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J Med Virol ; 94(6): 2402-2413, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1718416


The aim of this study is to provide a more accurate representation of COVID-19's case fatality rate (CFR) by performing meta-analyses by continents and income, and by comparing the result with pooled estimates. We used multiple worldwide data sources on COVID-19 for every country reporting COVID-19 cases. On the basis of data, we performed random and fixed meta-analyses for CFR of COVID-19 by continents and income according to each individual calendar date. CFR was estimated based on the different geographical regions and levels of income using three models: pooled estimates, fixed- and random-model. In Asia, all three types of CFR initially remained approximately between 2.0% and 3.0%. In the case of pooled estimates and the fixed model results, CFR increased to 4.0%, by then gradually decreasing, while in the case of random-model, CFR remained under 2.0%. Similarly, in Europe, initially, the two types of CFR peaked at 9.0% and 10.0%, respectively. The random-model results showed an increase near 5.0%. In high-income countries, pooled estimates and fixed-model showed gradually increasing trends with a final pooled estimates and random-model reached about 8.0% and 4.0%, respectively. In middle-income, the pooled estimates and fixed-model have gradually increased reaching up to 4.5%. in low-income countries, CFRs remained similar between 1.5% and 3.0%. Our study emphasizes that COVID-19 CFR is not a fixed or static value. Rather, it is a dynamic estimate that changes with time, population, socioeconomic factors, and the mitigatory efforts of individual countries.

COVID-19 , Asia , COVID-19/epidemiology , Europe/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors
Inform Med Unlocked ; 24: 100615, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1244751


The rapid outbreak of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has forced most countries to take severe public health measures, including the closure of most mental health outpatient services and some inpatient units. This has led to a major transformation in the way mental health interventions are provided and has suddenly created the need to adapt and expand Tele-Mental Health (TMH) care around the world. Iranian health officials have chosen various strategies to manage COVID-19, and the State Welfare Organization (SWO) has turned to TMH services. Shortly after the outbreak of the pandemic, the SWO set up an intelligent electronic system for psychological self-assessment of people in the community. Therefore, the purposes of the present study are to introduce the action of SWO regarding TMH, and also to highlight the benefits and challenges of its implementation. There is ample evidence that the most effective measure is the rapid implementation of TMH, which can be considered by health policymakers because its use can help reduce patient and clinician infection risk, decrease mortality, and alleviate the burden on health care providers and the health system during the COVID-19 pandemic.