, and programmed cell death, that is, apoptosis. To control and prevent this viral infection, we need to study the molecular aspects of Covid-19 in detail so as to design therapeutic agents as well as for vaccine formation. The micro-RNA is defined as the single-stranded noncoding RNA molecule. They have a length of about 22 nucleotides approximately and help in the post transcriptional regulation of gene expression. Micro RNAs regulate many types of cancers in addition to Covid-19 and other infections. Viral micro RNA is a newer type of mi-RNA and controls the host cell expression and viral target genes. This was completed by inducing micro-RNA cleavage, breakdown, translation, inhibition, or other mechanisms. The micro-RNAs of Covid-19 are explained to give an authoritative means to study this novel coronavirus. These control the host cell expression and also viral target genes by inducing micro-RNA cleavage, breakdown, translation, inhibition, and also other mechanisms. © 2022 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

2.
PLoS Global Public Health ; 2(10), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2162522

ABSTRACT

Since January 2021, Indonesia has administered a nationwide COVID-19 vaccination. This study examined vaccine intention and identified reasons for vaccine hesitancy in the capital city of Jakarta. This is a cross-sectional online survey using the Health Belief Model (HBM) to assess vaccine intent predictors and describe reasons for hesitancy among Jakarta residents. Among 11,611 respondents, 92.99% (10.797) would like to get vaccinated. This study indicated that all HBM constructs predict vaccine intention (P< 0.05). Those with a high score of perceived susceptibility to the COVID-19 vaccine were significantly predicted vaccine hesitancy (OR = 0.18, 95% CI: 0.16-0.21). Perceived higher benefits of COVID-19 vaccine (OR = 2.91, 95% CI: 2.57-3.28), perceived severity of COVID-19 disease (OR: 1.41, 95% CI: 1.24-1.60), and perceived susceptibility of the current pandemic (OR = 1.21, 95% CI: 1.06-1.38) were significantly predicted vaccination intend. Needle fears, halal concerns, vaccine side effects, and the perception that vaccines could not protect against COVID-19 disease emerged as reasons why a small portion of the respondents (n = 814, 7.23%) are hesitant to get vaccinated. This study demonstrated a high COVID-19 vaccine intention and highlighted the reasons for vaccine refusal, including needle fears, susceptibility to vaccine efficacy, halal issues, and concern about vaccine side effects. The current findings on COVID-19 vaccination show that the government and policymakers should take all necessary steps to remove vaccine hesitancy by increasing awareness of vaccine efficacy and benefit interventions.

3.
Pakistan Armed Forces Medical Journal ; 72(4):1298-1301, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2026826

ABSTRACT

Objective: To assess how the antenatal population of a hospital was affected by the COVID-19 Pandemic. Study Design: Prospective longitudinal study. Place and Duration of Study: Antenatal Clinic of Government Hospital, Rawalpindi Pakistan, for the month of August 2020. Methodology: The population in the antenatal clinic of a hospital were given a questionnaire with simple directed questions after consent. Results: All (150, 100%) of the antenatal population received their COVID-19 pandemic information from television. Most 147 (98%) did not feel embarrassed if they contracted COVID-19 infection, and 147 (98%) took precautions against it. The majority, 146 (97%) of women, had an antenatal check-up. Out of the total, 126 (84%) had a private check-up, but only 36 (24%) had more private visits than prior pregnancies. A significant number, 56 (37%), had to spend more than in prior pregnancies, but only 28 (18.6%) had fewer antenatal visits than before. Most 141 (94%) of women wanted a higher frequency of antenatal visits than the recommended 08 visits by the WHO. Conclusion: The COVID-19 pandemic did not affect antenatal care because of a well-established private health care system. The patients in prior pregnancies were already using the private sector. © 2022, Army Medical College. All rights reserved.

4.
4th ACM SIGCAS/SIGCHI Conference on Computing and Sustainable Societies, COMPASS 2022 ; Par F180472:596-602, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1950305

ABSTRACT

Indigenous communities in Bangladesh are comparatively disadvantaged and face several barriers regarding rights. Access to technology and ICT can help indigenous communities open new economic, political, and social dimensions. The recent COVID-19 pandemic necessitated technology adoption for routine use, which is equally important for indigenous communities, but their technology adoption scenario remains unexplored in HCI research. Considering the research gap, we interviewed n=36 (Female 26 and Male 10) indigenous people from six different indigenous communities in Chattogarm and Sylhet divisions in Bangladesh. We found that they are strongly connected in communities, have independent technology access, and have no gender differences. They have a strong interest and eagerness to learn available technologies that help them in their professions, enrich their technical skills, communication, social participation, and expand the business. The study also revealed some challenges while using technology, but that did not negatively impact their usage. The study also discussed the community-centric strengths that helped them fight against the COVID-19 crisis and work for their development. This research impacts HCI literature, revealing the technology adoption scenarios of Indigenous communities in Bangladesh. © 2022 ACM.

5.
Frontiers in Communication ; 7:9, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1896664

ABSTRACT

Risk communication during COVID-19 is essential to have support, but it is challenging in developing countries due to a lack of communication setup. It is more difficult for the low-income, marginal communities, and specifically, women in developing countries. To understand this, particularly during the COVID-19 pandemic, we conducted a qualitative study among N = 37 women (urban 20, rural = 17) across Bangladesh that presents the risk communication factors related to social and financial challenges. It reveals that the majority of the urban communities lack communication with local authorities, where urban low-income communities are the worst sufferers. Due to that, the majority of the urban participants could not get financial support, whereas the rural participants received such support for having communications with local authorities during the pandemic. However, access to technology helped some participants share and receive pandemic-related information about risk communication, and the adoption of financial technology helped to get emergency financial support through risk communication. Moreover, this work is expected to understand the role of risk communication during the COVID-19 pandemic among women in Bangladesh.

6.
BMC Med ; 20(1): 202, 2022 06 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1892213

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite large outbreaks in humans seeming improbable for a number of zoonotic pathogens, several pose a concern due to their epidemiological characteristics and evolutionary potential. To enable effective responses to these pathogens in the event that they undergo future emergence, the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations is advancing the development of vaccines for several pathogens prioritized by the World Health Organization. A major challenge in this pursuit is anticipating demand for a vaccine stockpile to support outbreak response. METHODS: We developed a modeling framework for outbreak response for emerging zoonoses under three reactive vaccination strategies to assess sustainable vaccine manufacturing needs, vaccine stockpile requirements, and the potential impact of the outbreak response. This framework incorporates geographically variable zoonotic spillover rates, human-to-human transmission, and the implementation of reactive vaccination campaigns in response to disease outbreaks. As proof of concept, we applied the framework to four priority pathogens: Lassa virus, Nipah virus, MERS coronavirus, and Rift Valley virus. RESULTS: Annual vaccine regimen requirements for a population-wide strategy ranged from > 670,000 (95% prediction interval 0-3,630,000) regimens for Lassa virus to 1,190,000 (95% PrI 0-8,480,000) regimens for Rift Valley fever virus, while the regimens required for ring vaccination or targeting healthcare workers (HCWs) were several orders of magnitude lower (between 1/25 and 1/700) than those required by a population-wide strategy. For each pathogen and vaccination strategy, reactive vaccination typically prevented fewer than 10% of cases, because of their presently low R0 values. Targeting HCWs had a higher per-regimen impact than population-wide vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: Our framework provides a flexible methodology for estimating vaccine stockpile needs and the geographic distribution of demand under a range of outbreak response scenarios. Uncertainties in our model estimates highlight several knowledge gaps that need to be addressed to target vulnerable populations more accurately. These include surveillance gaps that mask the true geographic distribution of each pathogen, details of key routes of spillover from animal reservoirs to humans, and the role of human-to-human transmission outside of healthcare settings. In addition, our estimates are based on the current epidemiology of each pathogen, but pathogen evolution could alter vaccine stockpile requirements.


Subject(s)
Epidemics , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Vaccines , Animals , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Epidemics/prevention & control , Humans , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Zoonoses/prevention & control
7.
Journal of Computer Science ; 18(2):78-89, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1862968

ABSTRACT

The use of masks has become crucial in combating the Coronavirus pandemic. Unfortunately, the regulation of wearing a mask is not being upheld by many citizens which is contributing to the spread of the disease. To aid the efforts of regulations and to maintain safety in public areas, both large like parks or small like public transport, Artificial Intelligent systems can play a vital role. In this article, we explore the use of transfer learning across 5 models (Mobile Net V2, InceptionV3, Resnet50V2, VGG16 and DenseNet121) and measure their effectiveness in mask detection. Due to the lack of a large, diverse and annotated dataset, we explore the use of transfer learning using supervised methods and present the results of the experiments upon the Keras open-sourced models. We find an average of 99% accuracy for all 5 models. However, when we use K-Fold Cross Validation to account for bias, we find significant differences in results with the highest accuracy being achieved by VGG16 at 98.6%. With the mixture of the standard method of training and testing alongside K-Fold Cross Validation, we present our findings for the use of transfer learning for mask detection. © 2022. Zahin Akram, Arifuzzaman Arman, Mohammad Rakib Imtiaz and Syed Athar Bin Amir. This open access article is distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) 4.0 license.

8.
J Dtsch Dermatol Ges ; 20(2): 212-215, 2022 Feb.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1685264
9.
J Dtsch Dermatol Ges ; 20(2): 212-215, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1642641
10.
Sci Adv ; 7(42): eabg5033, 2021 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1494906

ABSTRACT

Estimates of disease burden are important for setting public health priorities. These estimates involve numerous modeling assumptions, whose uncertainties are not always well described. We developed a framework for estimating the burden of yellow fever in Africa and evaluated its sensitivity to modeling assumptions that are often overlooked. We found that alternative interpretations of serological data resulted in a nearly 20-fold difference in burden estimates (range of central estimates, 8.4 × 104 to 1.5 × 106 deaths in 2021­2030). Uncertainty about the vaccination status of serological study participants was the primary driver of this uncertainty. Even so, statistical uncertainty was even greater than uncertainty due to modeling assumptions, accounting for a total of 87% of variance in burden estimates. Combined with estimates that most infections go unreported (range of 95% credible intervals, 99.65 to 99.99%), our results suggest that yellow fever's burden will remain highly uncertain without major improvements in surveillance.

11.
International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases ; 24(SUPPL 2):159-160, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1457933

ABSTRACT

Background: Health care services around the world are under enormous pressure of Covid-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2. Pakistan is witnessing the third wave of Epidemic with total number of cases reaching up to 8,15,711. Effective disease management and control efforts rely on understanding the demographics as well as the presentation of disease among a wider pool of patients. This study analyzes the demographics, presenting complaints and outcomes of patients presenting to a Public sector tertiary care hospital. Methods: This is a descriptive case series analyzing the demographics, presenting complaints, co-morbidities and outcomes of Covid-19 patients presenting to our tertiary care setup from June-July 2020. The diagnosis of covid infection was confirmed by Real-time reverse transcriptase Polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) on nasal swabs. Results: A total of 386 Covid patients were admitted, with mean age of 54 years. Majority 53% of patients were in the age group 50-75 yrs. There were 33% in age group 25-50 yrs followed by 7.5% in >75 years and 6.55 in < 25 years. There were 60 % of male patients. Shortness of breath was the most common presenting feature as it was present in 71% of patients, followed by fever (69%).Cough was present in 46% of patients. Among all admitted Covid patients, 69% had co morbidities, predominant were Diabetes and Hypertension. With respect to outcome 34% died while 53% were cured and discharged. Disease outcome was cross tabulated with age and mortality increased with age and more amongst males. Conclusion: Demographics and Clinical presentations of admitted Covid patients during study period reveal that Males and age group 50-75 years are more involved and suffer mortality. Shortness of breath and fever are common features.

12.
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science ; 20:S26-S31, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1435958

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, a novel coronavirus (now named COVID-19) was identified as a causative agent for a cluster of pneumonia cases in Wuhan, China.(1) Till March 2020, India was one among 50 countries which identified patients tested positive for COVID-19.(2) One day curfew was imposed in the country on March 22, 2020 to forewarn the people about the danger the country was going to face. The government of India announced a nationwide lockdown for 21 days from March 25, 2020 with subsequent second, third and fourth lockdowns. This was done to reduce the transmission of disease and flatten the curve. The preparations to manage COVID-19 pandemic crisis began in Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College Hospital Aligarh, a tertiary care centre in western Uttar Pradesh by 15th of March 2020. In April 2020, it was declared as Level 2 COVID care hospital to deal with complicated and critical cases. The establishment of flu clinic, exclusive COVID-19 isolation ward, teleconsultation and widespread screening of patients by Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT PCR) were some measures undertaken to deal with the crisis. The increased burden of patients presenting with bronchopneumonia necessitated augmentation of the existent infrastructure and better utilization of resources. Emergency and trauma centre, JNMCH, AMU Aligarh was also no exception and reorganising emergency trauma ICU as COVID-19 suspect ICU made the functioning of the entire hospital a lot smoother during this unsustainable crisis situation. However, there were several challenges to overcome while designating an emergency and trauma ICU as COVID-19 suspect ICU. There is ample amount of literature available discussing the strategies for preparing a dedicated COVID ICU, however there is relative scarcity of literature on the challenges in managing an emergency and trauma ICU (ETC - ICU) during the pandemic. In this review, we discuss the strategies and planning for converting an emergency and trauma ICU into a COVID suspect ICU in a tertiary care centre in western Uttar Pradesh (India) during the pandemic and the challenges faced.

13.
14.
Proceedings of 2020 Ieee International Conference on Teaching, Assessment, and Learning for Engineering ; : 235-242, 2020.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1313965

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 Pandemic has forced many educational institutions worldwide to adopt emergency measures to complete the semester or school-year, which was rolling before the crisis hit. Different formal and informal Course Management Systems (CMSs) were incorporated to aid in this sudden transition to virtual classroom mode. A significant challenge that emerged in the Global South during this emergency transition was the glaring presence of Digital Divide. In this paper, we explore this situation for Bangladesh through a case study of three courses where emergency remote teaching was adopted from March to June 2020. The students enrolled were surveyed using questionnaire and the collected data was analyzed to determine the potency of Facebook Social Learning groups in Emergency Remote Teaching. Even as the emergency remote teaching phase ends in many communities, the pandemic and its effects continue and institutions worldwide are preparing themselves for long-term fully online classroom settings. It is thus essential to wisely choose a platform and pedagogical system for online teaching, which can minimize the discriminating effects of the digital divide among students. With that motivation, we present our work exploring the efficacy of Facehook's Social Learning Group as an inexpensive alternative to high-bandwidth consuming and costly CMSs.

15.
Aerospace America ; 58(11):80, 2020.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1052649

ABSTRACT

Information on aerospace industry is presented. This year saw a series of notable challenges for the aerospace industry. The covid-19 pandemic led to slower demand in commercial aviation with fewer travelers and a need for fewer workers. With customers deferring new aircraft deliveries, less maintenance work was also required, leading to lower demand for spare parts. Many aircraft manufacturers saw short-term concerns, including cash flow and liquidity. Contrary, on the defense side, the pandemic effects were not as severe due to resources allocated prior to the disease outbreak and the ongoing mission of supporting critical national defense objectives. Despite the uncertainty, there were many success stories.

16.
Aerospace America ; 58(8):42-44, 2020.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-928057

ABSTRACT

The pandemic has shown us just how fragile air travel is, but diseases are far from the only potential disrupters in our future, and air travel is far from the only aerospace infrastructure at risk. Business management expert Amir S. Gohardani says covid-19 has things to teach us about domino effects and resilience.

18.
medrxiv; 2020.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2020.04.07.20053421

ABSTRACT

Since its emergence in December 2019, COVID-19 has rapidly developed into a pandemic with many countries declaring emergency conditions to contain its spread. The impact of the disease, while it has been relatively low in the Sub Saharan Africa (SSA) so far, is feared to be potentially devastating given the less developed and fragmented health care system in the continent. In addition, most emergency measures practiced may not be effective due to their limited affordability as well as the communal way people in SSA live in relative isolation in clusters of large as well as smaller population centers. To address the acute need for estimates of the potential impacts of the disease once it sweeps through the region, we developed a process-based model with key parameters obtained from recent studies, taking local context into consideration. We further used the model to estimate the number of infections within a year of sustained local transmissions under a total of 216 scenarios that cover different sizes of population, urban status, effectiveness and coverage of social distancing, contact tracing and usage of cloth facemask. We showed that when implemented early, 50% coverage of contact tracing and facemask, with 33% effective social distancing policies can "flattens the curve" of local epidemics and even bending it enough to result in fewer cumulative infections, bringing the pandemic to a manageable level for all population sizes we assessed. In SSA countries with limited healthcare workforce, hospital resources and ICU care, a robust system of social distancing, contact tracing and facemask use could yield in outcomes that prevent several millions of infections and thousands of deaths across the continent. FundingNo funding source.


Subject(s)
COVID-19
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