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1.
J Med Virol ; 2022 Sep 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2034906

ABSTRACT

We tested the use of nasal swabs spotted onto filter paper (Whatman 3M) for the molecular diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Spots of a positive nasal swab in conservation medium (B.1.177 strain, 21Ct) were still positive (duo E-gene/IP4) after 10, 20, and 30 days of conservation at room temperature, with Ct values of 28, 27, and 26, respectively. Direct spotting of the swab at bedside (omicron strain) still gave a positive result after 10 days in two RT-qPCR systems: 33.7 Ct using duo E-gene/IP4, and 34.8 using a specific Omicron system. Spotting of a dilution range of media spiked with the Delta (strain 2021/FR/0610, lineage B 1.617.2) and Omicron strains (strain UVE/SARS-CoV-2/2021/FR/1514) showed a threshold of 0.04 TCID50 after 10 days of conservation. We show, for the first time, that this simple and low-cost conservation method can be used to store samples for RT-qPCR against SARS-CoV-2 for up to at least 1 month.

2.
Vox Sang ; 117(7): 971-975, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1949883

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant displays increased infectiveness as well as mutations resulting in reduced neutralizing activity of antibodies acquired after vaccination or infection involving earlier strains. To assess the ability of vaccinated COVID-19 convalescent plasma (CCP-V) collected before November 2021 to seroneutralize Omicron, we compared neutralizing antibody (nAb) titres of 63 samples against Omicron and earlier B.1 (D614G) strains. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Relationship between anti-Omicron titres and IgG anti-S1 levels (binding arbitrary unit: BAU/ml) was studied. Although correlated, anti-Omicron titres were significantly lower than anti-B.1 titres (median = 80 [10-1280] vs. 1280 [160-10,240], p < 0.0001). Omicron nAb titres and IgG anti-S1 levels were correlated (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient = 0.67). Anti-S1 IgG threshold at 7000 BAU/ml may allow to discard CCP-V without anti-Omicron activity (nAb titre <40). Conversely, only those with highest titres (≥160) had systematically anti-S1 IgG levels >7000 BAU/ml. CONCLUSION: A fraction of CCP-V collected before November 2021 retains anti-Omicron seroneutralizing activity that may be selected by quantitative anti-IgG assays, but such assays do not easily allow the identification of 'high-titre' CCP-V. However, collecting plasma from vaccinated donors recently infected with Omicron may be the best option to provide optimal CCP-V for immunocompromised patients infected with this variant.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Immunization, Passive
3.
Vox Sang ; 117(4): 606-610, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784756

ABSTRACT

Quantitation of anti-SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) neutralizing antibodies (Nabs) is a key parameter in determining the effective dose for treatment with COVID-19 convalescent plasma (CCP). Interpretation of results from clinical trials conducted worldwide requires comparison of Nabs titres obtained from different methods. As virus neutralization tests (VNTs) are not standardized scalable or commercially available, strategies based on intensity of ELISA (Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay) or chemiluminescent binding serological tests were implemented to allow comparisons and establish criteria for determining 'high-titres' of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies (Abs). To this end, the FDA (Food and Drug Administration) has proposed criteria to define high-titre plasmas using different serological assays, including the one used in France for the CCP SARS-CoV-2 Abs screening (Euroimmun anti-S1 IgG). A retrospective study revealed that when using the FDA criteria (ELISA signal-to-cut-off [S/C ratio] ≥3.5), 91% of CCP had Nabs titres ≥40 as assessed with an in-house VNT. French strategy to ensure sufficient stocks of CCP of increasing titre has evolved over time. Recently, we improved our strategy by collecting only plasma from vaccinated convalescent donors as we confirmed that the mean IgG antibody level (ELISA S/C ratio) was significantly higher in plasma from vaccinated convalescent donors compared to donations from unvaccinated convalescent donors: 9.31 (CI 95%: 8.46-10.16) versus 3.22 (CI 95%: 3.05-3.39) (p < 0.001).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(4)2022 02 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690259

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to estimate the seroprevalence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection within the staff and student populations of the University of Corsica (France) during the second wave of the epidemic. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted from 23 November 2020 to 31 January 2021. The participants underwent blood sampling using a fingerstick procedure and completed an anonymized questionnaire. Sera were tested for the presence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG (ELISA-S) and, if positive, with an in-house virus neutralization test (VNT). RESULTS: A total of 418 persons were included in the study. The overall seroprevalence was 12.8% (95% confidence interval (CI), 9.8-16.6%). A total of 15 (31%) of the 49 individuals who had a positive ELISA-S also had a positive VNT. Seropositivity was associated with living at the city campus during the week and on weekends (OR = 3.74 [1.40-12.00]), using public transportation/carpooling (OR = 2.00 [1.01-4.02]), and being in contact with a person who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 (OR = 2.32 [1.20-4.40]). The main symptoms associated with seropositivity were "having had an acute respiratory infection" (OR = 3.05 [1.43-6.43]) and "experiencing loss of smell" (OR = 16.4 [5.87-50.7]). CONCLUSION: These results could be useful for SARS-CoV-2 prevention and control on university campuses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Seroepidemiologic Studies
5.
Viruses ; 14(2)2022 01 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1649410

ABSTRACT

Healthcare workers (HCWs) are at increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection. The aim of the study was to estimate the SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence among HCWs in Cochabamba, Bolivia and to determine the potential risk factors. In January 2021, a cross-sectional SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence study was conducted in 783 volunteer clinical and non-clinical HCWs in tertiary care facilities. It was based on IgG detection using ELISA, chemiluminiscence, and seroneutralisation tests from dried blood spots. Analysis revealed a high seroprevalence (43.4%) of SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies. The combination of anosmia and ageusia (OR: 68.11; 95%-CI 24.83-186.80) was predictive of seropositivity. Belonging to the cleaning staff (OR: 1.94; 95%-CI 1.09-3.45), having more than two children in the same house (OR: 1.74; 95%-CI 1.12-2.71), and having been in contact with a close relative with COVID-19 (OR: 3.53; 95%-CI 2.24-5.58) were identified as risk factors for seropositivity in a multivariate analysis. A total of 47.5% of participants had received medication for COVID-19 treatment or prevention, and only ~50% of symptomatic subjects accessed PCR or antigenic testing. This study confirms a massive SARS-CoV-2 attack rate among HCWs in Cochabamba by the end of January 2021. The main risk factors identified are having a low-skilled job, living with children, and having been in contact with an infected relative in the household.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Bolivia/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Tertiary Healthcare/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
6.
Mult Scler J Exp Transl Clin ; 7(4): 20552173211062142, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1551174

ABSTRACT

We studied the serologic response to the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine at four weeks after the second dose in patients with RRMS treated with rituximab with extended-interval dosing (n = 26). At four weeks, 73% of patients were seropositive. No patient without B cells at the first dose (n = 4) was seropositive. Four of seven (57%) patients with B-cell proportion >0% and ≤5% were seropositive. All patients with B-cell proportion >5% (n = 15) were seropositive. In all patients, quantitative ELISA measures after vaccination were correlated with B-cell counts measured before vaccination. In patients receiving rituximab, seropositivity after BNT162b2 mRNA vaccination emerged only after B-cell repopulation.

7.
Front Public Health ; 9: 715192, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1354899

ABSTRACT

We aimed to use serological surveillance based on serial cross-sectional sampling of residual sera obtained from clinical laboratories to compare the differences in age and sex profiles of infected persons in the first and second waves of SARS-CoV-2 in Corsica, France. Residual sera were obtained, including samples from individuals of all ages collected for routine screening or clinical management by clinical laboratories. All the sera collected were tested for the presence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG using a kit for semi-quantitative detection of IgG antibodies against the S1 domain of the viral spike protein (ELISA-S). Samples that were borderline and positive in ELISA-S were tested with an in-house virus neutralization test. During the second-wave period, we collected between 6 November, 2020 and 12 February, 2021, 4,505 sera from patients aged 0-101 years (60.4% women). The overall weighted seroprevalence of residual sera collected during the second-wave period [8.04% (7.87-9.61)] was significantly higher than the overall weighted seroprevalence estimated at the end of the first wave between 16 April and 15 June, 2020 [5.46% (4.37-7.00)] (p-value = 0.00025). Ninety-eight (30.1%) of the 326 samples tested in the VNT assay had a positive neutralization antibody titer. Estimated seroprevalence increased significantly for men [odds ratio (OR) OR = 1.80 (1.30-2.54); p-value = 0.00026] and for people under 30 years of age [OR = 2.17 (1.46-3.28); p-value = 0.000032]. This increase was observed in young adults aged 20-29 years among whom antibody frequencies were around four-fold higher than those observed at the end of the first wave. In conclusion, our seroprevalence estimates, including the proportion of the participants who had produced neutralizing antibodies, indicate that in February, 2021 the population of Corsica was still far from being protected against SARS-Cov-2 by "herd immunity."


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epidemics , Adolescent , Antibodies, Viral , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Young Adult
9.
Euro Surveill ; 26(27)2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1304570

ABSTRACT

We compared the performance of SARS-CoV-2 neutralising antibody testing between 12 European laboratories involved in convalescent plasma trials. Raw titres differed almost 100-fold differences between laboratories when blind-testing 15 plasma samples. Calibration of titres in relation to the reference reagent and standard curve obtained by testing a dilution series reduced the inter-laboratory variability ca 10-fold. The harmonisation of neutralising antibody quantification is a vital step towards determining the protective and therapeutic levels of neutralising antibodies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/therapy , Europe , Humans , Immunization, Passive
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