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1.
Daru ; 30(1): 191-210, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1813906

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The recent emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic (caused by SARS-CoV-2) and the experience of its unprecedented alarming toll on humanity have shone a fresh spotlight on the weakness of global preparedness for pandemics, significant health inequalities, and the fragility of healthcare systems in certain regions of the world. It is imperative to identify effective drug treatments for COVID-19. Therefore, the objective of this review is to present a unique and contextualised collection of antiviral natural plants or remedies from the West African sub-region as existing or potential treatments for viral infections, including COVID-19, with emphasis on their mechanisms of action. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Evidence was synthesised from the literature using appropriate keywords as search terms within scientific databases such as Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science and Google Scholar. RESULTS: While some vaccines and small-molecule drugs are now available to combat COVID-19, access to these therapeutic entities in many countries is still quite limited. In addition, significant aspects of the symptomatology, pathophysiology and long-term prognosis of the infection yet remain unknown. The existing therapeutic armamentarium, therefore, requires significant expansion. There is evidence that natural products with antiviral effects have been used in successfully managing COVID-19 symptoms and could be developed as anti-COVID-19 agents which act through host- and virus-based molecular targets. CONCLUSION: Natural products could be successfully exploited for treating viral infections/diseases, including COVID-19. Strengthening natural products research capacity in developing countries is, therefore, a key strategy for reducing health inequalities, improving global health, and enhancing preparedness for future pandemics.


Subject(s)
Biological Products , COVID-19 , Plants, Medicinal , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Lancet Digit Health ; 4(5): e370-e383, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1795973

ABSTRACT

Containing the COVID-19 pandemic requires rapidly identifying infected individuals. Subtle changes in physiological parameters (such as heart rate, respiratory rate, and skin temperature), discernible by wearable devices, could act as early digital biomarkers of infections. Our primary objective was to assess the performance of statistical and algorithmic models using data from wearable devices to detect deviations compatible with a SARS-CoV-2 infection. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (known as CENTRAL), International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, and ClinicalTrials.gov on July 27, 2021 for publications, preprints, and study protocols describing the use of wearable devices to identify a SARS-CoV-2 infection. Of 3196 records identified and screened, 12 articles and 12 study protocols were analysed. Most included articles had a moderate risk of bias, as per the National Institute of Health Quality Assessment Tool for Observational and Cross-Sectional Studies. The accuracy of algorithmic models to detect SARS-CoV-2 infection varied greatly (area under the curve 0·52-0·92). An algorithm's ability to detect presymptomatic infection varied greatly (from 20% to 88% of cases), from 14 days to 1 day before symptom onset. Increased heart rate was most frequently associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection, along with increased skin temperature and respiratory rate. All 12 protocols described prospective studies that had yet to be completed or to publish their results, including two randomised controlled trials. The evidence surrounding wearable devices in the early detection of SARS-CoV-2 infection is still in an early stage, with a limited overall number of studies identified. However, these studies show promise for the early detection of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Large prospective, and preferably controlled, studies recruiting and retaining larger and more diverse populations are needed to provide further evidence.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Wearable Electronic Devices , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
3.
JMIR Ment Health ; 9(3): e34898, 2022 Mar 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1770922

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The mobility of an individual measured by phone-collected location data has been found to be associated with depression; however, the longitudinal relationships (the temporal direction of relationships) between depressive symptom severity and phone-measured mobility have yet to be fully explored. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to explore the relationships and the direction of the relationships between depressive symptom severity and phone-measured mobility over time. METHODS: Data used in this paper came from a major EU program, called the Remote Assessment of Disease and Relapse-Major Depressive Disorder, which was conducted in 3 European countries. Depressive symptom severity was measured with the 8-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-8) through mobile phones every 2 weeks. Participants' location data were recorded by GPS and network sensors in mobile phones every 10 minutes, and 11 mobility features were extracted from location data for the 2 weeks prior to the PHQ-8 assessment. Dynamic structural equation modeling was used to explore the longitudinal relationships between depressive symptom severity and phone-measured mobility. RESULTS: This study included 2341 PHQ-8 records and corresponding phone-collected location data from 290 participants (age: median 50.0 IQR 34.0, 59.0) years; of whom 215 (74.1%) were female, and 149 (51.4%) were employed. Significant negative correlations were found between depressive symptom severity and phone-measured mobility, and these correlations were more significant at the within-individual level than the between-individual level. For the direction of relationships over time, Homestay (time at home) (φ=0.09, P=.01), Location Entropy (time distribution on different locations) (φ=-0.04, P=.02), and Residential Location Count (reflecting traveling) (φ=0.05, P=.02) were significantly correlated with the subsequent changes in the PHQ-8 score, while changes in the PHQ-8 score significantly affected (φ=-0.07, P<.001) the subsequent periodicity of mobility. CONCLUSIONS: Several phone-derived mobility features have the potential to predict future depression, which may provide support for future clinical applications, relapse prevention, and remote mental health monitoring practices in real-world settings.

4.
Open Public Health Journal ; 14(1):492-493, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1666890
5.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 10(12): e32587, 2021 Dec 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518444

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The ubiquity of mobile phones and increasing use of wearable fitness trackers offer a wide-ranging window into people's health and well-being. There are clear advantages in using remote monitoring technologies to gain an insight into health, particularly under the shadow of the COVID-19 pandemic. OBJECTIVE: Covid Collab is a crowdsourced study that was set up to investigate the feasibility of identifying, monitoring, and understanding the stratification of SARS-CoV-2 infection and recovery through remote monitoring technologies. Additionally, we will assess the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic and associated social measures on people's behavior, physical health, and mental well-being. METHODS: Participants will remotely enroll in the study through the Mass Science app to donate historic and prospective mobile phone data, fitness tracking wearable data, and regular COVID-19-related and mental health-related survey data. The data collection period will cover a continuous period (ie, both before and after any reported infections), so that comparisons to a participant's own baseline can be made. We plan to carry out analyses in several areas, which will cover symptomatology; risk factors; the machine learning-based classification of illness; and trajectories of recovery, mental well-being, and activity. RESULTS: As of June 2021, there are over 17,000 participants-largely from the United Kingdom-and enrollment is ongoing. CONCLUSIONS: This paper introduces a crowdsourced study that will include remotely enrolled participants to record mobile health data throughout the COVID-19 pandemic. The data collected may help researchers investigate a variety of areas, including COVID-19 progression; mental well-being during the pandemic; and the adherence of remote, digitally enrolled participants. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/32587.

6.
Pattern Recognit ; 123: 108403, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1482848

ABSTRACT

This study proposes a contrastive convolutional auto-encoder (contrastive CAE), a combined architecture of an auto-encoder and contrastive loss, to identify individuals with suspected COVID-19 infection using heart-rate data from participants with multiple sclerosis (MS) in the ongoing RADAR-CNS mHealth research project. Heart-rate data was remotely collected using a Fitbit wristband. COVID-19 infection was either confirmed through a positive swab test, or inferred through a self-reported set of recognised symptoms of the virus. The contrastive CAE outperforms a conventional convolutional neural network (CNN), a long short-term memory (LSTM) model, and a convolutional auto-encoder without contrastive loss (CAE). On a test set of 19 participants with MS with reported symptoms of COVID-19, each one paired with a participant with MS with no COVID-19 symptoms, the contrastive CAE achieves an unweighted average recall of 95.3 % , a sensitivity of 100 % and a specificity of 90.6 % , an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC-ROC) of 0.944, indicating a maximum successful detection of symptoms in the given heart rate measurement period, whilst at the same time keeping a low false alarm rate.

7.
Sustainability ; 13(16):8934, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1478021

ABSTRACT

Background: The study provided empirical analysis of the change in hygiene behavioural practices among community in Ogun and Lagos State with respect to Ebola outbreak in Nigeria. Methods: The data were extracted from a 2015 Cross-Sectional Survey on wellness, knowledge, attitude and practices towards the control and prevention of Ebola virus disease (EVD). Out of 1093 respondents selected in the main survey through simple random sampling technique within two enumeration areas (EAs), only 933 data cases were analyzable, leaving an attrition rate of 14.6%. The EAs represents the sampling points within the local government areas selected for the interviewed. Descriptive and inferential statistical techniques were both employed in the data analysis. Results: The results revealed high level of knowledge of EVD but over 70% were not aware of centre for treatment of EVD;60.2% believed they cannot be susceptible to EVD. There were changes in certain practices that were canvassed and earlier adhered to during the outbreak. The practice of handshaking reduced, eating of hunted animals decreased only marginally by 6.9% and washing with soap increased by 4%. Conclusion: The study provides helpful insights for public health policy on possible mitigating strategies, especially in terms of behavioral risk factors that are prone to Ebola virus infections or other communicable diseases. The study emphasises that regular hand washing with soap and the use of sanitising agents including availability of treatment centres would be helpful in preventing the occurrence or re-occurrence of pandemic. The protocols identified in this study could be relevant to both medical personnel and the community for adoption especially as the unlikelihood of Ebola (or other pandemic) re-emergence have not been established.

8.
Trials ; 22(1): 694, 2021 Oct 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463261

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: It is currently thought that most-but not all-individuals infected with SARS-CoV-2 develop symptoms, but the infectious period starts on average 2 days before the first overt symptoms appear. It is estimated that pre- and asymptomatic individuals are responsible for more than half of all transmissions. By detecting infected individuals before they have overt symptoms, wearable devices could potentially and significantly reduce the proportion of transmissions by pre-symptomatic individuals. Using laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infections (detected via serology tests [to determine if there are antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 in the blood] or SARS-CoV-2 infection tests such as polymerase chain reaction [PCR] or antigen tests) as the gold standard, we will determine the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) for the following two algorithms to detect first time SARS-CoV-2 infection including early or asymptomatic infection: • The algorithm using Ava bracelet data when coupled with self-reported Daily Symptom Diary data (Wearable + Symptom Data Algo; experimental condition) • The algorithm using self-reported Daily Symptom Diary data alone (Symptom Only Algo; control condition) In addition, we will determine which of the two algorithms has superior performance characteristics for detecting SARS-CoV-2 infection including early or asymptomatic infection as confirmed by SARS-CoV-2 virus testing. TRIAL DESIGN: The trial is a randomized, single-blinded, two-period, two-sequence crossover trial. The study will start with an initial learning phase (maximum of 3 months), followed by period 1 (3 months) and period 2 (3 months). Subjects entering the study at the end of the recruitment period may directly start with period 1 and will not be part of the learning phase. Each subject will undergo the experimental condition (the Wearable + Symptom Data Algo) in either period 1 or period 2 and the control condition (Symptom Only Algo) in the other period. The order will be randomly assigned, resulting in subjects being allocated 1:1 to either sequence 1 (experimental condition first) or sequence 2 (control condition first). Based on demographics, medical history and/or profession, each subject will be stratified at baseline into a high-risk and normal-risk group within each sequence. PARTICIPANTS: The trial will be conducted in the Netherlands. A target of 20,000 subjects will be enrolled. Based on demographics, medical history and/or profession, each subject will be stratified at baseline into a high-risk and normal-risk group within each sequence. This results in approximately 6500 normal-risk individuals and 3500 high-risk individuals per sequence. Subjects will be recruited from previously studied cohorts as well as via public campaigns and social media. All data for this study will be collected remotely through the Ava COVID-RED app, the Ava bracelet, surveys in the COVID-RED web portal and self-sampling serology and PCR kits. More information on the study can be found in www.covid-red.eu . During recruitment, subjects will be invited to visit the COVID-RED web portal. After successfully completing the enrolment questionnaire, meeting eligibility criteria and indicating interest in joining the study, subjects will receive the subject information sheet and informed consent form. Subjects can enrol in COVID-RED if they comply with the following inclusion and exclusion criteria: Inclusion criteria: • Resident of the Netherlands • At least 18 years old • Informed consent provided (electronic) • Willing to adhere to the study procedures described in the protocol • Must have a smartphone that runs at least Android 8.0 or iOS 13.0 operating systems and is active for the duration of the study (in the case of a change of mobile number, the study team should be notified) • Be able to read, understand and write Dutch Exclusion criteria: • Previous positive SARS-CoV-2 test result (confirmed either through PCR/antigen or antibody tests; self-reported) • Current suspected (e.g. waiting for test result) COVID-19 infection or symptoms of a COVID-19 infection (self-reported) • Participating in any other COVID-19 clinical drug, vaccine or medical device trial (self-reported) • Electronic implanted device (such as a pacemaker; self-reported) • Pregnant at the time of informed consent (self-reported) • Suffering from cholinergic urticaria (per the Ava bracelet's user manual; self-reported) • Staff involved in the management or conduct of this study INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: All subjects will be instructed to complete the Daily Symptom Diary in the Ava COVID-RED app daily, wear their Ava bracelet each night and synchronize it with the app each day for the entire period of study participation. Provided with wearable sensor and/or self-reported symptom data within the last 24 h, the Ava COVID-RED app's underlying algorithms will provide subjects with a real-time indicator of their overall health and well-being. Subjects will see one of three messages, notifying them that no seeming deviations in symptoms and/or physiological parameters have been detected; some changes in symptoms and/or physiological parameters have been detected and they should self-isolate; or alerting them that deviations in their symptoms and/or physiological parameters could be suggestive of a potential COVID-19 infection and to seek additional testing. We will assess the intraperson performance of the algorithms in the experimental condition (Wearable + Symptom Data Algo) and control conditions (Symptom Only Algo). Note that both algorithms will also instruct to seek testing when any SARS-CoV-2 symptoms are reported in line with those defined by the Dutch national institute for public health and the environment 'Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu' (RIVM) guidelines. MAIN OUTCOMES: The trial will evaluate the use and performance of the Ava COVID-RED app and Ava bracelet, which uses sensors to measure breathing rate, pulse rate, skin temperature and heart rate variability for the purpose of early and asymptomatic detection and monitoring of SARS-CoV-2 in general and high-risk populations. Using laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infections (detected via serology tests, PCR tests and/or antigen tests) as the gold standard, we will determine the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) for each of the following two algorithms to detect first-time SARS-CoV-2 infection including early or asymptomatic infection: the algorithm using Ava bracelet data when coupled with the self-reported Daily Symptom Diary data and the algorithm using self-reported Daily Symptom Diary data alone. In addition, we will determine which of the two algorithms has superior performance characteristics for detecting SARS-CoV-2 infection including early or asymptomatic infection as confirmed by SARS-CoV-2 virus testing. The protocol contains an additional twenty secondary and exploratory objectives which address, among others, infection incidence rates, health resource utilization, symptoms reported by SARS-CoV-2-infected participants and the rate of breakthrough and asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections among individuals vaccinated against COVID-19. PCR or antigen testing will occur when the subject receives a notification from the algorithm to seek additional testing. Subjects will be advised to get tested via the national testing programme and report the testing result in the Ava COVID-RED app and a survey. If they cannot obtain a test via the national testing programme, they will receive a nasal swab self-sampling kit at home, and the sample will be tested by PCR in a trial-affiliated laboratory. In addition, all subjects will be asked to take a capillary blood sample at home at baseline (between month 0 and 3.5 months after the start of subject recruitment), at the end of the learning phase (month 3; note that this sampling moment is skipped if a subject entered the study at the end of the recruitment period), period 1 (month 6) and period 2 (month 9). These samples will be used for SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody testing in a trial-affiliated laboratory, differentiating between antibodies resulting from a natural infection and antibodies resulting from COVID-19 vaccination (as vaccination will gradually be rolled out during the trial period). Baseline samples will only be analysed if the sample collected at the end of the learning phase is positive, or if the subject entered the study at the end of the recruitment period, and samples collected at the end of period 1 will only be analysed if the sample collected at the end of period 2 is positive. When subjects obtain a positive PCR/antigen or serology test result during the study, they will continue to be in the study but will be moved into a so-called COVID-positive mode in the Ava COVID-RED app. This means that they will no longer receive recommendations from the algorithms but can still contribute and track symptom and bracelet data. The primary analysis of the main objective will be executed using the data collected in period 2 (months 6 through 9). Within this period, serology tests (before and after period 2) and PCR/antigen tests (taken based on recommendations by the algorithms) will be used to determine if a subject was infected with SARS-CoV-2 or not. Within this same time period, it will be determined if the algorithms gave any recommendations for testing. The agreement between these quantities will be used to evaluate the performance of the algorithms and how these compare between the study conditions. RANDOMIZATION: All eligible subjects will be randomized using a stratified block randomization approach with an allocation ratio of 1:1 to one of two sequences (experimental condition followed by control condition or control condition followed by experimentalcondition). Based on demographics, medical history and/or profession, each subject will be stratified at baseline into a high-risk and normal-risk group within each sequence, resulting in approximately equal numbers of high-risk and normal-risk individuals between the sequences. BLINDING (MASKING): In this study, subjects will be blinded to the study condition and randomization sequence. Relevant study staff and the device manufacturer will be aware of the assigned sequence. The subject will wear the Ava bracelet and complete the Daily Symptom Diary in the Ava COVID-RED app for the full duration of the study, and they will not know if the feedback they receive about their potential infection status will only be based on the data they entered in the Daily Symptom Diary within the Ava COVID-RED app or based on both the data from the Daily Symptom Diary and the Ava bracelet. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMIZED (SAMPLE SIZE): A total of 20,000 subjects will be recruited and randomized 1:1 to either sequence 1 (experimental condition followed by control condition) or sequence 2 (control condition followed by experimental condition), taking into account their risk level. This results in approximately 6500 normal-risk and 3500 high-risk individuals per sequence. TRIAL STATUS: Protocol version: 3.0, dated May 3, 2021. Start of recruitment: February 19, 2021. End of recruitment: June 3, 2021. End of follow-up (estimated): November 2021 TRIAL REGISTRATION: The Netherlands Trial Register on the 18th of February, 2021 with number NL9320 ( https://www.trialregister.nl/trial/9320 ) FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Wearable Electronic Devices , Adolescent , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Over Studies , Humans , Prospective Studies , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2
9.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 10(10): e28873, 2021 Oct 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456205

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Chronic lung disorders like chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) are characterized by exacerbations. They are unpleasant for patients and sometimes severe enough to cause hospital admission and death. Moreover, due to the COVID-19 pandemic, vulnerable populations with these disorders are at high risk, and their routine care cannot be done properly. Remote monitoring offers a low cost and safe solution for gaining visibility into the health of people in their daily lives, making it useful for vulnerable populations. OBJECTIVE: The primary objective is to assess the feasibility and acceptability of remote monitoring using wearables and mobile phones in patients with pulmonary diseases. The secondary objective is to provide power calculations for future studies centered around understanding the number of exacerbations according to sample size and duration. METHODS: Twenty participants will be recruited in each of three cohorts (COPD, IPF, and posthospitalization COVID). Data collection will be done remotely using the RADAR-Base (Remote Assessment of Disease And Relapse) mobile health (mHealth) platform for different devices, including Garmin wearable devices and smart spirometers, mobile app questionnaires, surveys, and finger pulse oximeters. Passive data include wearable-derived continuous heart rate, oxygen saturation, respiration rate, activity, and sleep. Active data include disease-specific patient-reported outcome measures, mental health questionnaires, and symptom tracking to track disease trajectory. Analyses will assess the feasibility of lung disorder remote monitoring (including data quality, data completeness, system usability, and system acceptability). We will attempt to explore disease trajectory, patient stratification, and identification of acute clinical events such as exacerbations. A key aspect is understanding the potential of real-time data collection. We will simulate an intervention to acquire responses at the time of the event to assess model performance for exacerbation identification. RESULTS: The Remote Assessment of Lung Disease and Impact on Physical and Mental Health (RALPMH) study provides a unique opportunity to assess the use of remote monitoring in the evaluation of lung disorders. The study started in the middle of June 2021. The data collection apparatus, questionnaires, and wearable integrations were setup and tested by the clinical teams prior to the start of recruitment. While recruitment is ongoing, real-time exacerbation identification models are currently being constructed. The models will be pretrained daily on data of previous days, but the inference will be run in real time. CONCLUSIONS: The RALPMH study will provide a reference infrastructure for remote monitoring of lung diseases. It specifically involves information regarding the feasibility and acceptability of remote monitoring and the potential of real-time data collection and analysis in the context of chronic lung disorders. It will help plan and inform decisions in future studies in the area of respiratory health. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN Registry ISRCTN16275601; https://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN16275601. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): PRR1-10.2196/28873.

10.
International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics ; 111(3):e503-e503, 2021.
Article in English | CINAHL | ID: covidwho-1428064
11.
International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics ; 111(3):S94-S95, 2021.
Article in English | CINAHL | ID: covidwho-1428039
13.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 10(10): e28873, 2021 Oct 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1329166

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Chronic lung disorders like chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) are characterized by exacerbations. They are unpleasant for patients and sometimes severe enough to cause hospital admission and death. Moreover, due to the COVID-19 pandemic, vulnerable populations with these disorders are at high risk, and their routine care cannot be done properly. Remote monitoring offers a low cost and safe solution for gaining visibility into the health of people in their daily lives, making it useful for vulnerable populations. OBJECTIVE: The primary objective is to assess the feasibility and acceptability of remote monitoring using wearables and mobile phones in patients with pulmonary diseases. The secondary objective is to provide power calculations for future studies centered around understanding the number of exacerbations according to sample size and duration. METHODS: Twenty participants will be recruited in each of three cohorts (COPD, IPF, and posthospitalization COVID). Data collection will be done remotely using the RADAR-Base (Remote Assessment of Disease And Relapse) mobile health (mHealth) platform for different devices, including Garmin wearable devices and smart spirometers, mobile app questionnaires, surveys, and finger pulse oximeters. Passive data include wearable-derived continuous heart rate, oxygen saturation, respiration rate, activity, and sleep. Active data include disease-specific patient-reported outcome measures, mental health questionnaires, and symptom tracking to track disease trajectory. Analyses will assess the feasibility of lung disorder remote monitoring (including data quality, data completeness, system usability, and system acceptability). We will attempt to explore disease trajectory, patient stratification, and identification of acute clinical events such as exacerbations. A key aspect is understanding the potential of real-time data collection. We will simulate an intervention to acquire responses at the time of the event to assess model performance for exacerbation identification. RESULTS: The Remote Assessment of Lung Disease and Impact on Physical and Mental Health (RALPMH) study provides a unique opportunity to assess the use of remote monitoring in the evaluation of lung disorders. The study started in the middle of June 2021. The data collection apparatus, questionnaires, and wearable integrations were setup and tested by the clinical teams prior to the start of recruitment. While recruitment is ongoing, real-time exacerbation identification models are currently being constructed. The models will be pretrained daily on data of previous days, but the inference will be run in real time. CONCLUSIONS: The RALPMH study will provide a reference infrastructure for remote monitoring of lung diseases. It specifically involves information regarding the feasibility and acceptability of remote monitoring and the potential of real-time data collection and analysis in the context of chronic lung disorders. It will help plan and inform decisions in future studies in the area of respiratory health. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN Registry ISRCTN16275601; https://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN16275601. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): PRR1-10.2196/28873.

14.
Trials ; 22(1): 412, 2021 Jun 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1277967

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: It is currently thought that most-but not all-individuals infected with SARS-CoV-2 develop symptoms, but that the infectious period starts on average two days before the first overt symptoms appear. It is estimated that pre- and asymptomatic individuals are responsible for more than half of all transmissions. By detecting infected individuals before they have overt symptoms, wearable devices could potentially and significantly reduce the proportion of transmissions by pre-symptomatic individuals. Using laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infections (detected via serology tests [to determine if there are antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 in the blood] or SARS-CoV-2 infection tests such as polymerase chain reaction [PCR] or antigen tests) as the gold standard, we will determine the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) for the following two algorithms to detect first time SARS-CoV-2 infection including early or asymptomatic infection: the algorithm using Ava bracelet data when coupled with self-reported Daily Symptom Diary data (Wearable + Symptom Data Algo; experimental condition) the algorithm using self-reported Daily Symptom Diary data alone (Symptom Only Algo; control condition) In addition, we will determine which of the two algorithms has superior performance characteristics for detecting SARS-CoV-2 infection including early or asymptomatic infection as confirmed by SARS-CoV-2 virus testing. TRIAL DESIGN: The trial is a randomized, single-blinded, two-period, two-sequence crossover trial. All subjects will participate in an initial Learning Phase (varying from 2 weeks to 3 months depending on enrolment date), followed by two contiguous 3-month test phases, Period 1 and Period 2. Each subject will undergo the experimental condition (the Wearable + Symptom Data Algo) in one of these periods and the control condition (Symptom Only Algo) in the other period. The order will be randomly assigned, resulting in subjects being allocated 1:1 to either Sequence 1 (experimental condition first) or Sequence 2 (control condition first). Based on demographics, medical history and/or profession, each subject will be stratified at baseline into a high-risk and normal-risk group within each sequence. PARTICIPANTS: The trial will be conducted in the Netherlands. A target of 20,000 subjects will be enrolled. Based on demographics, medical history and/or profession, each subject will be stratified at baseline into a high-risk and normal-risk group within each sequence. This results in approximately 6,500 normal-risk individuals and 3,500 high-risk individuals per sequence. Subjects will be recruited from previously studied cohorts as well as via public campaigns and social media. All data for this study will be collected remotely through the Ava COVID-RED app, the Ava bracelet, surveys in the COVID-RED web portal, and self-sampling serology and PCR kits. During recruitment, subjects will be invited to visit the COVID-RED web portal ( www.covid-red.eu ). After successfully completing the enrolment questionnaire, meeting eligibility criteria and indicating interest in joining the study, subjects will receive the subject information sheet and informed consent form. Subjects can enrol in COVID-RED if they comply with the following inclusion and exclusion criteria. INCLUSION CRITERIA: Resident of the Netherlands At least 18 years old Informed consent provided (electronic) Willing to adhere to the study procedures described in the protocol Must have a smartphone that runs at least Android 8.0 or iOS 13.0 operating systems and is active for the duration of the study (in the case of a change of mobile number, study team should be notified) Be able to read, understand and write Dutch Exclusion criteria: Previous positive SARS-CoV-2 test result (confirmed either through PCR/antigen or antibody tests; self-reported) Previously received a vaccine developed specifically for COVID-19 or in possession of an appointment for vaccination in the near future (self-reported) Current suspected (e.g., waiting for test result) COVID-19 infection or symptoms of a COVID-19 infection (self-reported) Participating in any other COVID-19 clinical drug, vaccine, or medical device trial (self-reported) Electronic implanted device (such as a pacemaker; self-reported) Pregnant at time of informed consent (self-reported) Suffering from cholinergic urticaria (per the Ava bracelet's User Manual; self-reported) Staff involved in the management or conduct of this study INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: All subjects will be instructed to complete the Daily Symptom Diary in the Ava COVID-RED app daily, wear their Ava bracelet each night and synchronise it with the app each day for the entire period of study participation. Provided with wearable sensor and/or self-reported symptom data within the last 24 hours, the Ava COVID-RED app's underlying algorithms will provide subjects with a real-time indicator of their overall health and well-being. Subjects will see one of three messages, notifying them that: no seeming deviations in symptoms and/or physiological parameters have been detected; some changes in symptoms and/or physiological parameters have been detected and they should self-isolate; or alerting them that deviations in their symptoms and/or physiological parameters could be suggestive of a potential COVID-19 infection and to seek additional testing. We will assess intraperson performance of the algorithms in the experimental condition (Wearable + Symptom Data Algo) and control conditions (Symptom Only Algo). MAIN OUTCOMES: The trial will evaluate the use and performance of the Ava COVID-RED app and Ava bracelet, which uses sensors to measure breathing rate, pulse rate, skin temperature, and heart rate variability for the purpose of early and asymptomatic detection and monitoring of SARS-CoV-2 in general and high-risk populations. Using laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infections (detected via serology tests, PCR tests and/or antigen tests) as the gold standard, we will determine the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) for each of the following two algorithms to detect first-time SARS-CoV-2 infection including early or asymptomatic infection: the algorithm using Ava Bracelet data when coupled with the self-reported Daily Symptom Diary data, and the algorithm using self-reported Daily Symptom Diary data alone. In addition, we will determine which of the two algorithms has superior performance characteristics for detecting SARS-CoV-2 infection including early or asymptomatic infection as confirmed by SARS-CoV-2 virus testing. The protocol contains an additional seventeen secondary outcomes which address infection incidence rates, health resource utilization, symptoms reported by SARS-CoV-2 infected participants, and the rate of breakthrough and asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections among individuals vaccinated against COVID-19. PCR or antigen testing will occur when the subject receives a notification from the algorithm to seek additional testing. Subjects will be advised to get tested via the national testing programme, and report the testing result in the Ava COVID-RED app and a survey. If they cannot obtain a test via the national testing programme, they will receive a nasal swab self-sampling kit at home, and the sample will be tested by PCR in a trial-affiliated laboratory. In addition, all subjects will be asked to take a capillary blood sample at home at baseline (Month 0), and at the end of the Learning Phase (Month 3), Period 1 (Month 6) and Period 2 (Month 9). These samples will be used for SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody testing in a trial-affiliated laboratory, differentiating between antibodies resulting from a natural infection and antibodies resulting from COVID-19 vaccination (as vaccination will gradually be rolled out during the trial period). Baseline samples will only be analysed if the sample collected at the end of the Learning Phase is positive, and samples collected at the end of Period 1 will only be analysed if the sample collected at the end of Period 2 is positive. When subjects obtain a positive PCR/antigen or serology test result during the study, they will continue to be in the study but will be moved into a so-called "COVID-positive" mode in the Ava COVID-RED app. This means that they will no longer receive recommendations from the algorithms but can still contribute and track symptom and bracelet data. The primary analysis of the main objective will be executed using data collected in Period 2 (Month 6 through 9). Within this period, serology tests (before and after Period 2) and PCR/antigen tests (taken based on recommendations by the algorithms) will be used to determine if a subject was infected with SARS-CoV-2 or not. Within this same time period, it will be determined if the algorithms gave any recommendations for testing. The agreement between these quantities will be used to evaluate the performance of the algorithms and how these compare between the study conditions. RANDOMISATION: All eligible subjects will be randomized using a stratified block randomization approach with an allocation ratio of 1:1 to one of two sequences (experimental condition followed by control condition or control condition followed by experimental condition). Based on demographics, medical history and/or profession, each subject will be stratified at baseline into a high-risk and normal-risk group within each sequence, resulting in equal numbers of high-risk and normal-risk individuals between the sequences. BLINDING (MASKING): In this study, subjects will be blinded as to study condition and randomization sequence. Relevant study staff and the device manufacturer will be aware of the assigned sequence. The subject will wear the Ava bracelet and complete the Daily Symptom Diary in the Ava COVID-RED appfor the full duration of the study, and they will not know if the feedback they receive about their potential infection status will only be based on data they entered in the Daily Symptom Diary within the Ava COVID-RED app or based on both the data from the Daily Symptom Diary and the Ava bracelet. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE): 20,000 subjects will be recruited and randomized 1:1 to either Sequence 1 (experimental condition followed by control condition) or Sequence 2 (control condition followed by experimental condition), taking into account their risk level. This results in approximately 6,500 normal-risk and 3,500 high-risk individuals per sequence. TRIAL STATUS: Protocol version: 1.2, dated January 22nd, 2021 Start of recruitment: February 22nd, 2021 End of recruitment (estimated): April 2021 End of follow-up (estimated): December 2021 TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial has been registered at the Netherlands Trial Register on the 18th of February, 2021 with number NL9320 ( https://www.trialregister.nl/trial/9320 ) FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Wearable Electronic Devices , Adolescent , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Over Studies , Female , Humans , Netherlands , Pregnancy , Prospective Studies , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
15.
PMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | PMC | ID: ppcovidwho-8836

ABSTRACT

The implementation of governmental Non-Pharmaceutical Interventions (NPIs) has been the primary means of controlling the spread of the COVID-19 disease. The intended effect of these NPIs has been to reduce mobility. A strong reduction in mobility is believed to have a positive effect on the reduction of COVID-19 transmission by limiting the opportunity for the virus to spread in the population. Due to the huge costs of implementing these NPIs, it is essential to have a good understanding of their efficacy. Using global mobility data, released by Apple and Google, and ACAPS NPI data, we have investigated the proportional contribution of NPIs on i) the size of the change (magnitude) of transition between pre- and post-lockdown mobility levels and ii) the rate (gradient) of this transition. Using generalized linear models to find the best fit model, we found similar results using Apple or Google data. NPIs found to have impacted the magnitude of the change in mobility were: lockdown measures (Apple, Google Retail and Recreation (RAR) and Google Transit and Stations (TS));declaring a state of emergency (Apple, Google RAR and Google TS);closure of businesses and public services (Google RAR) and school closures (Apple). Using cluster analyses and chi square tests, we found that closure of businesses and public services, school closures and limiting public gatherings, as well as border closures and international flight suspensions, were closely related. The implementation of lockdown measures and limiting public gatherings have had the greatest effect on the rate of mobility change. In conclusion, we were able to quantitatively assess the efficacy of NPIs in reducing mobility, which have enabled us to understand their fine grained effects in a timely manner, thereby facilitating well-informed and cost-effective interventions.

16.
NPJ Digit Med ; 4(1): 81, 2021 May 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1228277

ABSTRACT

The implementation of governmental Non-Pharmaceutical Interventions (NPIs) has been the primary means of controlling the spread of the COVID-19 disease. One of the intended effects of these NPIs has been to reduce population mobility. Due to the huge costs of implementing these NPIs, it is essential to have a good understanding of their efficacy. Using aggregated mobility data per country, released by Apple and Google we investigated the proportional contribution of NPIs to the magnitude and rate of mobility changes at a multi-national level. NPIs with the greatest impact on the magnitude of mobility change were lockdown measures; declaring a state of emergency; closure of businesses and public services and school closures. NPIs with the greatest effect on the rate of mobility change were implementation of lockdown measures and limitation of public gatherings. As confirmed by chi-square and cluster analysis, separately recorded NPIs like school closure and closure of businesses and public services were closely correlated with each other, both in timing and occurrence. This suggests that the observed significant NPI effects are mixed with and amplified by their correlated NPI measures. We observed direct and similar effects of NPIs on both Apple and Google mobility data. In addition, although Apple and Google data were obtained by different methods they were strongly correlated indicating that they are reflecting overall mobility on a country level. The availability of this data provides an opportunity for governments to build timely, uniform and cost-effective mechanisms to monitor COVID-19 or future pandemic countermeasures.

17.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(9): e19992, 2020 09 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-803042

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the absence of a vaccine or effective treatment for COVID-19, countries have adopted nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) such as social distancing and full lockdown. An objective and quantitative means of passively monitoring the impact and response of these interventions at a local level is needed. OBJECTIVE: We aim to explore the utility of the recently developed open-source mobile health platform Remote Assessment of Disease and Relapse (RADAR)-base as a toolbox to rapidly test the effect and response to NPIs intended to limit the spread of COVID-19. METHODS: We analyzed data extracted from smartphone and wearable devices, and managed by the RADAR-base from 1062 participants recruited in Italy, Spain, Denmark, the United Kingdom, and the Netherlands. We derived nine features on a daily basis including time spent at home, maximum distance travelled from home, the maximum number of Bluetooth-enabled nearby devices (as a proxy for physical distancing), step count, average heart rate, sleep duration, bedtime, phone unlock duration, and social app use duration. We performed Kruskal-Wallis tests followed by post hoc Dunn tests to assess differences in these features among baseline, prelockdown, and during lockdown periods. We also studied behavioral differences by age, gender, BMI, and educational background. RESULTS: We were able to quantify expected changes in time spent at home, distance travelled, and the number of nearby Bluetooth-enabled devices between prelockdown and during lockdown periods (P<.001 for all five countries). We saw reduced sociality as measured through mobility features and increased virtual sociality through phone use. People were more active on their phones (P<.001 for Italy, Spain, and the United Kingdom), spending more time using social media apps (P<.001 for Italy, Spain, the United Kingdom, and the Netherlands), particularly around major news events. Furthermore, participants had a lower heart rate (P<.001 for Italy and Spain; P=.02 for Denmark), went to bed later (P<.001 for Italy, Spain, the United Kingdom, and the Netherlands), and slept more (P<.001 for Italy, Spain, and the United Kingdom). We also found that young people had longer homestay than older people during the lockdown and fewer daily steps. Although there was no significant difference between the high and low BMI groups in time spent at home, the low BMI group walked more. CONCLUSIONS: RADAR-base, a freely deployable data collection platform leveraging data from wearables and mobile technologies, can be used to rapidly quantify and provide a holistic view of behavioral changes in response to public health interventions as a result of infectious outbreaks such as COVID-19. RADAR-base may be a viable approach to implementing an early warning system for passively assessing the local compliance to interventions in epidemics and pandemics, and could help countries ease out of lockdown.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Data Collection , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Smartphone , Social Isolation , Telemedicine , Wearable Electronic Devices , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Body Mass Index , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Denmark/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Mobile Applications , Monitoring, Physiologic , Netherlands/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Social Media , Spain/epidemiology , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Young Adult
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